Read part 1. Peat characteristics and soil preparation in the greenhouse
In the conditions of the non-chernozem zone, the soil can be used permanently for three to five years. In the future, it has to be replaced, which is associated with high costs. The change of greenhouse soils is caused by the accumulation in them of a large amount of salts, toxic substances, deterioration of physical properties, an increase in pests and pathogens spread through the soil.
Although changing greenhouse soil is a laborious undertaking, you should strive to change it more often. The old soil is taken out and a new one is brought to the vacant place. With a permanent culture, the greenhouse soil is disinfected by annual steaming of the soil. This method allows you to increase soil fertility, destroy harmful microflora. It also promotes the decomposition organic fertilizers and creates conditions for the reproduction of beneficial microflora.
Steaming tends to significantly speed up the development of vegetable crops. For destruction pests and fungal pathogens For greenhouse crops, the soil at a depth of 30 cm should be heated to 80 ° C, after which the steam supply is stopped and the soil is left covered with film for two hours. In this case, the soil is disinfected from most soil pests and pathogens. It is very difficult to achieve such conditions in amateur vegetable growing when steaming the soil.
The correct use of soils is largely dependent on the use of fertilizers. Fertilization should be strictly linked to agrochemical soil analyzes, which should be carried out systematically once a month. For each greenhouse, it is necessary to have an agrochemical passport, which records the results of agrochemical analyzes of greenhouse soils, the timing and doses of fertilizers applied to the crop in the main dressing and feeding.
In the book on the history of each greenhouse, there should be a description of the agrochemical composition of soils, characteristics of varieties of greenhouse vegetable crops, their yield; it should indicate the timing of the introduction of mineral and organic fertilizers, foliar dressings, the content of macro- and microelements should be shown, soil cultivation and other agricultural activities should be described, and the appearance of pests and diseases of vegetable crops, the pesticides used, their doses and preventive activities.
With irreplaceable or rarely replaced soils, it is necessary to constantly monitor so that they are not exposed to salinization from inept exploitation. Salinization occurs mainly on soils poor in organic matter, without regular fertilization with manure or peat, where mineral fertilizers with ballast admixtures or fertilizers with a high sodium and chlorine content are applied in excess and uncontrollably.
Salinization of soils can dramatically increase the use of manure, which has got lick salt. Manure or mineral fertilizers, containing a lot of sodium chloride, create an excess of sodium and chlorine in soils, which often causes plant poisoning. Salinization with sodium chloride or sulfates impairs the physical properties of soils - water permeability, aeration. On saline soils, plant leaves wither, lose turgor, despite abundant watering.
Salinization of greenhouse soils also occurs with the uncontrolled use of manure from slaughterhouses, which contains a large amount of sodium and chlorine. The use of such manure in the main dressing or in top dressing can lead to partial or complete death of plants. On such soils, sodium accumulates in the organs of greenhouse plants (in the leaves and roots), especially when growing cucumbers. In tomatoes in such conditions, apical rot begins to appear intensively due to a lack of calcium.
The lack of a drainage system, the use of high-ash peats containing iron, aluminum and manganese sesquioxides, the use of poor-quality water for irrigation, the use of fertilizers with a large amount of ballast - all this greatly affects the salinization of greenhouse soils, causing a decrease in yields, especially early ones, and a deterioration in their quality ...
To combat salinization of greenhouse soil, it is most effective to flush it. Depending on the degree of salinity, texture and drainage, 400 liters of water and more are consumed for flushing 1 m². Typically, flushing is repeated after two to three days with a water flow rate of 100-150 l / m².
To ensure long-term exploitation of soils without salinization and obtaining high yields annually when growing cucumbers per 1 m², 15-20 kg of horse or cow manure is introduced, followed by its incorporation to the entire depth of the soil, into a layer of at least 25-30 cm. A good effect for reducing soil salinity is given by additional introduction of peat into it, straw cutting, sawdust.
On saline soils, it is preferable to use water-insoluble fertilizers available for plants (magnesium-ammonium-phosphate, potassium metaphosphate, carbamide form, defluorinated phosphate). From slowly decomposing fertilizers, fish, blood, bone and horn meal can be used.
