Raspberry is one of the most popular fruit bushes in our gardens. Both children and adults love sweet, juicy berries, and raspberry jam helps us out in cold winter time. In order for raspberries to please the gardener with a rich harvest of tasty aromatic fruits, the berry needs to be looked after. One of the important elements of care on which the crop depends is the correct pruning of raspberries.
Raspberry is a perennial fruit shrub whose shoots have a two-year development cycle. In the first year, the young shoot grows, branches and lays flower buds. In the second year, it bears fruit, and the bush grows new young growth. So that the berries are large and sweet, and the plant is not attacked by pests and diseases, raspberries need care. Adequate watering and proper feeding are necessary techniques, but like no other plant, raspberries need pruning. If the shoots are not cut off in time, the bush grows strongly, the young growth does not receive enough light and nutrients and, as a result, develops poorly and lays an insufficient number of fruit buds. In this case, the berries not only become smaller, but also become tasteless.
Correct pruning of raspberries is the key to a good harvest
Raspberry bushes are pruned several times during the growing season - in spring, summer and autumn. Each approach has a specific purpose, so pruning methods are different from each other.
Autumn pruning is carried out without waiting for the cold weather. The best time for this operation is one week after harvest. The earlier the raspberries are thinned out, the more light and nutrition the young shoots will receive, and the next year's harvest directly depends on this. All fruit-bearing shoots are cut with pruning shears as close to the ground as possible. The fact is that harmful insects can settle in the hemp, if they are not removed, but this cannot be allowed. For the same purpose, all broken branches or branches affected by diseases and pests are removed.
Many gardeners recommend removing not only two-year-old shoots in the fall, but also young excess shoots. Perhaps in areas with warm winters, this advice makes sense, but in harsh climates, it is better to leave all young shoots until spring. A dense bush will withstand frost better and retain snow. For the winter, it is advisable to tie the bushes with twine and bend them to the ground - this way the plant will be faster under the snow and will not freeze.
With autumn pruning, all shoots of the last year are removed
After the snow melts, spring pruning of raspberries is carried out. Tied and bent down, shoots free and inspect. All frozen and broken branches must be removed. At the same time, thickened plantings are thinned out. If raspberries are grown by a bush, then 7-10 shoots are left per plant. Thin and weak branches are cut close to the ground.
During spring pruning, excess growth is removed and the tops of the shoots are shortened
If raspberries are grown in rows, then the distance between adjacent shoots should be 10-15 cm, and between rows at least one and a half meters. The less often raspberries are planted, the more sun and nutrients the plants will receive, and the larger and sweeter the berries will be.
In the spring, you need to shorten the shoots so that their height does not exceed one and a half meters. The tops are trimmed to a healthy kidney. This is done in order to give an impetus to the regrowth of lateral shoots, on which berries will appear next summer. In addition, pests or pathogens often hide at the tops of the shoots, so such pruning is also of a sanitary nature.
During spring pruning, the shoots are shortened
Often, gardeners use a trick to prolong the fruiting period of raspberries. During spring pruning, they shorten the shoots to different lengths - some by 10 cm, others by 20 cm, and still others by 30. As a result, berries ripen first on the longest branches, then on those that are shorter and last on low-cut ones. The harvest, with such pruning, will not be friendly, but fruiting will last until autumn.
To get a good harvest, raspberries need to be looked after all summer. If, when examining the bushes, signs of diseases are found, especially viral ones, which are difficult to get rid of, the affected shoots must be immediately removed by cutting out at the root. Broken branches and dried tops are also cut off. It is also necessary to remove excess growth, which takes away strength and thickens the raspberry tree. If you do not postpone this procedure until the fall, the growth will not have time to take root and it will not be difficult to remove it.
If the pruning of raspberries was carried out correctly, the harvest of large berries will not keep you waiting
Many gardeners successfully use double pruning of raspberries, according to the Sobolev method. Trimmed in this way, raspberries look like a tree.
Double cropping result:
The first pruning according to Sobolev is carried out at the beginning of summer, when young raspberry shoots reach a height of 80–100 cm. The tops are cut by 10-15 cm, which provokes the appearance of young shoots from the axils of the leaves. With good care and sufficient space, lateral growths grow by 40-50 cm by autumn. It is on them that the next year's harvest is formed. It is very important not to delay with the first pruning, otherwise the young shoots will not have time to ripen and will die in winter.
