Greenhouse processing in autumn: gardener guide


Throughout the growing season, greenhouse crops face many dangers in the form of all kinds of diseases and harmful insects. In order to make the plants as safe as possible in the coming season, you need to worry about this in advance and take a number of preventive measures to process the greenhouse in the fall.

Preparation for processing

Autumn work in the garden does not stop even after harvesting, because it is necessary to prepare for the next season... The greenhouse is thoroughly cleaned of crop residues, the tops, stems, rotting fruits and other plant waste are removed and destroyed, and containers, boxes, shelves, racks, ropes, fasteners, support stakes, garden tools, etc. are taken out of the room. On all this, spores of fungal infections remain and insect pests settle for the winter. Potential sources of infection must be removed without fail.

How to properly wash the protective layer

Before proceeding with the preventive treatment of the greenhouse, you should clean the protective surfaces from dirt, moss, leaves, cobwebs and other debris. It is best to use a small rubber scraper or plastic spatula to do this.

Then the walls and ceiling should be washed very thoroughly with warm soapy water (50–70 g per 10 l), paying special attention to the joints and joints, where pathogenic microorganisms usually accumulate. Glass can be washed with soda water (20-25 g per 10 l) or mustard solution (25-30 g per 10 l). It is convenient to use a brush with a long handle. Then the detergents are washed off with running water from a hose.

For polycarbonate, use soft sponges and rags, as this material is easily scratched.

If the greenhouse structure was covered with polyethylene, then it is better to remove the film for the winter, after carefully washing it with a soft cloth and soap and drying it.

The protective coating must be thoroughly washed with soapy water.

The main diseases and pests affecting plants in the greenhouse

In the plant residues left after the end of the season, as well as on the details of the greenhouse structure, on the frame and protective coating, there may be causative agents of dangerous diseases:

  • peronosporosis;
  • phytophthora;
  • scab;
  • olive spot;
  • powdery mildew;
  • anthractosis.

Various insect pests hibernate in the ground and in secluded corners of the greenhouse:

  • whitefly;
  • aphid;
  • spider mite;
  • nematode;
  • slugs.

Means for combating diseases and pests

Various means can be used to combat harmful insects and diseases.

For the autumn processing of greenhouses, various means are used, including fumigation with sulfur bombs.

Biological agents

The safest for humans, pets and birds are drugs of biological origin:

  • Fitosporin;
  • Gamair;
  • Aversectin;
  • Bitoxibacillin;
  • Alirin-B;
  • Glyocladin, etc.

Their effect is based on the vital activity of fungal cultures and various microorganisms that suppress the growth of pathogenic flora. However, it must be remembered that such substances are most effective at temperatures not lower than +10 ° C; at lower rates, their use is impractical.

Chemicals

For disinfection of greenhouse structures, chemical agents are most often used:

  • copper sulfate (5-10%);
  • Bordeaux mixture (3%);
  • copper oxychloride (40 g per bucket);
  • colloidal sulfur (80 g per bucket);
  • preparations Topaz, Carbation, Actellik, Karbofos, etc. (concentration according to the instructions);
  • sulfur checkers (fumigate the room, guided by the instructions).

Folk remedies

Adherents of natural farming can use more gentle, but less effective folk remedies:

  • potassium permanganate (1%);
  • infusion of onion husks (1 liter per 2 liters of water insist for 10-12 hours);
  • decoction of yarrow (100 g of greens is poured into 1 liter of boiling water, left for a day);
  • dandelion infusion (0.3 kg of finely chopped foliage is poured with a bucket of water for a day);
  • garlic infusion (ground garlic is poured with the same amount of water, kept for 10-12 days).

If there has been a pest or disease infection in the greenhouse, then folk remedies may be useless.

Indoor disinfection

After washing, the greenhouse is left with the windows and doors wide open for airing and drying for several days, then disinfection is started. A solution of any of the selected means is sprayed on all structural elements, carefully processing the joints, corners and joints. At the same time, do not forget about inventory, shelves, boxes, etc. In hard-to-reach places, it is recommended to use a small brush.

Walls and ceiling are sprayed with disinfecting solutions

Small parts (ropes, fasteners, etc.) are soaked in a working solution (usually potassium permanganate) for half an hour.

Wooden elements are disinfected with a lime solution (0.4–0.6 kg per bucket is insisted for 4–4.5 hours) or covered with paint. Metal parts are coated with kerosene.

Since pests and spores of fungal infections hibernate in the soil, ideally the top layer (8–10 cm) should be removed and replaced with a fresh one. But if there is no such opportunity at the moment, then they act like this:

  • Spill with boiling water, spending about 3-4 liters for each m2.... Then cover with polyethylene for steaming for 2-3 days. Repeat three times. For the same purpose, you can use a household steam generator.
  • They are treated with solutions of drugs (Methanol, Konfidor, Iskra, etc.), at the same time having thoroughly dug up the soil. The consumption of the working solution will be approximately 10 liters per m23.

The soil in the greenhouse is spilled with disinfectant solutions.

Fertilizing or replacing soil

It is better to remove the soil depleted during the season (15–20 cm), replacing it with fertile black soil... At the same time, garden compost (humus) is introduced at the rate of 1: 1 or fresh manure (8-12 kg per m22).

Late sowing of green manure (mustard, rye, oats, etc.) will help to increase the fertility of used and tired land, after digging which the earth is shed with biological products (Baikal, Shining, etc.). The working solution is prepared by diluting 150 ml of the product in 10 liters of water. Consumption will be about 4–5 liters per m2.

