Description and varieties of Chinese pear


Asian, Japanese, Taiwanese, sand, neshi - as soon as they call a Chinese pear! This foreign fruit appeared on the Russian market relatively recently, but has already managed to gain popularity due to its pleasant and unusual taste.... In addition, the Chinese pear is easy enough to grow, and its fruits have a lot of useful properties.

Origin

The modern Chinese pear originates from the Yamanashi pear. The hard and tart fruit was sour and tasteless and was not in great demand. But thanks to the efforts of Chinese breeders, a new species was developed, devoid of excessive astringency, but at the same time retaining the best taste characteristics.

What does a Chinese pear look like?

The fruits of the Chinese pear are round, dense. The color depends on the variety - pears can be either light yellow or even pale greenish, or bronze. The rind is covered with brownish specks, similar to grains of sand (which is why the pear is called sand). The pulp is white, juicy, but firm and crunchy.

How to choose a ripe fruit?

For the Chinese pear, the selection criteria are the same as for other pear varieties: taste, density, rind. It is better to choose in the market and not in the off-season, since there is an opportunity to taste the fruit in the market before buying. The ripe fruit tastes slightly sour, the pulp is free of lumps, very juicy... The fruit should be firm, but by no means soft. Also, it should not deform under the fingers. A ripe Chinese pear has a smooth peel with specks, but at the same time without dark spots, and even more so without traces of mold.

Unripe fruits often arrive on store shelves, and in order for the pear to "ripen", it is required to hold it at room temperature. An unripe Chinese pear can also be placed in a paper bag with an apple or banana - as practice shows, "ripens faster together." It should be remembered that it is better to store ripe fruits in the refrigerator, since they will quickly deteriorate in the heat, and in low temperatures, the shelf life increases from one to three weeks.

It is strictly forbidden to eat unripe fruit, as it can have a bad effect on the body.

About the benefits and harms of this type of pear

Like any vegetable or fruit, the Chinese pear is a source of minerals, vitamins, water, and fiber. The high content of vitamin C strengthens the immune system, while calcium is responsible for strengthening the teeth, nails and hair. Chinese pear is recommended to eat during pregnancybecause the folic acid in the pulp benefits both the mother and the unborn baby.

In addition, the Chinese pear:

  • Improves digestive system;
  • Promotes the growth of bone and muscle tissue due to the high content of phosphorus;
  • Normalizes the activity of the cardiovascular systemss and prevents the risk of stroke and heart attack;
  • Supports Cellular Balance and prevents the formation of cancer.

It is also necessary to mention the low calorie content of the Chinese pear: one fruit weighing 200-300 grams has 140 calories. This makes the Chinese pear an ideal dietary supplement.

However, a healthy Chinese pear can cause significant harm to the body., if you do not take into account a few nuances:

  • You can't eat a pear on empty stomach;
  • It is not recommended to eat the fruit together with meat or dairy products. - it will cause severe indigestion;
  • If present individual intolerance for a Chinese pear, you must stop using it;

Chinese pear is the only variety that can be used with fermented milk products.

Varieties

Currently, there are several hundred varieties of Chinese pears with different sizes and tastes of fruits, different ripening periods and degrees of yield. However, on the territory of Russia with its difficult climatic conditions, less than a dozen varieties have spread. Distinctive features of these varieties are the undemandingness of trees to soils, a high degree of productivity and increased frost resistance.... In addition, trees show resistance to drought conditions and pests.

The Chinese pear is afraid of the flower beetle.

On the territory of Russia, the following varieties of Chinese pears are most often grown:

  • Morning freshness
  • Jose
  • Scythe
  • Olympic (there are other names: Korean giant or Great Korean)

Let's dwell on each of them in more detail.

Morning freshness

This is a summer variety - pears can be harvested already in the first half of August. Self-fertile. The tree gives the best yield if the pollinators are Chinese pear varieties such as Oriental Golden, Bronze or Kieffer. Begins to bear fruit quickly enough - 3-4 years after planting... The variety is characterized by resistance to fungus and bacterial diseases, in the southern regions it tolerates low temperatures well. Fruits are small, round, weighing about 115-180 grams, yellow in color.

Scythe

Another summer variety, the removable maturity of which occurs in the second half of July. The variety is frost-resistant, resistant to pests.

The tree begins to bear fruit in the second year... The fruits of the variety are small - 130-160 grams, but very rich in bronze color. The pulp is sweet, juicy.

Jose

Despite the fact that the variety is self-pollinating, the proximity of other Chinese pears will contribute a lot to an excellent harvest. Autumn variety, harvesting begins in the second half of August.

The tree begins to bear fruit early - 2-3 years after planting. Distinctive qualities: frost resistance, pest resistance... The fruits are bronze-brown, with a very dense, but juicy sweet pulp. The weight of a pear can be up to 300 grams.

