Outdoor Cabbage Growing - From Seed Selection to Harvesting


You can get a generous harvest of vegetables even if you don't have much experience in gardening. You just need to comply with the sowing time and know all the features of growing cabbage in the open field.

The necessary conditions

Cabbage is a very useful and versatile vegetable in preparation: it is fried, stewed, boiled and baked. It is used fresh for preparing salads and cold appetizers, it is included in many first and second courses, it makes mouth-watering stews and excellent fillings for pies. In addition, it should be noted that cabbage is one of the unpretentious garden crops and it is not difficult to provide it with favorable conditions. Still, the successful cultivation of white cabbage depends on compliance with the basic requirements.

The soil under the garden bed is fertilized in the fall by introducing manure, humus or compost for deep digging

The soil for the garden bed is fertilized in the fall by introducing manure, humus or compost for deep digging at the rate of half a bucket per 1 square meter. m area. You need to use mineral fertilizers as carefully as possible, since cabbage tends to accumulate nitrates. Therefore, it is better to abandon them altogether or use them at a lower dosage.

Moisture for cabbage is extremely important and directly affects the formation of the crop. This exactingness is explained simply - the water entering the roots is intensively evaporated by large leaves, as a result of which the plants quickly lose moisture. Therefore, in case of insufficient precipitation, it is necessary to ensure regular watering, and preferably by sprinkling, in order to saturate with moisture not only the soil, but also the air.

If you have sandy soil at your dacha, then for cabbage beds it is better to choose lowlands, places near a reservoir, or plant where it is easier to organize watering.

Video about growing cabbage

Sowing terms and methods

Sowing seeds directly into the soil saves you a lot of hassle

There are two ways to grow cabbage: by sowing seeds in open ground or through seedlings. Each method has its own advantages and disadvantages. So planting seedlings allows you to get earlier yields and provide care for growing plants, which is important when growing in the country, when there is no opportunity to visit the site every day. On the other hand, sowing seeds directly into the ground saves you the hassle of placing containers with seedlings and subsequent transplantation.

When sowing cabbage, it is better to cover the wells immediately on a permanent place with glass jars or transparent plastic bottles with a cut bottom. This will create "greenhouse" conditions for the early germination of seeds and the formation of a rosette. And only when the leaves become cramped under the shelter - they take it off.

Also, when planning to grow your own cabbage, it is worth deciding on the seed, the varietal characteristics of which will determine the sowing time and, accordingly, the expected harvest time.

  1. Early cabbage is distinguished by tender leaves collected in loose medium-sized heads of cabbage. The crop can be obtained after 90-100 days from germination. The most popular varieties are June, Express, Golden Hectare, Transfer F1. Sowing seeds is carried out from 10 to 25 March.
  2. Medium cabbage is grown for summer consumption and homemade preserves. Heads of cabbage are ready for harvesting 4-5 months after sowing the seeds. Sorts - Glory 1305, Symphony F1, Table F1 and others. Sowed from late March to April 10.
  3. Late cabbage with a long ripening period. Its dense, hard heads of cabbage tolerate transportation well and can be stored for a long time, therefore it is most often grown for consumption in the winter. Tested varieties: Stone Head, Kharkovskaya Zimnyaya, Morozko, Arktika F1, Garant F1. Sowing for seedlings or outdoors is recommended from 5 to 20 April.

It is also worth saying that if the seedlings are grown on a windowsill at a room temperature high enough for cabbage, it is very painful to transfer transplantation and adaptation, therefore, two weeks before planting, it must be hardened. You can save yourself from these troubles by sowing seeds in the country in a greenhouse or film greenhouses, where the air is warmed up by the intense spring sun during the day, and at night the temperature drops to minus indices.

Seed Selection Video

Transplanting

There are no exact dates for planting seedlings, but a characteristic feature has been noticed - the younger the outlets, the faster they take root in a new place. Therefore, if the cabbage has already formed 2-3 true leaves, it is quite ready for planting.