Greenhouse soils should not be compacted during the entire growing season of plants, since compaction of the root layer of the soil worsens its water and gas regime. Compaction of greenhouse soil mainly occurs when caring for plants.
Agrochemical studies have shown that by the fourth or fifth year of using soils, the content of nutrients in them (per 100 g of air-dry soil) increases, phosphorus becomes over 350 mg, potassium - 400, calcium - over 1200, magnesium - over 300 mg. A high content of nutrients, a violation of the ratio between them, deterioration of agrophysical properties, as well as the spread of diseases and pests - all this leads to a decrease in productivity.
When introduced into a peat-manure substrate, consisting of low-lying peat, 20 kg / m² of manure, 30% of sawdust (by volume to the soil), the greatest increase in yield is obtained. But when loosening materials are introduced, nitrogen disappears most quickly from the greenhouse soil. In greenhouses where sawdust and straw cutting were used, in the first month after planting the seedlings, the content of available nitrogen decreases by 2-6 times, potassium - by 2-3 times.
Therefore, the use of loosening materials when growing vegetables on a peat-manure substrate requires an increased dose of nitrogen fertilizers to improve microbiological processes. However, the nitrogen content in the soil should not be higher than 60-70 mg, phosphorus - not higher than 180 mg and potassium - not higher than 240 mg per 100 g of absolutely dry soil.
High peat as a substitute for soil or soil began to be used in greenhouse vegetable growing relatively recently. Now it is widely used in greenhouse vegetable growing in many countries.
Any peat, including high-moor peat, has the ability to absorb positively charged ions from solution and retain on its surface. With its high acidity, high-moor peat contains a large amount of hydrogen ions in an absorbed state, which can be exchanged for cations in the nutrient solution. High peat usually contains less than 0.5% CaO and its pH ranges from 2.6 to 4.
Horse peat is characterized by properties valuable for the cultivation of vegetable crops. Even when fully saturated with water, it is able to retain up to 40% of the air. High-moor peat has an average density, 3-5 times lower (0.04-0.08 g / cm?) Than greenhouse soils. In this regard, replacing old high-moor peat with fresh one requires significantly less labor than when working with greenhouse soil soils.
Since high-moor peat is highly acidic, two weeks before laying it in greenhouses lime at the rate of 3 kg and more CaCO3 by 1 m? peat. For liming, it is better to use limestone flour (CaCO3). As a result of liming, the pH of peat rises to 5.5-6, which is favorable for vegetable crops.
Horse peat can be used without replacement for four years. The yield of vegetables on it is usually 15-25% higher than on the soil. Fertilization of vegetable crops when growing them on high-moor peat has some peculiarities. So, seedlings of tomatoes or cucumbers are grown in pots made of calcareous peat, to which macro- and micronutrient fertilizers are preliminarily added. At 1 m? high-moor peat is introduced: double superphosphate - 4.5 kg; potassium nitrate - 1.2 kg; anhydrous magnesium sulfate - 0.4 kg; ferrous sulfate and copper sulfate - 0.1 kg each; boric acid - 0.03 kg; manganese sulfate - 0.025 kg; ammonium molybdate - 0.015 kg; zinc sulfate - 0.005 kg. Seedlings of tomatoes and cucumbers are fed two weeks later with a KNO solution3 at the rate of 0.3 g of salt per plant.
Grown tomato seedlings or cucumbers are planted in a pre-prepared peat substrate. For this purpose, about 1.5 m? peat substrate, into which 3.5 kg of CaCO are introduced before planting3; 1.5 kg of potassium nitrate; 0.6 kg double superphosphate; 0.6 kg magnesium sulfate; 0.3 kg of ammonium nitrate; 100 g of ferrous sulfate; 50 g of copper sulfate, 30 g of boric acid; 25 g of manganese sulfate; 15 g of ammonium molybdate and 5 g of zinc sulfate.
Thus, in a peat substrate, 1 plant accounts for 12 g of calcium; 3.1 g nitrogen; 5.5 g potassium; 2.5 g phosphorus; 1 g of magnesium and trace elements (their doses must fully satisfy the needs of plants during the entire growing season). Microelements are not added to top dressing. Since one cucumber or tomato plant during the growing season consumes more fertilizers (6-12 g of nitrogen, 2-3.5 g of phosphorus, 15-20 g of potassium and 4 g of magnesium plus losses) than was introduced with the main fertilization of peat, then after four, six and eight weeks after planting, the plants are fed with a solution of mineral fertilizers containing 0.33 kg of potassium nitrate per 100 plants; 0.12 kg magnesium sulfate; 0.06 kg of ammonium nitrate and 0.1 kg of ammophos.
