Grapes in Siberia: planting and care features


Grapes, traditionally considered a southern crop, have long been successfully grown in Siberia. This opportunity appeared not because the harsh Siberian climate has softened, but thanks to breeders who have developed frost-resistant varieties. However, in a short summer, even unpretentious grapes need special care.

Grape varieties for Siberia

The opportunity to grow large and sweet grapes in Siberia is a good gift for gardeners in this region. Varieties have been developed that are adapted to a sharply continental climate with strong fluctuations in both daily and annual temperatures. The warm frost-free period here lasts three months: from early June to early September. Therefore, early varieties grow well in Siberia: Muromets, Solovyova-58, Tukai, Rusven, Kodryanka and other early ripening plants, in which 90-115 days pass from budding to full ripeness of berries.

Photo gallery: grape varieties suitable for growing in Siberia

Planting grapes in Siberia

The correct planting of vines is one of the important factors affecting a good harvest.

Seat selection

Choose a place that is sunny and protected from the wind. Grapes should not be planted in lowlands, where frost, fog and stagnant water are more common. On a personal plot, it is better to place grapes near a blank fence or wall of a house facing south or southeast.

In one place, grapes can grow and give good yields for 15–20 years.

Video: choosing a place for grapes

Timing

The most favorable time for any planting in Siberia is spring. Autumn is very short here, snow can fall already in September, the seedlings, when planted in autumn, simply will not have time to take root. Plant grapes in May under cover (in a greenhouse, greenhouse) or in open ground when the threat of frost has passed. In some regions of Siberia, snowfalls occur in early June.

In Siberia, until June, there is a high probability of frosts and snowfalls, so the seedlings bought in the spring have to be kept on the windowsill before the arrival of heat

Pit preparation

During the growing season, grape shoots grow by 5-10 cm per day. Such an active growth requires good nutrition. If the grapes are planted in unprepared soil, then all nutrients are quickly consumed from the upper fertile layer. The bushes will not develop well and bear fruit. Therefore, at least 2-3 weeks before planting seedlings in a permanent place, planting pits are prepared for them and filled with fertilizers.

Preparation of planting holes:

  1. Dig a trench 30 cm deep and 80 cm wide; towards the bottom it can taper to 60 cm. The length depends on the number of seedlings. The distance between the bushes should be 2 m. If you plan to plant in 2 rows, then the row spacing is 2-3 m.
  2. Put the top layer of soil (on the bayonet of a shovel) to one side, everything that is below - to the other.
  3. Under each seedling inside the trench, dig a planting hole 60 cm deep and wide, that is, the total depth at the planting sites should reach 90 cm from ground level.
  4. Pour ash and 200 g of superphosphate onto the bottom of the planting pits. Lay a layer of twigs and rough weed stalks.
  5. Fill the pits with a mixture of humus, topsoil and river sand (1: 1: 0.5).
  6. It is not necessary to fill the trench itself; reinforce its walls with boards. Thus, the vine bed will be sunk into the ground, that is, from the planting level to the ground level, there should be 30 cm (trench depth).

The grapes are planted below the soil level on the site, the walls of the trench are reinforced with shields

For Siberia, at a planting depth of 20–40 cm, the heat received over the summer is used to the maximum. The trench can be made wider, then it will be better illuminated by the sun. The planting hole is also often made larger. It is believed that a pit 1 m deep, filled with organic matter and mineral fertilizers, provides the grape bush with nutrition for 10-15 years, that is, no additional feeding is needed throughout the cultivation.

If you want to do without top dressing and not dig a huge hole, sow the soil under the bushes and in the aisles with siderates: alfalfa, mustard, clover, peas, lupins, wheat, oats. These plants contribute to the redistribution of nutrients between soil layers and the accumulation of humus. Grow siderata before flowering, then cut and place under the grapes as mulch.

Drainage system

There are recommendations to lay a drainage of stones and broken bricks at the bottom of the planting pit and install a pipe through which the grapes are watered. But there are also reviews of gardeners who did not see the difference between planting grapes in smart pits and in ordinary ones. When watering through the pipe, the roots stretch towards it, and do not develop evenly in depth and breadth. Drainage silts over the years, the roots can rot.