Before planting, the seedlings need to be watered generously, especially if they were grown in ordinary containers, and not in peat cups

Having chosen a place for a garden bed, dig up or loosen the soil that has compacted during the winter, level it with a rake and prepare holes, according to the planting scheme:

  • for early varieties and hybrids - 30x40 cm;
  • cabbage of medium ripening is planted at a distance of 50x60 cm;
  • large heads of cabbage of late varieties will need at least 55x70 cm.

Before planting, the seedlings need to be watered generously, especially if they were grown in ordinary containers, and not in peat cups. The same applies when growing seedlings in a greenhouse, because plants saturated with moisture will more easily tolerate transplanting, and it is easier to extract them from loose soil. Lunochki are also poured with water and, without waiting for it to be completely absorbed, young cabbage rosettes are planted right into this mud. After transplanting, the bushes are again generously watered and mulched with wood chips with the addition of crushed eggshells. Such a shelter will prevent rapid evaporation of moisture and protect the planting from the invasion of slugs, which simply cannot overcome the "prickly" barrier.

Abundant and repeated watering during transplanting will ensure the penetration of cabbage roots into the depths of the soil, where the plant will be able to finish off moisture on its own, without requiring frequent watering.

Video about sowing seedlings

Garden bed care

Further care of cabbage consists in protecting it from numerous pests, preventing diseases, as well as controlling moisture levels and weeding regularly.

Video about caring for planted cabbage

An excellent way to solve problems with protection is the use of modern drugs such as Prestige, which has both insecticidal and fungicidal properties. And in this case, you should not be afraid of using "chemistry", because the action of the drug is limited to two months, after which it completely disintegrates. Therefore, if you strictly follow the instructions and treat cabbage with such a dressing at the seedling stages, you can protect it from cruciferous fleas, cabbage flies, scoops and aphids, and also prevent the development of fungal diseases.

But you can grow kaputa without any "chemistry" at all. Dusting wet cabbage leaves with wood ash and tobacco dust with the addition of ground red pepper powder can be organic measures to combat insects. Joint planting of cabbage with garlic, nasturtium, marigolds or black shavings, which scare off pests with their smell, will be a good protection for plantings in the country.


Most often, cabbage is grown outdoors as it is the most productive and less costly method. Significant areas are usually allocated for planting, since the need for this vegetable is great. Even weak shading is unacceptable for cabbage - it does not form heads of cabbage well and goes to the leaf. Therefore, an even, well-lit area is chosen for her. In general, this culture is unpretentious to soils, but it grows better on loose, air-permeable loams with an acidity of pH 6.5-7.0.

Sour soils for growing cabbage are unacceptable - plants get sick on them.

Cabbage grows well in lighted areas

It is better to prepare a site for planting in the fall. It is plowed with the simultaneous application of organic fertilizers (humus, compost, low peat - 6-8 kg / m 2) and mineral (superphosphate - 30-40 g / m 2) fertilizers. In the case of increased acidity of the soil, lime fluff or dolomite flour is added in an amount of 500 g per 1 m 2. In the spring, when preparing the beds, you can add 1 tbsp. l. urea per 1 m 2.

Dolomite flour is used to deoxidize the soil

An important point is compliance with crop rotation. This is a prerequisite for the prevention of many cabbage diseases. It is impossible to plant a crop for 3-4 years where representatives of the cruciferous family grew - radishes, turnips, radishes, rutabagas, horseradish, mustard, any types of cabbage. After potatoes, tomatoes, cucumbers, legumes, cabbage will feel comfortable.

Growing seedlings

It is important to choose the right seeds. First of all, you need to pay attention to the manufacturer - information about him is indicated on the package. Preference is given to well-known, trusted brands. You can recommend:

  • "SeDec"
  • "Plazmas"
  • "Gavrish"
  • "Aelita" and others.

The second thing they pay attention to is the date of production of the seeds. You should know that at the age of 5 years, the germination rate of cabbage seeds is 54%, older ones should not be used.

The previously prepared seeds can be sown directly into the ground. They can be identified by their bright shell.

Seeds prepared by the manufacturer have a bright color shell

Step-by-step instructions for seed preparation:

    Calibration. This is the process of culling weak, light, empty seeds. They are placed in a glass with a 3% sodium chloride solution. After 20 minutes, the seeds that have settled to the bottom are harvested. They can be used for sowing.