Then 0.33 kg of potassium nitrate and 0.12 kg of magnesium sulfate are added with a 1-2-week interval (per 100 plants). The technology and conditions for fertilizing when using high-moor peat in greenhouses are the same as when cultivating vegetable crops on soil.
Numerous calculations indicate that the cultivation of vegetable crops on high-moor peat is economically more profitable than on conventional greenhouse soils.
We wish all vegetable growers success!
associate professor, chief specialist
North-West Scientific and Methodological Center of the Russian Agricultural Academy,
Olga Vasyaeva, amateur gardener
The variety is super early ripening, will delight gardeners with fruits two to three weeks before the full ripening of other varieties of pepper.
Fruits of a cubic shape, red, contain a large supply of vitamins. This pepper variety is best suited for greenhouse cultivation.
The variety can tolerate sudden changes in temperature, but if it grows in a greenhouse, the crop will really ripen quickly. The Chinese giant pepper loves a lot of sun, its fruits turn red much faster in the sun than in shaded areas.
See the following video for an overview of the seeds of the Red Giant pepper variety:
You need to know that soils used for sowing seeds and forcing seedlings are not suitable as soil mixtures for greenhouses, since they have different compositions. Soil mixtures for seeds and seedlings have mainly peat or peat-humus compositions. These mixtures are only suitable for seedlings and are not at all suitable for already grown or mature plants. Therefore, peat is used in the composition of the soil for the greenhouse only as an auxiliary, but not the main element.
It is often possible to observe a picture when people use the top fertile layer of garden soil to grow seedlings in a greenhouse. This step is justified from an economic point of view, and also because the soil in greenhouses is quickly depleted and loses its properties. To maintain fertile soil in greenhouses, it is recommended to completely replace it at least once every two years.
The soil for the greenhouse can be prepared both independently and you can buy ready-made soil.
Due to the structural features and properties, agrovermiculite cannot be used for succulent plants. Its ability to retain moisture can cause root rot.
Agroperlite is not capable of accumulating moisture, entering into compounds with the applied fertilizers, therefore it is used in its pure form at 4-5 kg / sq. m of area for mulching the trunks of adult fruit and berry plants. Under its layer, pests cannot overwinter, diseases develop, mice cannot overwinter. For planting vegetable crops, the layer of mulch on the ground reaches 3 cm, indoor plants - 1 cm.
To prepare an optimal soil mixture in terms of composition, 15% of both minerals from the total mass of the harvested soil are added to the original soil. A high-quality mixture for seedlings of indoor crops and vegetable seedlings is obtained by mixing peat and agroperlite with agrovermiculite in a ratio (in%) of 70:15:15.
For rooting of cuttings of plants in open ground, agrovermiculite with peat (1: 1), indoor plants 2: 1 are used. Agrovermiculite reduces soil acidity, therefore, when preparing a mixture for growing cuttings of indoor herbaceous plants, 2 parts of agrovemiculite are used per 1 part of peat.
When planting seedlings of tree-berry crops, up to 3 kg of agrovermiculite is added to the soil mixture of the planting pit. When transplanting and planting strawberries and strawberries, planting seedlings under a bush, approximately 1.0-1.5 cups are introduced into the hole and mixed with soil.
For rooting cuttings using agroperlite, a soil mixture is prepared in a ratio of 4: 1. In order not to dust agroperlite, be sure to slightly moisten it before use. Moisturizing will not change the properties of the mineral.
Perlite and vermiculite. © Herbs Patch
It often happens that novice gardeners do not see the difference between ammophoska and nitroammophoska. However, there is a difference and you need to know about it.
Ammofoska is a concentrated mineral granules with a gray tint. The fertilizer is universal and can be used on different types of soils. It is suitable for all kinds of plants. It can be used dry or dissolved. The main advantages of the mineral complex are hygroscopicity, non-toxicity, as well as the ability to store the product conveniently and for a long time.