The second pruning according to Sobolev is carried out in the spring of the second year and is decisive. Without waiting for the leaves to bloom, the lateral shoots are shortened by 10-15 cm, which pushes the bush to the emergence of new branches. They appear from the leaf sinuses and two more small ones are formed on one lateral shoot. If the pruning time is met, then ovaries will appear on all lateral shoots. Autumn pruning in this case is no different from the usual one - all the shoots from which the crop was harvested, as well as diseased and broken branches, are removed. But you just need to carry it out immediately after harvesting, without waiting for autumn. If you immediately remove the sprouted shoots, then the young shoots will receive more space, light and nutrients and will have time to turn into powerful bushes before autumn.
As a result of double pruning of raspberries, the yield increases several times.
When double pruning raspberries, the bush increases in width. If the distance between the bushes is small, then the planting will be thickened, and this leads to the spread of diseases and a decrease in yield. Therefore, when starting to plant raspberries, it is important to consider further pruning methods.
Growing remontant varieties of raspberries has its pros and cons. The fact is that getting two crops per year from some bushes - in summer and autumn, the second, autumn will be weak. There are not so many berries, and the quality will not be up to par - small, dryish fruits are unlikely to please the gardener. Therefore, connoisseurs grow both ordinary and remontant raspberries on their site. At the same time, remontant varieties are allowed to bear fruit only once - in the fall. This is achieved by correct pruning.
In remontant varieties, fruiting occurs on both one-year and two-year-old shoots. To harvest one good crop in September, raspberries are cut completely in the fall. All shoots are cut with a sharp pruner close to the ground, leaving hemp no higher than 3 cm.
To obtain a good harvest, remontant varieties are cut off completely in the fall.
Pruning is best done in late autumn, after the first frost. At this time, the sap flow of plants slows down, and the bushes tolerate the operation well. Care with such pruning is greatly facilitated - there is no need to bend the shoots to the ground, and there are few chances for diseases and pests. If for some reason it was not possible to trim the remontant raspberries in the fall, you can postpone the pruning to the spring. As early as possible, in March or early April, you will need to cut off all the shoots.
In summer, the tops of the growing shoots can be shortened to stimulate the appearance of side branches. Sanitary pruning is done in the same way as for regular raspberries.
Carrying out spring pruning of bushes, you can simultaneously carry out cuttings of raspberries. Cuttings are best cut from young growth.
Rooting sequence of the cuttings:
In the greenhouse, it is necessary to maintain humidity - spray and water the cuttings in time. After 3-4 weeks, the cuttings will take root and start growing. In September, the grown bushes can be planted in a permanent place or this event can be postponed until next spring.
Rooted and grown raspberry cuttings in the fall can be planted in a permanent place
Rooting green cuttings is a simple and reliable way to propagate raspberries. The shoots easily take root, and young seedlings retain all the varietal qualities of the mother bush.
Pruning raspberries is easy and takes little time. However, this is a very important element of care, without which the raspberry will quickly grow and turn into an impenetrable jungle. You cannot count on a good harvest with such cultivation. It is worth making a little effort and raspberries will thank the gardener with large, sweet, and numerous berries.
Hobbies play an important role in my life - floriculture, gardening, traditional medicine, pets. I love nature and all living things very much, so I read many articles on various phenomena and laws of life, everything that brings harmony.
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Pruning remontant raspberries has its own characteristics in pruning and depending on whether to grow it for a double harvest or a single one. In the second case, all the shoots are cut out, and in the first, standard pruning is done.
The essence of double cropping is this. At the beginning of summer, the first pruning of the bushes is carried out. When the shoot grows to a height of 1 m, the top is pinched. After that, I begin to actively grow side shoots, which by August will be half a meter. Just remember to do the second cut on time! Otherwise, new shoots will simply freeze.
After pruning, the raspberries are poured abundantly with water. Repairing varieties for disinfection are sprayed with a solution of Bordeaux liquid. Regular varieties can be treated with fungicides in the spring. After watering, wait for water to be absorbed. The soil throughout the raspberry plantation is covered with a thick layer of mulch. Any organic will do, but it is best to use pine needles. The needles will protect the bushes from rodents in winter.
After pruning, raspberries need top dressing to recuperate. Mineral fertilizers are undesirable. It is best to use compost, poultry manure solution, or peat.
For the winter, raspberry branches are tied with a rope and carefully bent to the ground. They harbor culture only in the northern regions. In most other areas, raspberries overwinter without shelter.