The main and most important rule for making homemade fruit and berry wines (not tinctures) lies in the fact that when preparing berries, they cannot be washed, because it is on the surface of their skin that yeast is located, which causes the fermentation process. Accordingly, it is worth making wine only from those berries and fruits that grow in your garden, and in which you are sure (that they were not sprayed with chemicals, etc.).
So, currants, raspberries, blackberries, strawberries, cherries, plums, apples, pears are suitable for us. In fact, strawberries are too difficult to extract juice, blackberry juice turns out to be too watery, with resinous tones, plums give a cloudy juice with pulp - these berries are better left for making liqueurs and liqueurs.
To get wine, we take raspberries... This berry has its own secret. Despite their sweetness, raspberries are acidic and must be neutralized with water.
So, 5 kilograms of berries are sprinkled with sugar (1 kg) and left for one or two days until they give abundant juice. You don't need to crush raspberries, she will willingly give the juice herself. After that, 3 liters of clean and warm water (20-25 degrees) are added to the berries. The floating pulp can sour, so the fermenting liquid must be constantly stirred with a wooden stick. It is best to cover the container in which fermentation takes place with a piece of gauze or cotton wool, which will allow air to pass through, but will protect from midges, greedy for raspberry sweetness. Fermentation lasts about a week, after which the wine is filtered, bottled and sent to the cold (2-3 days). During this time, a grayish sediment forms at the bottom of the bottles, and the wine is filtered again (or simply drained from the sediment) and fixed with vodka or sugar.
Raspberry wine very capricious - it is better to fix it so that it does not sour. For 10 liters of wine, 1 liter of vodka is taken. (Or a liter of sugar syrup 1: 1). Cherry wine is prepared in the same way from the prepared juice. For 10 liters of wine, 6 liters of juice, 2 liters of water and 2 kg of sugar are taken. It is alcoholized immediately after fermentation, kept for 5 days, and then filtered. The wine turns out to be bright, rich cherry color with no less intense taste and aroma.
But cherry the tincture is also good - cherry... In a bottle with a wide neck, berries are poured to the top, from which the seeds have been previously taken out. The berries are sprinkled with sugar. The bottle closes loosely and is left in the sun for 4 weeks. The juice should cover the berries, for this the bottle must be shaken regularly. After this period, the resulting fermented juice is drained, and vodka is poured into the bottle - on top of the settled berries - (as much as it will fit - to the very neck), corked and left for 6 weeks (in the shade). The drained juice at this time must be stored in the cold. After the expiration date, both liquids are mixed, filtered, bottled and sent to the cold - for another two weeks.
The same is done and plum brandy... Only at the first stage the plums are filled with vodka, and at the second stage - with sugar. And the bones can not be removed from them.
Black currant you get a fragrant strong liqueur with a provocative name "stumbling"... To do this, 3 kilograms of berries are well dried in the sun or dried in the oven (oven). Then they are poured with a liter of sugar syrup (1: 1), brought to a boil and poured with three liters of vodka. When hot, everything is immediately sealed. This mixture is infused for 4-5 weeks, filtered and bottled.
Apple wine It is made from apple juice, which is diluted with water (depending on the acidity of apples, it is clear that for sweet apples such as pear or cinnamon, water may not be used at all, but when making wine from Antonovka, neutralization of acid with water is necessary). For 7 liters of apple juice (plus water) 2.5 kg of sugar are taken. After a week of vigorous fermentation, a water seal is installed and the quiet fermentation continues for about 3 weeks. After its completion (and also in order not to make a mistake and prevent the continuation of fermentation), the resulting wine can be fixed with a small amount of vodka. Then everything is filtered. Apple wine can be stored for quite a long time.
So how do you make wine out of old jam? But first, some subtleties that are not always taken into account, but can affect the taste of the future wine.
Firstly, there should be no mold on the jam. And, secondly, if you have sweet jam, from which you want to make wine, then you need to add a little sour to it in order to avoid getting something like compote.
Here is a version of wine made from sweet and sour jam and we will make. For a three-liter jar, you need to take one and a half liters of sweet and sour jam. We merge them into a jar.
Then add boiled water to the very edge of the jar. The water should be at room temperature. If the water is hot, then the wild yeast that formed in the jam may disappear. But, to help them, you still need to add more yeast. And that yeast will become raisins. Add 100 g of raisins to a three-liter jar.
Then mix everything very well and close the jar with a lid. Now we remove the jar in a warm and dark place for 10 days. After 10 days, the jam will ferment and the cake will float. It must be removed, and the liquid must be filtered through cheesecloth or a sieve.
Now we move on to the main stage of fermentation. Pour the strained jam into a new jar and put a glove on top. The glove will serve as an indicator of the end of fermentation. When the fermentation process goes on intensively, the glove will inflate. But as soon as fermentation is over, the glove will fall off. This means that the wine is almost ready and must be poured into prepared clean bottles using a silicone tube.