Nitroammofosk is also a universal drug. However, the difference is primarily due to the composition, which includes many concentrates of different elements. The complex comes on sale in the form of granules with a pink tint.
Experts recommend using nitroammophoska in the process of planting crops. At the same time, although fertilizer is used on different soils, it best guarantees its effectiveness on chernozem soils. It is also recommended to apply the complex to the soil in the fall, which is not recommended for ammophoska.
Nitroammophos is preferably used dry.
You can replace the ammophoska with superphosphate with nitrate. The scheme for preparing the composition looks like this: Superphosphate (2.5 kg) + Ammonium nitrate (0.35 kg) = Ammophoska (1 kg).
Sometimes gardeners have doubts about which brand of drug is better to choose.There are several well-known Kalimaga manufacturers who produce a really high-quality product.
Complex mineral fertilizer contains:
The optimal time for use is from April to September inclusive. One package contains 900 grams of funds. The cost of this preparation for plants is about 100 rubles.
It is a fairly cheap fertilizer for horticultural crops and ornamental plants. The capacity of 1 package of the drug is 1 kilogram. The cost is quite impressive (in a good way) - 99 rubles per package.
Produced in Russia, it is an environmentally friendly product.
Fasco has been producing fertilizers for horticultural crops for many years. The products are distinguished by high efficiency and affordable cost. When buying Kalimag from this manufacturer, you will need to pay about 100 rubles for a package.
But the products from this company have one drawback: they are difficult to find. And we are talking, first of all, about the agent in question. At least ordering it via the Internet is very problematic, so you need to ask directly at the store.
Fertilizer from this manufacturer is very popular with buyers. Its low cost is noted in combination with good application efficiency. Therefore, many users recommend kalimagnesia from Biomaster.
The price of the product is 70 rubles including VAT per kilogram.
Any type of soil contains almost all the elements for plant nutrition. However, the quantitative indicators of individual nutrients in the soil may be insufficient for the full development of plants. Manganese deficiency is observed in chernozem soils, sandy soils are poor in magnesium. To provide the soil with missing nutrients, to stimulate the fertility and growth of crops, various fertilization methods and various preparations containing important nutrients and trace elements are used.
Mineral fertilizers are compounds of nutrients of high concentration, produced by chemical means, that do not contain organic matter. Almost all mineral fertilizers are fast-acting stimulants that allow you to achieve positive results in faster growth and higher yields within a short period.
The disadvantages of using mineral fertilizers include the fact that a significant part of them settles on the soil surface and are not consumed by plants in full, some types of fertilizers contain harmful nitrates.
Mineral fertilizers are divided into groups of simple (contain only one main element) fertilizers and complex (a combination of two or more elements) fertilizers.
Simple mineral fertilizers are classified according to the content of the main macronutrients - nitrogen fertilizers, phosphorus-containing fertilizers, magnesium and potassium fertilizers.
Nitrogen is undoubtedly the most important nutrient for active life and rapid plant growth. The amount of nitrogen consumed by plants significantly affects the yield of crops. Lack of this nutrient leads to poor fertility, lack of vegetative growth and color saturation in plants. The fastest way to compensate for a nitrogen deficiency is to use a simple fertilizer that contains a large percentage of nitrogen. The only drawback is the consequences in case of an overdose. Excess nitrogen accumulates in vegetables by nitrates and nitrites, which are quite harmful to human health. Also, if the norm is exceeded, burns may form on the plants.
The highest nitrogen content is observed in ammonium nitrate and urea.
Ammonium nitrate (ammonium nitrate) is used as a separate fertilizer and as a component of complex compounds.
It is used on all types of soils, but most of all fertilization with ammonium nitrate requires calcareous soils. On acidic soils, a compound of ammonium nitrate with lime flour is used.
Fertilizer is produced in granular form, granule size from 1 to 4 mm, white color.
Differs in high solubility and is well absorbed by the soil. Ammonium nitrate can be used as the main source of soil fertilization, also as a top dressing. The difference lies in the amount of drug used. In the first case, the consumption rate is 30 g / kV.m, as top dressing is taken from 10 to 20 g / kV.m.
The most effective saltpeter for feeding cereals in early spring. Fertilizer is applied both dry and in solution.