If it is not possible to replace the top layer, then the earth needs to be dug deep

Renovation work

Since under the influence of the environment (sunlight, moisture, wind, etc.), the structural elements of the greenhouse lose their original appearance (they can rust, crack, burst), it is necessary to conduct an audit and repair. In the course of repair work, all detected damage is restored:

  • rust is cleaned off with a metal brush, then this place is covered with paint;
  • cracks and cracks in wooden parts are caulked and covered up, painted;
  • damaged elements of the protective layer (glass, polycarbonate, film, etc.) are replaced with intact ones.

Polycarbonate greenhouses will need to be strengthened for the winter, as they often do not withstand the entire mass of snowfall... For this, temporary supports are installed inside the bearing arcs. Otherwise, you will have to throw snow from the roof several times in order to prevent the structure from collapsing.

To strengthen the greenhouse, props are placed under the arches.

Some gardeners remove the roof from the greenhouse for the winter in order to reduce the snow load and allow free access to natural precipitation inside the building.

It is extremely difficult to remove glass elements from the roof from our greenhouse, therefore, in November, when enough snow has already fallen, we throw snowdrifts inside.

Video: processing the greenhouse in the fall from all diseases

Correct and timely preparation of greenhouses and greenhouses for wintering in the fall is perhaps the most important autumn procedure that completes the summer cottage season. Carrying out a number of simple manipulations will avoid many problems in the next year.

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Greenhouse processing in autumn: 3 ways

Every summer resident wants to have a rich harvest. The greenhouse allows you to eat your first vegetables at an earlier date. It creates ideal conditions for growing plants. Greenhouse houses require autumn processing, creating favorable conditions for spring seedlings. High temperature and humidity are an excellent component for the reproduction of pathogenic bacteria and microorganisms. Performing preliminary autumn preparation, you can get rid of phytophthora, fungus and diseases, making it easier to work in the spring.


Greenhouse processing in autumn

Sufficient time is required to prepare greenhouse buildings for the next season - this is a laborious and time-consuming process. The processing of greenhouses in the fall is carried out according to the following plan:

  1. Immediately after harvesting, pre-harvesting is carried out in greenhouse buildings. Carry out plant residues, remove the garter material - pegs, laces, trellises. If possible, all debris is burned or simply removed off-site. Thus, most of the causative agents of dangerous diseases and the larvae of insect pests are destroyed. If you plan to reuse greenhouse equipment, it is disinfected.
    Important! It is highly undesirable to leave plant debris on the site or send it to the compost heap - this can infect the entire site. An exception is the production of compost according to all the rules for at least 4-5 years.
  2. After harvesting, they clean the walls and ceiling of the building, sweep and free the path from weeds. At this stage, you can disinfect the walls - wash them from the inside with the addition of "Whiteness" or tar soap. At the end, a long (4-6 hours) airing is obligatory.
    The third stage of autumn work is soil preparation. Dig up the earth, picking the roots of weeds, large larvae. If necessary, the fences of the beds are restored, the paths are leveled.
    Important! It is very convenient if there is a track with a reliable surface in the greenhouse. For example, concrete or paving slabs. In this case, you do not have to constantly remove weeds and correct the aisles.
  3. Prepared beds must be disinfected. For prevention, drugs with a wide spectrum of action are used. If in the previous season the plants were badly affected by some kind of disease, then it is better to choose a narrowly targeted chemical.
  4. In some cases, fungicides will not help. The causative agents of some diseases (primarily viruses) do not lend themselves to even the most powerful chemistry. You can fight them only by replacing the top layer of soil.
  5. After disinfection of the soil, organic and mineral fertilizers are applied, and green manure is sown. This will restore fertility and prepare for spring planting.
  6. The last stage of preparation is the necessary repairs: strengthening the frame, replacing the coating. If the greenhouse is covered with a film or agrofibre, a temporary material, it must be removed before the onset of winter. Repeated use of the covering material without disinfection is undesirable.


Cleaning of plant residues in the greenhouse

On plant residues (on their leaves, tops, rhizomes) and on mulch, causative agents of dangerous diseases can be found. The first step in greenhouse cleaning is elimination of absolutely all plant residues from it after harvest... These include any parts of plants (tomatoes, cucumbers, cabbage, eggplants, bell peppers, etc.) that were grown in it, weeds. Moreover, they must be remove with rhizome.

In addition, you need remove all mulch!

Advice! Plant parts and mulch should not be carried away to the compost heap or other part of the garden. Better to burn them right away!


3. Disinfection

The next step is to directly disinfect the greenhouse. Fumigation with sulfur sticks is often advised, but it is not suitable for most ordinary gardeners. In addition to the checkers themselves, for such processing, a chemical protection suit is also needed, or at least a gas mask. And not everyone has it.

On a note!
Sulfur checkers are not suitable for metal framed greenhouses.

Many summer residents do well with Bordeaux liquid or solutions against fungus and insects. The liquid is sprayed over the greenhouse surface using a conventional spray bottle.

Polycarbonate greenhouse surfaces can be additionally wiped from the inside with a manganese solution.


Fumigation ↑

How to treat the greenhouse before planting with a minimum of labor? Fumigation, of course. A smoky fire and vents and doors closed at night may be enough to kill some harmful insects. Annual disinfection requires a more thorough approach. For fumigation, you need lump sulfur or sulfur checkers.

Disinfection with sulfur should begin with preparatory work: remove the debris, water the soil, close the vents, seal the cracks. Then spread sulfur or checkers on metal sheets, add a little kerosene to the lump sulfur.

Cleaning and disinfection of garden tools is mandatory

Attention!
The emitted gas is dangerous to humans, individual protective measures should be taken and stay in the fumigated room should be minimized.

Disinfection by fumigation lasts about 4-5 days, then the room should be well ventilated.


Watch the video: The Basics of Greenhouse Gardening


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