A smart pit in Siberia does not justify the effort it takes to build it

Many growers agree that smart pits are needed only in the first 1-2 years after planting, and later they lose their effectiveness, since the roots go beyond its boundaries. However, in the climatic conditions of Siberia, it is impractical to make drainage systems, since young non-fruiting bushes rarely need watering - 2-3 times per season.

There are few hot days in the region; rainy weather is more common. In addition, the evaporation of leaves in young grapes is minimal, it has not yet developed into a strong bush. The best option is to put branches instead of stones at the bottom of the pit, which will eventually rot and turn into top dressing, and after planting, cover the soil with a layer of straw, hay, grass cuttings or green manure.

Seedling preparation and planting

Grape seedlings in Siberia are rooted cuttings with a closed root system. They are sold in plastic cups. Many buy them in early spring, while there is a choice and low prices are kept, so preparation for planting and the planting itself consists of the following stages:

  1. If you bought seedlings in early spring, then transplant them by transshipment from cups into larger pots and keep them until the end of frost on the windowsill, glassed-in balcony or in the greenhouse. Use the soil for transplanting from your site, mixing it with humus (1: 1).
  2. On warm days (20⁰C and above), take the cuttings out under the open sky for an hour first, gradually increase the exposure to sunlight until daylight hours, be sure to bring them into heat at night.
  3. After June 5-7, you can start planting in open ground, the day before, water the seedlings well.
  4. For each seedling, dig a pot-sized hole in which the grapes grow in a pre-prepared planting hole.
  5. Take out the seedling along with a clod of earth and place it in the hole at an angle in the direction in which you will bend and lay the vine in the fall for shelter for the winter. Bury the seedling up to the first green petioles.
  6. Cover with earth taken out when digging a hole, pour a bucket of water and mulch.

Video: how to properly plant grapes in Siberia

Grape care in Siberia

Growing grapes is a complex of agricultural practices, which includes: watering, shaping and thinning, tying to trellises, providing heat, shelter for the winter. Diseases and pests of grapes have not yet reached Siberia, so there is no need to spray the plantings.

Watering

This solar crop is drought and heat tolerant. The soil under the grapes must be dry. The need for water is determined by the appearance of the plants - the leaves lose their elasticity in the heat, they hang. To water the seedling, make a groove 15–20 cm deep around the circumference, stepping back 30 cm from the stem, pour 5–15 liters of water into it. The rate depends on how well the soil absorbs. Use only sun-heated water. After watering, level the groove and mulch.

For watering the grapes, furrows or holes are dug

In the Siberian summer, after planting, seedlings will rarely have to be watered, especially if the vineyard is located in a place protected from the wind, and the ground is covered with mulch. A fruiting vine needs more water. But the frequency and rate of watering depends on the weather. The state of the grapes is still the signal. Pay special attention to it during periods:

  • immediately after bud break;
  • 2 weeks before flowering;
  • 1-2 weeks after flowering;
  • in front of the winter shelter.

If the weather is dry during these important phases of development, be sure to water the grapes, soaking the top 30-50 cm. Do not water during flowering! In August, watering is also undesirable, the vine will ripen better without them.

The importance of mulch

Mulch keeps the soil moist and loose, the lower layer gradually decays, and the upper one remains dry and does not allow fungi to develop. Thanks to the mulch, there are no sudden temperature changes in the root zone during rain; in the heat, the sheltered ground maintains a comfortable cool. In addition, such a litter, rotting, releases carbon dioxide - one of the elements of photosynthesis.

Lay mulch in the spring only after the ground has warmed up. Rotted sawdust, grass cuttings, hay or straw are good choices. These natural materials will rot by autumn and enrich the earth with humus.

Mulch keeps the soil moist and loose, the lower layer gradually decays, and the upper one remains dry and does not allow fungi to develop

Bush formation

Start the formation in the first year with a garter, it is not necessary to build a trellis, it is enough to stick stakes or fittings 1.5 m high next to the seedlings. Leave the two strongest shoots on each cuttings, when they grow to 50-60 cm, tie each to your support in the form of the letter V. It happens that only one shoot grows on the handle, tie it up too.

All summer, stepchildren will grow from the axils of the leaves, they need to be pinched. Some growers recommend pinching stepchildren not at the base, but over the second leaf. In their opinion, additional leaves improve photosynthesis, the young vine receives more nutrition and strength. In August, emboss, that is, pinch the tops of the main shoots.