You cannot add ammonium nitrate to feed such garden crops as vegetables from the pumpkin family and melons - saltpeter contributes to the accumulation of nitrates in these vegetables.
Urea (carbamide) is a chemical preparation of carbonic acid diamide. It has a high degree of nitrogen content - 46%, properties are easily soluble in water, does not contain nitrates.
Suitable for use on all types of soil as a soil fertilizer and as a plant food. Acidic soils must first be neutralized with lime.
Produced in granular form, small granules up to 4 mm in diameter, white.
Unlike ammonium nitrate, the nitrogen contained in urea is better fixed in the soil and is less susceptible to washing out by groundwater. For wet soils, carbamide is more suitable than ammonium nitrate.
The greatest efficiency is achieved if urea is used as a foliar fertilizer for plants. Spraying will increase the quality of nitrogen assimilation by plants without damaging the leaves and stems with burns (this is also an advantage over ammonium nitrate). In dry form, it is introduced into the soil before sowing, during soil cultivation.
It is strictly forbidden to mix urea with lime, chalk, superphosphate and dolomite.
The range of application of urea is wide enough. Besides being used as a fertilizer, urea is known as a pest control agent and as a disease-fighting drug.
Application rate for vegetable crops:
- as a soil fertilizer before sowing - up to 10 g / kV.m
- root dressing - 5-10 g / sq.m
- as a foliar top dressing - 50 g / 10 l of water, fertilize until the flowering period.
Application rate for fruit and berry crops:
- soil dressing - up to 20 g / sq.m
- foliar feeding - 30 g / 10 l of water, applied a few days after the end of the flowering period, re-feeding - after 25 days.
Ammonium sulfate is a synthetic fertilizer containing nitrogen and sulfur. Sulfur is no less important nutrient for plants than nitrogen and phosphorus. Sulfur is a component of amino acids and proteins that are useful for various plant species. The use of ammonium sulfate increases yields, improves the overall vitality of crops, and promotes rapid vegetative growth. The fertilizer is highly soluble in water.
Produced in crystalline or granular form. Ammonium nitrogen, which is part of ammonium sulfate, is not washed out by groundwater from the soil and as a nutrient is well absorbed by agricultural crops, does not contain nitrates.
It is applied on all types of soils. For acidic soils, liming of the soil must first be carried out. On heavy soils, ammonium sulfate can be used to fertilize the soil during autumn cultivation.
It is recommended to apply ammonium sulfate in early spring, during the cultivation of the soil before sowing. Average consumption rate up to 50 g / kV.m. Ammonium sulfate is also effective as a top dressing for potatoes, sugar beets, cruciferous and forage crops.
2. Potash fertilizers. The use of fertilizers containing potassium helps to increase yields, plant resistance to various diseases, improve the quality and taste characteristics of fruits. Potash fertilizers are used, as a rule, in combination with phosphorus and nitrogen fertilizers.
Potassium sulfate - used on all types of soil, to provide plants with the necessary amount of potassium.
It is used for fertilizing greenhouse soils and feeding crops grown in greenhouses, as well as for indoor floriculture. Saturation with potassium is especially required on peat soils. Acidic soils must be limed before treatment with potassium sulfate. In soils rich in chernozem, it is used for feeding root crops that absorb large doses of sodium and potassium.
As the main macronutrient, it is introduced into the soil during cultivation in early spring, in autumn in preparation for the winter period. In the form of top dressing it is used during vegetative growth, it can also be used for foliar treatment by spraying a solution of potassium sulfate.
It is used as a top dressing for fruit and berry crops in late summer - early autumn. Helps plants to winter.
Average application rate for vegetable crops during soil cultivation is 15-20 g / kV.m.
For fruit and berry crops - 150-250 grams for the entire trunk circle. Top dressing with an irrigation system - 5-10 g / 10 l of water.
Potassium-magnesium sulfate - in terms of its main characteristics, it is close to potassium sulfate (described above), the element magnesium is added to the composition. The effect is achieved on sandy soils with a lack of magnesium. In ordinary soils, as a rule, the magnesium content is sufficient and only potassium sulfate is used.
Potassium carbonate (potash, potassium carbonate) is a crystalline fertilizer supplied in the form of a grayish powder. Does not contain chlorine, easily soluble in water, increases the alkali content of the soil.