Floated seeds are unsuitable for growing

You can prepare seedling soil yourself according to one of many recipes. For example, take 2 parts of black soil and bottom peat and 1 part of humus and river sand. Stir the mixture by adding 1 tbsp for each bucket. l. superphosphate and 1 tbsp. wood ash. You can also purchase ready-made seedling soil in the store.

For seedlings, you can use ready-made nutritious soil.

    Seeds are sown in containers filled with soil to a depth of 0.5-1 cm in grooves at intervals of 4-5 cm.

Cabbage seeds are sown to a depth of 0.5-1 cm

After sprouting, cabbage needs a cool temperature.

After the formation of 2-3 true leaves, the seedlings are planted in separate containers

Picking is the transplanting of sprouts into separate containers with a simultaneous shortening of the central root by 20-30%, which provokes the formation of lateral roots.

10-15 days before planting, the seedlings begin to harden. To do this, it is taken out on the balcony or outside (at a temperature not lower than 5-10 ° C) for several hours. The duration of hardening is increased daily. The last days before planting, the plants are left outside at all, if weather conditions permit.

How and when to plant seedlings in open ground

The timing of planting seedlings depends on the growing region, climatic conditions, cabbage varieties. When nighttime temperatures reach 5 ° C, you can start planting. This usually occurs between early May and early June. Seedlings at this point should have 5-6 true leaves and a height of 10-15 cm.

Cabbage seedlings are ready for transplanting when they have 5-6 true leaves

The beds are marked so that between the rows it is 60-70 cm, and between the holes in a row - 40-50 cm. These distances can vary in accordance with the characteristics of a particular variety. Under each plant, 1 kg of humus is added, as well as ash in an amount of 0.5 liters. Seedlings are planted, covering the roots and stem to the level of the first leaves, watered and sprinkled with dry soil.

The planted seedlings are covered with earth to the level of real leaves

Cabbage is a frost-hardy plant and can withstand night frosts down to -2-5 ° C. But it is still better to cover the seedlings in arcs or a wooden frame with agrofibre until the threat of cold nights has passed. This is especially true for Siberia, the Urals and northern regions.

For the first time, the planted cabbage seedlings are covered with agrofibre

Growing cabbage in a seedless way

By sowing seeds directly into the ground, cabbage is usually grown in the southern regions. More often, varieties are used for this with early and medium-early ripening periods (up to 120-130 days from the moment of emergence). The preparation of the garden is no different from the seedling method. The only difference is the timing. As a rule, seeds are sown in mid-April. Presowing seed preparation is carried out in the same way as when growing seedlings.

Before sowing, the soil in the holes is moistened. Seeds are laid out in 3 pieces in each hole, deepening them by 0.5-1 cm. Sprinkle with a thin (1 cm) layer of earth. Next, you need to keep the soil moist and not let it dry out.

For the convenience of sowing, you can make not holes, but furrows

For the purpose of insulation, the bed must be covered with a black plastic wrap. As soon as the seeds germinate, the shelter is removed. If the air temperature at this time is below 5 ° C, then the bed is covered with agrofibre. After 2-3 weeks, the first hilling is carried out, raking up the earth to the first leaves. At the same time, thinning is carried out - one strongest sprout is left in each hole, and the rest are removed. Subsequently, this cabbage is looked after in the same way as for the seedlings planted.


Description and characteristics of white cabbage

According to the scientific classification, cabbage or white cabbage (Latin Brássica olerácea) is a species of the Cabbage genus of the Cabbage family (Cruciferous). Cabbage is a biennial herb and also its fruit.

The plant has a low, branched stem with a large number of leaves that form a rosette at the bottom. During the first year of the growing season, the leaves, tightly adhering to each other and curling around the stem (stumps), form a head of cabbage, which is eaten. Heads of cabbage can be flat, round-flat, round, conical and oval. In the second year, high (up to 1.5 m) flowering shoots grow, on which fruits are formed in the form of pods with seeds.