A sediment forms at the bottom after fermentation. Therefore, we lower the tube so that it does not touch this sediment. We filter the wine in this way and bottle it.
Well, then, it remains only to put these bottles in a cooler place for two weeks for maturation. And after that, the wine can be tasted.
It is believed that the best-tasting wine can be made from apple, plum and apricot jam. Moreover, the consumption of food is in favor of wine. For example, a liter of homemade jam will make about two liters of wine. It turns out very well.
But wine can also be made from berry jam, which will be discussed later.
Proper storage at home contributes to the preservation of the quality and durability of the wine:
We often have so many berries and fruitsthat not only we ourselves eat and prepare the jam, but also something else remains. I would like to try to make berry wines from these leftovers. Can you help with the recipes? In general terms, making wine from fruits and berries of different types looks about the same. Raw materials should only be ripe, among the berries should not be spoiled or contaminated with soil.
The first step in making homemade wine is preparing the starter culture. At the same time, berries and fruits do not need to be washed, so as not to remove the so-called wild yeast from the surface. Crush two glasses of berries or fruits, put in a bottle, add a glass of water and 0.5 cups of sugar there. Then shake the resulting mixture, close the bottle with a cotton stopper and place in a dark place with a temperature of 22-24 degrees. After 3-4 days, when fermentation begins, filter the juice through cheesecloth. This starter can be stored for up to 10 days.
Another important ingredient in homemade winemaking is pulp. Berries for her need to be rinsed well and crushed in an enamel container. Immediately after that, add 200-300 g of water for each kilogram of pulp, stir and compress. You can put the pulp in heated water and put on low heat for 30 minutes, and then squeeze it in a colander. Squeeze the remaining uncleaned part of the pulp with your hands using cheesecloth, then add a little boiled water, and then squeeze again.
Add sourdough to the wort obtained in this way and leave the future wine to ferment for 3-4 weeks. To obtain a dessert, stronger wine, the sourdough should be 3% of the total mass, and for dry one. 2% wine is enough, that is, for 10 liters of wort you need to take 200-300 g of sourdough.
It is not difficult to find out about the end of fermentation - the wine becomes light. At the same time, a sediment forms at the bottom of the bottle, so pour the fruit and berry wine into another container, seal and leave in a cold room. After a month, drain the liquid again, being careful not to disturb the newly formed sediment. Sweet lovers can add a little sugar to the wine in the following way: 200 g per 1 liter for liqueur wines, 100-160 g for dessert wines. Dissolve sugar in a small amount of poured wine. In general, when making dessert wine, sugar must be added to the wort (200 g per liter). On the fifth and tenth day of fermentation, add an additional 20 g for each liter.
Currant wines and cherries are usually ready in 2-3 months, and gooseberry in six months. Store finished wine at a temperature not exceeding 15 degrees, and bottles of wine with added sugar - in an upright position. Be careful, because if the storage conditions are violated, the wine can turn into vinegar.
In home winemaking, the main stage is not only the correct choice of raw materials, but also their competent preparation. At the same time, a novice distiller needs to know that even slightly spoiled berries and fruits can spoil the taste of the drink. After the raw materials have been carefully sorted out, and all the defective elements have been removed, it is time for the fruit to be washed. Then they are crushed or juice is obtained. For this, you can use both improvised means and professional crushers.
To brew homemade wine, you only need a few kilograms of apples / grapes / plums, the appropriate amount of sugar and the container in which you will make the wine preparation.
Apple wine will be made from almost any variety of this fruit: sweet, sour, tart (bitter) or sweet and sour. Naturally, this will affect the future taste of the wine: for example, if you want a light table wine, it is better to use sweet and sour varieties, but a strong drink is most likely to come from sour apples. Nevertheless, professional winemakers claim that the most delicious wine with a sugary-sour taste is obtained when several varieties of apples are mixed. Here you can not limit your imagination and choose from two to four types of the main ingredient, for example, use a tandem of sour and sweet apples, sour, tart and sweet and sour or mix sweet and sweet and sour, etc.
Another important point: do not rush to use only apples plucked from the tree. Before making wine, fruits need to rest and ripen. To do this, place the apples in a cool, dark place, such as a cellar. One week will be enough for summer varieties, but winter varieties, as more "harsh", should lie at least 2.5, and preferably 4 weeks in the cellar.
First of all, apples need to be cleaned of dirt, dust and worms. Never wash them with water, as the peel contains a lot of yeast, which plays a key role in the fermentation of apples. The rot and core can be cut out of the fruit so that the wine does not taste bitter, and proceed to squeezing the juice.