It is recommended to mix with peat before applying to the soil.
It is used for vegetable crops that absorb large amounts of potassium - potatoes, root crops, sunflowers, cabbage.
Ash is a mineral fertilizer containing, perhaps, the largest amount of nutrients and trace elements. These are potassium, fluorine, calcium, magnesium, copper, boron, iron and others.
There are several types - woody, plant, peat. Ash is effective as a fertilizer for vegetable crops - root crops, cabbage, potatoes.
The application rate of various types of ash is from 300 g to 1 kg / sq. M. After application, the soil should be well watered.
3. Phosphate fertilizers are most needed for the development of the root system of young plants, at the very beginning of the growing season. When using phosphorus fertilizers, frost resistance increases and drought resistance increases. Faster ripening of fruit-bearing crops. Phosphorus is actively involved in the formation of plant organs.
Phosphate fertilizers are produced in the process of thermal and acid processing of phosphates. The largest share of the phosphate fertilizers produced falls on superphosphates and complex phosphorus fertilizers - nitroammophoska and ammophos.
All phosphorus can be divided into three groups:
1. Easily soluble form (superphosphate simple and double). The most accessible form for plant nutrition.
Simple superphosphate - used on acidic soils, for any agricultural crops, while not increasing the acidity of the soil.
Produced in powder and granular form. Granular superphosphate works more efficiently and is maximally available for plants.
Average consumption rate 50 g / kV.m.
Recommended consumption rates:
- in early spring and autumn when cultivating soil 50 g / m2 as a basis.
- when planting fruit and berry crops 600 g per planting hole, for subsequent fertilizing 50 g / sq. m of the trunk circle
- for feeding vegetable crops 20 g / m2 in granular form
- for use in greenhouse conditions 100 g / kV.m during cultivation. It is introduced in combination with nitrogen fertilizer.
Double superphosphate - it is used in the same way as simple superphosphate, for any crops and various types of soils, only the application rate is reduced by 1.5 times.
The greatest efficiency of double superphosphate is observed when applied on neutral and alkaline soils.
It is introduced into the soil in spring and autumn during planting. In combination with lime or compost, phosphorus is better absorbed by plants.
2. Insoluble form (phosphorus dissolves in weak acids and alkaline solutions). The nutrients are available to plants.
3. Insoluble form (dissolve only in strong acids). This is bone meal and phosphate rock. A source of phosphorus that is difficult to access for plants.
Phosphorite flour is a finely ground gray powder. Possesses good flowability, does not cake.
Phosphorite flour is not used together with lime, however, complex use with organic fertilizers (compost, manure) improves soil fertility, increasing the efficiency of phosphorus fertilization.
It is used for any plants during soil cultivation. It is used on leached and acidic soils, on red earth and podzolic soils. Fertilization with phosphate rock increases the starch and sugar content in root crops.
4. Magnesium fertilizers. Magnesium improves the fertility of sandy and acidic soils. Magnesium fertilizers are widely used in greenhouse farms to improve the yield of tomatoes, cucumbers, cabbage. Magnesium is well fixed in the soil, is not washed out by groundwater, therefore, magnesium fertilizers can be applied both in spring and autumn.
Mineral fertilizers containing the highest percentage of magnesium - magnesium sulfate, dolomite flour.
Magnesium sulfate (epsolite) contains 18% magnesium. The fertilizer is easily soluble in water and is used as additional plant nutrition. In spring, it is effective in combination with nitrogen and phosphorus-containing fertilizers.
The application rate during soil cultivation in spring for tomatoes and cucumbers is 10 g / kV.m.
For other crops - 15 g / sq.m
For fruit and berry crops 30 g / sq. M of the trunk circle.
As a bait during active vegetative growth, the rate of application of magnesium sulfate solution is 30 g / 10l. Top dressing is done every 15 days. For foliar feeding, a solution is made at the rate of 15 g / 10 l of water and the plants are sprayed.
Dolomite (limestone flour) is a valuable source of magnesium content. The use of dolomite flour increases the amount of nutrients in the soil assimilated by plants. The general indicators of soil fertility and efficiency are improved from the introduction of other organic and mineral fertilizers. Dolomite flour is used to enrich the soil no more than once every three years. Dolomite flour is also known as an insect control agent.