Olympic

A fairly popular autumn variety of Chinese pear due to its characteristics - early maturity, resistance to pests and low temperatures. This variety is not afraid of either scab or powdery mildew. The tree begins to bear fruit already in the second year with rounded fruits of a pleasant golden color with small gray specks... Each fruit weighs 160 grams.

The popularity of the Chinese pear in Russia is growing rapidly... This ecologically pure variety is gaining popularity both for its quick adaptation to climatic and soil conditions, and for its wonderful taste and aroma of fruits. If you want to plant a tree that will soon delight you with its fruits, opt for a Chinese pear - you will not regret it!


Chinese pear - useful properties and varieties of varieties

Chinese pear (Nashi) is an overseas fruit that has recently appeared on our market and quickly gained particular popularity for its specific taste and useful properties. In addition, a pear is easy to grow and contains a lot of substances useful for the body.

Chinese breeders developed this variety on the basis of the Yamashi pear, which was not popular, was hard and too tart to taste. But they did everything possible to ensure that the new variety that was developed retained the main taste characteristics of the Yamashi and lost all its shortcomings.


The history of the appearance of the Chinese pear

The history of the origin of the Chinese pear has not yet been precisely studied. It is known that the distant ancestor of the Chinese pear was the Yamanashi trees, whose fruits are extremely sour and hard. However, Chinese breeders several thousand years ago were able to develop an extremely tasty and unpretentious variety.

It bears excellent fruit, is not picky about care and allows you to harvest as early as the 3rd year after planting. At the moment, dozens of different varieties of Nash have been obtained, which differ in the shape of the fruit, the taste characteristics of the grown crop, and their useful properties.


Autumn

Autumn varieties of this group are represented by the most diverse species (Maria, Bosk, Bere Zolotaya, etc.). This also includes the pear of the Bere Luka variety.

It is worth noting that the Bere Russkaya pear, beloved by many, also bears fruit in mid-September. Around the same time, the Bere Zheltaya variety ripens. Consider the most popular representatives of the autumn varieties of this group.

Forest beauty

A medium-sized tree with a fast growth rate. Its slowdown occurs at the age of 8-10 years. The crown is wide-pyramidal. Three- or four-year-old formations of wood become fruiting branches. The fruits are medium in size. They weigh about 140 g, but some specimens reach 300 g. The shape of the fruit is obtuse-ovoid. It is characterized by a yellow color of the fruit. A bright blush on the side of the peel appears during ripening. As a result, rusty spots and gray dots are formed on the surface of the pear.

Bere Bosc

The Bere Bosc pear variety is the result of a French selection. It has been actively cultivated for 3 centuries. It looks like a tall tree with a wide-pyramidal crown. Boxing is characterized by large fruits. Their average weight is 180 g. However, there may be specimens weighing 240 g. The fruit is bottle-shaped or standard. They are covered with a yellow skin. On the side there is an orange blush. The fruit tastes like almonds.

Bere Ligel

A large tree, usually growing in width. The fruits are not very large. Their average weight is 170 g. The shape of pears is obtuse-ovoid. Sometimes the fruit is slightly compressed from the sides. But such formations as bumps and ribs are completely absent.

Bere Hardy

The tree is distinguished by its stature and pyramidal crown. With age, there is an increase in the volume of ripening crops. It is characterized by slight drought resistance, but good immunity and cold resistance. The peel of the fruit is golden. The pulp is distinguished by its wine taste. The fruits can be stored for up to three months.

Bere Diehl

The tree grows actively at a young age. The crown is wide-pyramidal. Large pears are formed. Their average weight is 270 g. They are unequal, but relatively standard in shape. During ripening, the peel turns light yellow with pronounced rusty spots.


Chinese pear sapling: photo and description

We have been delivering seedlings in reliable packaging to anywhere in Russia for more than 10 years.

We accept orders all year round, we send orders from April to November

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Sending orders to the buyer is carried out by the Russian Post or by the SDEK company.

The order comes to the nearest post office or SDEK order pick-up point.

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Seedling packaging consists of several layers: stretch film, corrugated board, nutrient mixture, hydrogel, water and earth.

We carefully pack each seedling in modern materials that will reliably keep the seedlings from drying out during shipment.

Our seedlings reach anywhere in Russia in a reliable package and do not dry out on the way.

All seedlings of pitomnik-rose.ru store have a 6-month manufacturer's warranty. on the survival rate of the seedling.

If the seedling has not taken root within 6 months. we will replace it with a similar seedling.


Features of planting and growing Duchess pears

It is recommended to plant pear seedlings in early spring, before the buds have blossomed. In this case, you need to take into account the following nuances for planting and care.