Stages of forming a bush from a seedling with two shoots (the simplest scheme):

  1. In autumn, after shedding the leaves, cut one shoot into 4 buds, and the other into 2. The first will become a fruit arrow, the second - a replacement shoot, and together they form a fruit link.
  2. In the spring of the second year, tie the arrow and the replacement shoot horizontally to the trellis, and direct the stepsons growing from the axils of the leaves vertically.
  3. In the fall of the second year, cut the long sleeve of 4 buds in half, that is, both sleeves will now have two vertical shoots. Then shorten these four shoots: those closer to the center of the bush by 2 buds (replacement shoots), and the distant ones by 4 (fruit arrows).
  4. In the spring of the third year, tie the fruit arrows horizontally, and allow the replacement knots to grow vertically. Over the summer, 12 stepchildren will grow up - tie them up vertically.
  5. In the fall of the third year, cut each of the two horizontal branches (fruit arrows) to a replacement knot together with the outer four shoots. Again, only four vertical shoots will remain in the bush. We cut them again according to the same principle: the ones closest to the center of the bush by 2 buds, the remaining two - by 4 buds.
  6. From the spring of the fourth year, continue the formation according to the given scheme.

Photo gallery: pruning grapes by year

If only one shoot grew on your seedling in the first year, then in the fall, cut it into two buds, from which by the next year form an arrow and a replacement shoot, then follow the given scheme. In Siberia, you can leave shoots with a large number of buds (5-6), that is, do not shorten the vine too much in case of freezing in winter. But in the spring, do not cut the main branches, but blind the extra buds and shoots. If you leave them, they will take away strength, thicken the bush, grapes in a short summer may not have time to ripen.

Pruning grapes in the spring is not recommended. At this time, sap flow begins, the wounds on the grapes do not heal well, the vine cries, loses a lot of strength, it will develop poorly, it may die.

On vertical shoots, clusters will be laid in June, leave only the lower, well-developed ones, pluck the upper ones. If you leave everything, then in a short summer they will not have time to ripen.

Having understood the principle of formation, experiment, leaving a different number of buds, shoots, inflorescences. So you will find out from your own experience under what conditions you can get the maximum yield.

How to provide extra warmth to grapes in Siberia (trellis device)

Trellis can be not only a support, but also a protection for grapes. Classic trellises consist of metal or wooden posts and a wire stretched between them.

Design features of trellises allowing heat accumulation:

  1. Visor over the trellis: at night, the cold air coming from above is cut off, and the heat rising from the ground is retained.
  2. The ends covered with a foil - protection from the wind.
  3. Reflective screens made of foil or aluminum sheets around the perimeter of the trellis - the effect of better illumination and also an additional source of heat.

Video: one-plane trellis for grapes

Shelter grapes for the winter

After harvesting (and young seedlings in late August - early September), the grapes must be protected from the first frost. To do this, cover the ground under the bushes with an old film, remove the vines from the supports, lay them on the film, and on top build a greenhouse in the form of a tunnel made of polycarbonate or arcs and film. As a result, when the temperature drops at night, the leaves will not freeze, and during the Indian summer, when there are still warm days, photosynthesis and bud maturation will continue.

After leaf fall, with the onset of cold weather, remove the temporary shelter, and leave the film on the ground. On top, build something like a box with sides. It is necessary to make such a structure so that the grapes are in the air gap, and not sandwiched between the upper and lower shelters. Lay cardboard, foam sheets, agrofiber, burlap or other insulation on the sides of the box. Cover all this with a film from above, dig in its edges. Water should not get inside the shelter, otherwise the grapes will sop. For waterproofing, you can use slate, roofing felt and other materials.

The grapes are packed in boxes, insulated and protected from getting wet by slate

In a winter shelter, the grapes should not come into contact with metal (arcs, pins). Otherwise, the shoots in this place will freeze, the buds will die.

In the spring, when the snow melts, remove the shelter. In Siberia, this can happen in April and May. There is no need to wait for the soil to thaw. Do not lift the vines, but build, as in the fall, a greenhouse. It is possible to remove it and tie the shoots to the trellises only when the threat of frost has passed, that is, in June. On warm days, do not forget to open the ends and ventilate.