White cabbage is a biennial herb

In cooking, cabbage is used raw (salads), fermented and pickled, and various dishes are also prepared (stewed cabbage, cabbage rolls, fillings, casseroles, cabbage soup, borsch, etc.). The number of different recipes for cabbage dishes is simply innumerable.

The biochemical composition of cabbage is diverse, it contains: fiber, proteins, carbohydrates, organic acids and nitrogenous compounds. The amount of vitamin C (30–70 mg / 100 g) is comparable to that in lemons. Vitamins PP, E, A, U, a number of B vitamins and a wide variety of minerals are also present.

Cabbage contains many useful substances and is widely used in cooking.

Cabbage as a source of vitamin U, which is an anti-ulcer factor, is used in diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. The juice from the leaves helps to lower blood sugar, eliminate cholesterol and excess fluid from the body. A well-known folk remedy for inflammatory processes is the cabbage leaf.

In some cases, cabbage can be harmful: with pancreatitis, acute enterocolitis, increased acidity of the stomach, a tendency to spasms of the intestines and bile ducts, it is contraindicated, as it can irritate the mucous membrane of the digestive tract and cause increased pain.

White cabbage has a great external resemblance to red and savoy cabbage. It differs from other cabbage cabbage not only in appearance, but also in a number of other properties.

  • In broccoli and cauliflower, the edible part is the inflorescences, in kohlrabi, the stembread.
  • Kohlrabi, broccoli, Brussels sprouts and cauliflower are frozen for storage, these types of cabbage, unlike white cabbage, are not stored fresh for long.
  • All other types of cabbage have a higher content of protein, vitamins, micro- and macroelements, and also have a finer cellular structure (with the exception of red cabbage - its fiber, on the contrary, is coarser than that of white cabbage).

Despite the fact that other types of cabbage are superior to white cabbage in terms of nutrient content, this does not diminish its value and popularity due to its relatively low cost, excellent keeping quality and other unique properties.


Peking cabbage: growing and care, photos of seedlings and adult plants in the open field

The crop is stored for a long time without losing its properties, which means that stocking up on Peking cabbage for the winter is not a problem. In addition, as many as two harvests are obtained per season, and for those who did not manage to plant cabbage in the spring, you can have time to do it in the summer.

Of course, like any culture, Peking cabbage has its own "troubles" and whims, which, with due attention, are easy enough to cope with. You just need to know and adhere to certain agricultural techniques.

Peking cabbage can be grown in both seedling and non-seedling methods. Naturally, the first method is preferable, but it is also possible to grow a full-fledged cabbage with the second.

Growing healthy and robust Chinese cabbage seedlings

Growing Peking cabbage using seedlings allows you to get a ready-to-eat vegetable earlier, since the ripening period for seedlings is reduced, and it grows much faster. There are two times for sowing seeds for seedlings - either the end of March or the end of June. Since "pekingka" is disgusting about picking, after which it does not always root successfully, it is best to place the seeds immediately in separate containers, for example, peat pots.

When planting, special attention is paid to the soil for seedlings - this vegetable loves a loose consistency. You can use one of the options:

  • Humus + coconut substrate, in a ratio of 1: 2, respectively.
  • Peat + sod land, in a ratio of 1: 1.

The selected version of the mixture is filled in pots. Seeds are sunk into the soil by about 1 cm, no more. After a few days, provided that the containers with seedlings are kept in a dark place next to the battery, sprouts can be seen. After that, they are taken out into the light - they are placed on the windowsill.

Peking cabbage seedlings should not be "drained", watering is carried out only after the soil from above begins to weather. After a month of this regime, the sprout should have at least 4 leaves, and then it is ready for planting in open soils. It should be noted that before planting in the beds, watering the seedlings is not carried out for several days.

Planting Chinese cabbage by seeds directly in open ground

The place for planting this vegetable using the seedless method should be chosen correctly - it should have good lighting, in no case be in the shade - sheds, fences and other crops. In addition, the ideal option would be to plant in that part of the plot where cucumbers, garlic onions, and carrots were grown last year.