Requirements for soil and place of growth

The best place for a pear is a slightly elevated area well warmed by the sun, where the accumulation of moist air masses is excluded. There are no special requirements for the soil, but the yield of the tree depends on its fertility, therefore, the preparation of the planting holes should be given attention in advance. They are dug out in the fall, or at least 3-4 weeks before planting. The contents (excavated earth) are mixed with 3 buckets of humus, 2 liters of ash, a glass of superphosphate, and the pit is filled with the resulting mixture by a third.

Important! You should immediately think about pollinators for pears and, if necessary, plant them nearby. Among pears, varieties are suitable for her: Favorite Clappa, Forest Beauty or any apple tree with the same flowering period.

Video "Pear planting scheme"

This video shows instructions for planting pears in the garden.

Watering mode

The root system of a pear develops for a long time, so young seedlings need frequent watering. Adult trees are watered as needed and planned 3 times a season:

  • before flowering
  • during the ovary period
  • after harvest.

Each tree requires 2-3 buckets of water. In dry weather, sprinkling can be done in the evenings - watering directly from a hose over the leaves. To make the moisture evaporate more slowly, the trunk circle is mulched.

Each tree requires 2-3 buckets of water It is recommended to plant pear seedlings in early spring. Pear planting scheme

Fertilization

For regular fruiting, the pear is fed 2-3 times a year. At the beginning of the season (end of May - June), liquid humus (1: 6) or droppings (1:12) are introduced into the root zone at the rate of 10 liters per tree. A month later - potassium humate (150 g / 10 l of water). At the end of summer, it is necessary to add 150 g of superphosphate or humus, sprinkling it under the tree.

For the prevention of scab, the pear should be sprayed with Bordeaux liquid in early spring and at the end of flowering.

Pear tree pruning and shaping

Pear pruning is done in the spring. In the first 5 years, the formation of the crown is carried out. The next year after planting, the central and all lateral shoots are shortened by a quarter, next year last year's shoots are 15-20 cm, and new branches are 5-8 cm. Sanitary and thinning pruning is done for fruit trees in spring and, if necessary, in autumn. Anti-aging pruning is done every 5-7 years.

Wintering features

It is believed that in temperate climates pears can winter without shelter, but since the weather is changeable, it is better to cover the trunk circle with mulch: peat, sawdust or dry humus. For late winter varieties, such a shelter will be quite enough. If Angoulême grows in your garden, or a summer variety with low winter hardiness, then the shelter should be solid. In addition to a layer of mulch of 30 cm, it is necessary to wrap the bole with warm breathable material to the base of the lower branches.


The main diseases and pests of the variety

The variety in certain weather and climatic conditions can be affected by disease-causing diseases and harmful insects. In this regard, it is necessary to have an idea of ​​the main symptoms and the measures to combat them.

Diseases

The most dangerous diseases that can affect this variety are: scab, rust and monilious burn.

Scab on pears it begins to appear as dark spots on the lower part of the leaves. In the future, the pathogenic fungus affects the fruit. Control measures: autumn harvesting of leaves and treatment of the crown with Tridex fungicide.

Rust of leaves on a pear appears as brown spots on the leaf surface. The disease has a fungal infectious origin. It should be fought by destroying fallen leaves, as well as by spraying the leaves with Kuproksat.

Monilious burn pear leaf is the most dangerous disease that affects young shoots and fruits. It is quite difficult to fight this disease. Therefore, it is better to carry out preventive measures, such as burning fallen leaves and spraying the leaves with Horus and Mikosan preparations.

You can find out even more about these and other diseases of the pear from the article - Diseases of the pear, descriptions with photos.

Pests

Gall mites settle on the lower part of the leaf and in the place of their location you can see a strong curvature of the leaf. Pests feed on cell sap and are able to significantly inhibit fruit trees. You can fight this pest only using the Sunmite insecticide.

Signs of the presence of gall mites on the pear

Weevils on a pear they spread quickly and are able to reduce the yield by 3-6%. This pest can be found in different places of the tree crown and therefore the entire crown should be sprayed with Karbofos, BI-58N or Metaphos insecticides.

Leaf roll capable of causing serious damage to the leaves of this variety in a short period of time. With severe damage, the leaves begin to curl up and even dry out completely. To defeat this pest, at the first signs of its appearance on the crown of a tree, spraying with insecticides Metaphos or BI-58 N.

To quickly determine who settled on your pear, we recommend looking at the material on pear pests.

Summer pear Duchess is characterized as a high-yielding variety with excellent taste. The cultivation technology of this variety is quite simple, but requires full implementation. In the process of growing this variety, special attention should be paid to the need for re-pollination with certain varieties of pears and additional warming of the tree before leaving for the winter.


Watch the video: Asian pear tree grow u0026 care beautiful fruits


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