It is used for liming the soil, it is used both in open and closed greenhouse grounds. Not applicable on neutral soils.
The rates of dolomite flour application vary, depending on the type of soil. For use on light soils, the rates below are reduced by 1.5 times. Accordingly, for heavy soils, the rate increases by 15%.
- for acidic soils, the rate is 500 g / m2.
- for moderately acidic soils, the rate is 450 g / m2.
- for slightly acidic soils, the rate is 350 g / kV.m.
The introduction of dolomite flour in combination with boric and copper micronutrient fertilizers increases the efficiency of the fertilizer application.
1. Nitrogen fertilizers are applied to the soil surface or for shallow plowing. Phosphorus and potash fertilizers are applied during deep cultivation of the soil.
2.When mixing different fertilizers, the following rules should be observed:
- only dry forms of fertilizers are mixed
- it is impossible to combine ammonia forms of nitrogen-containing fertilizers with alkaline fertilizers
- urea and superphosphate do not mix.
- mineral fertilizers bring more effect when applied to humus-rich soil
3. With frequent use and exceeding the norms of using mineral fertilizers, negative consequences for the soil may occur - disturbance of the structure and depletion of the soil.
4. Periodically it is necessary to check the soil for acidity, since the constant use of various fertilizers can change the pH of the soil.
At present, small-volume methods of growing plants are gaining increasing development in the closed pound.
However, some greenhouse complexes and farms still grow plants on soil.
When growing the main crops in the buildings of the protected pound, natural soils, various types of peat, mixtures of peat with sandy loam or loamy soils, peat deposits, a mixture of peat with sawdust, sawdust, tree bark, and artificial mineral substrates are used.
For normal growth and development of plants, obtaining a high yield, it is necessary to provide plants with water, air, mineral elements in sufficient quantities and in optimal proportions, which largely depends on the quality of the greenhouse pound. In the conditions of industrial greenhouse vegetable growing, special requirements are imposed on soils.
A greenhouse pound should hold plants well, have a stable structure and have an optimal phase ratio (solid - 20-30%, liquid - 40-50%, gaseous - 30-35% of the volume).
To create a favorable water-air regime and free circulation of air and water, it is important that greenhouse pounds have a high total porosity (70-80%) and the highest porosity of capillaries (40-45%), which can be filled with water. They should also have a high exchange absorption capacity of 50-100 meq.y per 100 g of dry matter, which makes it possible to create a large supply of nutrients, as well as avoid losses from leaching and the danger of salinization. An important condition for the normal life of greenhouse plants is the maintenance of the reaction of the root layer and the content of necessary nutrients at an optimal level.
Greenhouse soils must have a high buffering capacity, have a favorable microbiological environment. An important quality for avoiding temperature extremes is a high thermal insulation capacity.
Modern technology for growing vegetables includes the main requirement for greenhouse soils - their long-term permanent use without reducing fertility, as well as low cost.
Periodically, tests should be done soil in greenhouses... Joint cultivation in one greenhouse such opposite in their requirements: cultureslike cucumber and tomato is impossible. Harvesting cucumbers in a sheltered soil must be carried out systematically.
Vegetable greenhouses used only for growing vegetable cultures in exploration greenhouses grow seedlings for greenhouses or greenhouses and only in
IN ground greenhouses plants are grown on shelves or in ridges directly in the nutrient soil.
Stacked on a rack or priming greenhouses peat with a layer of 25 cm is watered with a solution of macro- and micronutrient fertilizers: 10 liters
See also: Housekeeping Home garden Home garden Placing vegetable cultures on site Requirements for soil and the relief of the site.
Seedlings of medium cabbage (Slava 1305, Slava Gribovskaya 231, Belorusskaya 455) can be obtained in sunny greenhouses or greenhouses, sowing seeds in the second - third decade of March. In the open, open priming seedlings are planted at the age of 45 days with row spacing of 50-60 cm.
- cultivation facilities of the protected soilintended for the cultivation of vegetable cultures.
area is: for greenhouses winter ground 32.0-22.6 rubles, shelving - 45.0 rubles, spring ground - 22.0 rubles. for greenhouses on the central.