Vegetable planting scheme - a square of 30 × 30. In each hole dug, add ½ liter of humus, sprinkle with wood ash, and then spill well.

Peking cabbage seeds are sunk into the soil for a few centimeters, sprinkled with the same ash on top. After that, Beijing cabbage needs to arrange mini-greenhouses. It can be agrofibre, film, plastic bottles, any other suitable covering material. The first shoots can be expected in a week.

Observing the planting time of Peking cabbage: getting rid of the "flowering"

It often happens that Chinese cabbage, instead of forming a full-fledged head of cabbage, begins to grow upward, throws out a peduncle. To avoid this, it is necessary to strictly observe the timing of planting it in open ground.

The fact is that the flowering of cabbage begins if the seedlings grow with a long daylight hours, therefore, it is necessary to plant the sprouts when the daylight hours are still short or already waning.

Therefore, the timing of planting cabbage is as follows:

  • Second half of April
  • End of July - beginning of August.

With this observance, there should be no shooting. In addition, to avoid it, they choose specially bred varieties that are more resistant to empty flowering, Dutch hybrids are especially distinguished among them.

As for ripening, although Peking cabbage is considered an early-ripening vegetable, nevertheless, according to the timing, varieties are divided into early, middle and late. The first ones ripen after 1.5 months, the second ones need up to 2 months, and the ripening periods of late varieties reach 80 days.

Features of growing Chinese cabbage

After rooting cabbage in the open field, it is necessary to observe a comfortable regime for it, which consists in ensuring optimal humidity, temperature and light flux.

As for the temperature regime, in order to obtain a good harvest, it must vary from 15 to 20 degrees. Both lowering and raising it will reduce the likelihood of getting a healthy vegetable. Peking cabbage is moisture-loving, but an excess of moisture can cause it to rot.

To provide the "Beijing" with the proper atmosphere, a non-woven fabric is often used to cover the plantings. It provides several conditions at once:

  • Temperature constancy. Protects against drops, and also from possible frosts, which bring death to plantings. Also protects from the scorching sun, keeping the space cooler inside.
  • Constancy of moisture. Protects from both excess (in the rainy season) and lack of moisture (accumulates and stores)
  • Pest protection. The fiercest enemy of Peking cabbage is the cruciferous flea. Finding cabbage under the canvas is much more difficult for a pest.

To retain moisture and partially get rid of weeds, sprouts of Peking cabbage are treated with mulch, it is advisable to do this 2 weeks after planting.

During the entire period of ripening, "Peking" is fed:

  1. 10-14 days after planting seedlings in open ground, or after shoots have appeared in the open ground, pour a liter of mullein (diluted 1/10), or infusion of chicken manure (diluted 1/20) or herbal solution (diluted 1/9). The introduction of such dressings should be carried out two to three times during the cultivation process.
  2. Top dressing with Borogum-M solution: 2 tablespoons of the drug are thoroughly mixed in 1 liter of water, and sprayed (foliar dressing) 2-3 times during the growing season.

Enemies of Chinese cabbage and how to defeat them

There are two especially zealous pests in Peking cabbage - a cruciferous flea and slugs. Everyone knows that the best treatment is prevention, so you should definitely:

  • observe the timing of planting the vegetable (this is the time when the cruciferous flea has not yet appeared, or has already disappeared)
  • cover seedlings with non-woven fabric, protecting them from pests
  • observe crop rotation, i.e. do not plant where mustard or common cabbage (and other cruciferous species) grew before. Indeed, most often the larvae of the pest are in the soil in winter, be sure to get out in the spring.

The "war" with the cruciferous flea includes:

  1. Treatment of plantings with ash and tobacco dust / Tabazol. Flea does not like such scents.
  2. Mixed landings. If you plant Chinese cabbage between tomatoes, cucumbers, potatoes, then the flea may be deceived and not find it.
  3. Spraying with preparations such as "Fitoverm".
  4. Chemistry (for the most courageous) - Aktara, Iskra, Aktellik. They are used in desperate situations, and no later than a week before the expected harvest of the vegetable.