Reviews and advice of Siberian winegrowers

Growing grapes in Siberia is difficult but interesting. The main thing is to prevent the bushes from freezing in the winter and to provide the maximum amount of heat in the summer. If bunches of ripe grapes appear on the vines, it means that all your efforts were not in vain. You can assign you the honorary title of winegrower, because not every gardener can successfully cultivate this crop, even in the south of the country.

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In the Siberian climate, most pests are not bred, pathogens do not survive. The developed varieties have a stable immunity to most ailments. But it is worth remembering that extremely low temperatures await the vine in winter.Sudden frosts are especially dangerous.

Siberia can be conditionally divided into western, eastern and northern parts. Better grapes take root in the western part. Most crops are early maturing and mature in the period from 90 to 120 days. Climatic conditions force gardeners to resort to a number of tricks from special dressing and mulch to wrapping vines in especially cold periods.


Specificity of the region

For a long time on the territory of Siberia, attempts to grow grapevines brought many problems. In spring and autumn, the plant could be attacked by sudden frosts, and in winter the vine was not able to survive the severe frosts of the region. The agricultural technology of Siberia differs from the traditional one for the southern regions. Therefore, for the successful cultivation of grapes on its territory, it is necessary to use special techniques that allow the grapes to take root in an unusual area.

In Siberia, most pathogens of grape diseases are absent, and pests have a reduced level of activity.

The Siberian Federal District is divided into 12 regions, each of which has its own climatic characteristics. Siberia is conventionally divided into three parts:

  • northern (north of the Krasnoyarsk Territory, Dolgano-Nenets and Evenki districts)
  • eastern (Republics of Buryatia and Tyva, Irkutsk region, Trans-Baikal Territory, south of Krasnoyarsk Territory)
  • western (Republics of Khakassia and Altai, Altai Territory, Novosibirsk, Kemerovo, Tomsk and Omsk Regions).

The easiest way to grow grapes is in the western territories, and eastern varieties are also suitable for early ripening varieties. Most of the grape varieties, specially bred for cultivation in the Siberian climate, ripen within three to four months.

Western Siberia

Has a continental climate. The average winter temperature is from -15 ° C to -30 ° C. The snow cover reaches a thickness of 15-20 cm. In summer, the temperature varies from + 15 ° C to + 35 ° C. Western Siberia has the mildest climate, since the Altai mountains close the territory from the winds from Kazakhstan, and the Vasyugan swamps soften the heat in summer. In order to grow grapes in Siberia, it is very important to choose the right varieties specially bred for harsh climatic conditions.

Eastern Siberia

It is characterized by a sharply continental climate. The average temperature throughout the year is 0 ° C. Winter temperatures drop to -40 ° C, but the absence of winds softens the cold. The usual thickness of the snow cover is 20-25 cm. Summer is very sunny, with occasional rains, but the temperature does not rise above + 15 ° C.

In the northern parts of Eastern Siberia, polar nights come in winter. The sun may not appear for about a month and complete darkness reigns on the territory.

North

These territories are characterized by the most severe climate - this is practically a real tundra. There is almost no summer period, the air temperature above 10 ° C lasts less than 1 month. Winter is quite long and frosty. The temperature can easily drop below -40 ° C. Snow cover in the mountains and northern parts does not melt during the year.


Reproduction and planting of grapes in Siberia

It is possible to grow grape seedlings and propagate the plant in the Siberian climate by grafting. And if in the southern regions grapes are grafted to get rid of phylloxera (an insect from the aphid family), in Siberia, where there is no phylloxera, the need for a grafted culture is caused by soil freezing. Winter frosts here reach -50 ° C, and soils, especially sandy ones, freeze considerably in winters with little snow. However, the need for grafting depends on the thickness of the snow. In those regions of Siberia, where there is little forest and strong winds blow, the snow blows away and unvaccinated grapes can freeze out - vaccination is required. In areas where the snow cover is stable, grapes can be grown and propagated on their roots.

Early thermophilic varieties are used as a scion (a plant, part of which is grafted on to another to give it new properties), and cold-resistant Amur or American varieties are used as a stock (a plant to be grafted) - on their roots and grafting is done. Winter-hardy grape varieties are bred by means of own-rooted (cuttings or root shoots obtained by rooting) cuttings.

Saplings obtained by grafting begin to bear fruit earlier than their own rooted ones: their berries appear already in the third year of cultivation.