The best way to squeeze apple juice is with a good juicer. It will not be difficult for this machine to squeeze all the juice out of the pulp as efficiently as possible. But if one was not found, it does not matter. Any manual grater will do, but preferably a powerful mechanical grater, with which you can rub all the apples. The resulting gruel is placed in a commensurate container with a large throat and set for 3-4 days in a place where the sun's rays do not fall. During this time, a pulp should stand out on top of the apple juice. It is much denser than juice, so for the first two days the puree will need to be mixed in the morning, afternoon and evening. The next day, you do not need to touch the pulp, and by the middle of the fourth day, you can remove it using a colander.
As with other blanks, where sugar is used as a preservative, the main thing is not to overdo it with it. It is very easy to determine the amount of sugar for wine - you need to ask yourself the question: how sweet do I want the product to be? At the same time, you need to know that 250 grams of sugar per 1 liter of wine ends up with a rather strong drink.
So decide for yourself how much sugar to add, but keep in mind that the apple itself is a very sweet fruit. To add astringency to the tincture, you can add a little pear or mountain ash juice.
It's time to let the wine ferment. To do this, take a sealed container and pour the resulting workpiece into it. The bottle should be half empty as a fair amount of foam is generated during fermentation. A considerable amount of gases are emitted together with the foam. So that they do not accumulate and the container does not burst, it is necessary to leave a small hole in it and insert a long, thin tube into it so that its outer end can be put into a glass (jar) with water, where gases will escape.
The first time, when gases come out, the container should be in a warm place. After all the gases have come out, this will indicate that the wine is ready. But do not immediately open the bottle, let the drink brew.
First, decide what color you want the wine: white, pink or red, because the choice of the variety of grapes used directly depends on this.
The best grape varieties for wine:
First, it will be necessary to separate the good berries from the rotten and dry ones. You can crush the grapes together with the grape twigs, but in this case the wine will turn out to be more tart and there is a chance that it will taste bitter. If you don't want to risk it, then pick off the grapes from the branches and put them in a large container. As soon as the berries are cleared of excess debris and stalks, you can immediately begin to crush them.
Do not delay their processing, otherwise the fermentation process may begin much earlier.After the grinding process, grape cake should remain at the bottom of the container, and on top of it grape juice, which should be drained into a new clean container.
Prepare in advance a container into which you will pour the workpiece. Note that the wine will foam during fermentation, so leave some space under the foam. The amount of sugar, as in the previous recipe, depends on your taste preferences, but proceed from the standard proportions - 250 grams of sugar per liter of juice. After the container is filled, do not forget to seal it tightly and leave a small hole on top so that the gases have a place to escape, as already mentioned in the apple wine recipe.
Place the resulting blank in a dark place, for example, in the basement and leave it there for 3 months, occasionally checking the integrity of the container. You can make sure that the wine begins to ferment by looking at the bubbles in the glass, which will remain as a result of the release of gases. From time to time, the water in the glass needs to be changed to avoid unnecessary contamination. At the end of fermentation, sediment will remain at the bottom of the container, so be careful when pouring wine.
Plum is one of the most versatile fruits. You can make both white and red wine from it, everything will depend only on the variety of the selected plum. Plum wine has a very specific taste and an extremely original aroma that not everyone will like. This type of wine is not considered elite, but it has always enjoyed special love among connoisseurs.
Plum wine can be made from any variety, either one or several. Yellow plums make white wine, purple-blue ones make red. However, most often dark varieties of plums are chosen for such an alcoholic drink, since they lend themselves better to the fermentation process and give a beautiful deep burgundy color.
Wine requires overripe and even fallen fruits from the tree so that the drink ultimately turns out to be sweet. And before proceeding to the next step, spread the plums in an even layer in the sun for several hours so that they get rid of excess liquid.
As in the case of apples, it is better to simply wipe the plum free of dirt without rinsing it with water. Select good fruits from rotten and dry ones, then carefully remove the seeds from them. Transfer the cleaned plum to a large bowl, where it can be grinded and crushed to obtain a homogeneous mass. Add water at room temperature to the resulting mixture in a 1: 1 ratio.
Place the container in a warm, dry place and cover with a thick towel or rag. Check the workpiece occasionally. As soon as bubbles and foam appear on the surface, this will mean that everything is done correctly, the plum begins to ferment. After a couple of weeks, when fermentation subsides, pass the resulting mixture through cheesecloth and pour into a clean container for further preparation for two months of fermentation.
The amount of added sugar will depend on which wine you like best. To make a dry / semi-dry wine, add 250 grams of sugar per liter of wine. If you want it to be sweet or semi-sweet, add 350-400 grams per liter of the workpiece. Stir the sugar thoroughly to dissolve completely and seal the container. As in the previous cases - leave a small hole in the neck for the gas outlet, insert a tube into it and substitute a glass of clean water.
Plum wine should be infused for at least two months at room temperature. After the fermentation process is over, unnecessary sediment will remain at the bottom, so be careful when pouring wine into a clean container. The process is complete, the wine is ready to be served.
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Author - Anastasia Timchenko
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