Slugs are another scourge of Peking. If the rainy season has come, then you may not have time to blink an eye as slugs devour the plantings of Peking cabbage cleanly.

To kill slugs, you can try:

  1. Lay boards and burdock leaves between the cabbage rows, under which pests like to gather. After a while, the boards and leaves are removed, and the slugs are destroyed by hand.
  2. Sprinkle the cabbage with the pre-cooked mixture. Take ½ liter of wood ash, in which 2 tablespoons of salt are mixed, the same amount of crushed red pepper, and 1 tablespoon of mustard (in dry form) is added.
  3. Watering cabbage with water in which brilliant green is diluted (1 bottle per 10 liters).

What is the harvest time for Beijing cabbage for storage?

Peking cabbage of early, spring planting is grown only for current consumption. But Peking cabbage of the second harvest (they are also called repeated crops) is excellently stored, it can withstand cold temperatures of -4 degrees without damage to itself. That is why you should not rush to collect summer plantings, you can safely leave cabbage until the second half of October. It is better to look at its readiness by touch - according to the density of the head of cabbage. It should be very dense, not loose.

In order for the cabbage to be successfully stored until the new year (and even after), each head of cabbage is wrapped with cling film before being sent for storage, or you can use a newspaper and a plastic bag, only in the latter version you will have to periodically check the newspaper so that the vegetable does not rot. Storage temperature +5 degrees.

Subject to all the rules of planting, growing, care and storage conditions of Peking cabbage, a magnificent harvest is obtained, pleasing its owners almost all winter.

(8 estimates, average: 4,50 out of 5)

Harmful insects and common ailments

Cabbage pests

It has already been discussed above which means are more successful to use in an attack on harmful insects and which toxic compounds are better to refuse.

Depending on the vegetative duration, cabbage is vulnerable to such harmful insects.

At the beginning of the growing season, the culture is struck by: leaf beetle, fly, cruciferous flea, moth and secretive proboscis.

In the intermediate period of the growing season, the white woman is in charge.

By the time forks begin to form on cabbage plants, aphids and scoops may attack. It happens that a given plant is grown in greenhouse conditions, then it is less exposed to harmful insects, but even under such growing conditions, one should not forget about observing competent care for the plants.

The main cabbage ailments:

  • Black leg has a detrimental effect on cabbage plants, it can provoke suppuration of the stem.
  • Provokes growths and swelling of Keel.
  • The appearance of plaque and stains on the foliage provokes pernosporosis.

To protect the culture from these ailments, you should sterilize the ground with boiling water before planting.


Collection and storage

Peking cabbage grows before frost, so the cabbage can be cut at the end of October. Mature culture is tough to the touch, dense. You will need a sharp knife to separate it from the bush.

Late ripening varieties will last longer than others, provided they are stored in a dark, cool place with high humidity. Best of all, if it is a cellar or basement. A vegetable fridge drawer or balcony is a great storage place. The main thing here is that the air temperature does not drop to minus indicators.

Peking cabbage is unusual and delicious. In addition, it does not require any special efforts in growing: take care of the same as for ordinary cabbage. The main thing is to monitor the slugs and monitor the condition of the leaves for the presence of diseases. If the gardener does everything right, as described above, he will not regret the harvest.


The nuances of harvesting cabbage

The timing of the cabbage harvest depends on the variety and maturity of the vegetable:

  • early ripening varieties ripen in late June - early July
  • mid-season - by August
  • late ripening - in October.
Harvesting cabbage

It is quite simple to check the maturity of cabbage heads - they become dense, crunchy with a little squeezing. Part of the crop can be harvested gradually, spending it on current needs. Mass cleaning is carried out when there are no unripe bushes left in the garden.

Late varieties of cabbage hold better when harvested in dry, cool weather. When cutting a crop for storage, you need to leave a few lower leaves and a stump, 4-5 cm long. So they will be less susceptible to the development of rot and will lie until the next harvest.


Watch the video: How to Grow Napa. Chinese Cabbage 101 - Seed to Kitchen! Everything You Need to Know


Previous Article

Dracena problems - The expert responds on the diseases of the dracena

Next Article

Sowing calendar for December