Where to get a seedling

It is quite difficult for a beginner to prepare a grafted seedling on his own. In this connection, it is recommended to purchase ready-made planting material in proven nurseries.

It is better to purchase two-year-old grape seedlings for planting, in which part of the vine is lignified, brown

If the seedlings are purchased in advance, they are grown in a sunny area, subjecting them to hardening. Plants are rarely watered, but abundantly, trying not to flood the soil in pots. After planting in a permanent place, the seedlings are protected from sunlight for 5-7 days.

How to store grape seedlings

Rooted cuttings with at least 4 buds - this is the planting material that is usually used by winegrowers in Siberia. Such a seedling most often has a closed root system in a plastic container or the root system is located in a cut-out block of soil. One- or two-year-old seedlings are purchased in advance in the spring. Further, they act depending on the age of the plant:

  • a one-year-old seedling is placed in a spacious container by the method of transshipment for growing up with a duration of up to a year. Planting grapes are stored in unheated, but frost-free rooms.
  • a pot with a two-year-old seedling is kept on a windowsill, a closed balcony or in a greenhouse until the end of frost.

Saplings and grape cuttings are stored before planting in an unheated room.

How to prepare seedlings for planting

Plants begin to prepare for planting in the spring before bud break. The procedure is as follows:

    First, they are examined for disease damage. Usually, during storage, cuttings can be affected by gray rot, black spot, spotted necrosis. These diseases can even lead to the death of the planting material. Black spot is especially dangerous - it causes necrosis of living tissues of cuttings and discolors the bark.

With a strong development of black spot, up to 50% of the eyes on cuttings can die

In healthy grape cuttings, the aerial part is shortened before planting, keeping 5-6 buds

Hardening of grape cuttings begins at an air temperature of +18 ° C and more

What place to choose for grapes on the site, taking into account predecessors

The grapes are cultivated in warm, sheltered from the wind and sunny places. In winter, in such an area, snow should accumulate in the required volume, and with the arrival of spring, it should not be flooded with flood waters. The lowlands are not suitable for planting grapes: they collect cold and humid air, which is detrimental to the southern culture.

Grapes in Siberia are cultivated in warm, sheltered from the wind and well-lit by the sun.

Techniques to improve the ripening of the vine and the ripening of berries:

  • places are allocated for the vineyard on the side of the southern surfaces: walls of buildings, fences. In this case, fences, for example, are specially painted in white paint, which contributes to light reflection.
  • use temporary shelters made of different materials (films, spunbond and others)
  • for better heating of the soil, it is mulched with dark materials.

The best precursors for grapes are legumes (peas, beans, beans), courgettes and pumpkins, onions, garlic, radishes and radishes, and parsley. You should not plant grapes after or near cabbage.

Perhaps the most inconvenient in growing it is just a shelter for the winter, otherwise growing grapes does not present any particular problems: https://klumba.guru/yagody/vinograd/vinograd-na-dache.html

How to prepare a landing pit

The grapes do not impose increased requirements on the soil, but they do not need to be planted on saline soils and where the groundwater rises high. For Siberia, deep planting of grapes is preferable, for which the pits / trenches for planting are torn to a depth of up to a meter. Dimensions:

  • landing pit - 1 m (depth) × 80 cm (diameter)
  • distance between pits - 2 m
  • row spacing - within 2-3 m.

They make a landing pit in this way:

    The bottom of the pit is equipped with drainage (15 cm), covered with fertilizers (organic and complex). Fertilizers are especially necessary when the soils on the site are depleted - sandy or with a predominance of clay.

At the bottom of the pit under the grapes, drainage is poured with a layer of 15 cm

In a pit prepared for planting grapes, about 15 cm should remain to the ground surface

Video: preparing a pit and soil in it for planting grapes

How to plant a grape seedling

When the air in the Siberian region warms up to +18 ° C in spring, they begin to plant grape seedlings on the site. Winter-hardy varieties are planted in the fall.

Transplanting a seedling from a pot into a pit is as follows:

    The plant is carefully removed from the pot with a lump of earth, trying not to shake the earth from the roots.

The grape seedling is carefully removed from the pot, being careful not to damage the roots.

The grape seedling is deepened until the first green petioles

Video: planting a Siberian seedling


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