Proper cultivation of Jerusalem artichoke and how it is useful


The Indians gave the world many vegetable crops: corn, tomatoes and potatoes. Among them is the Jerusalem artichoke family. In the 17th century, this root crop saved Canadian settlers from starvation. And hundreds of years later it became known that an earthen pear can prevent cancer, heart attack and stroke. Growing a vegetable is possible in the open field and in the dachas of the Moscow region, and the Central strip. The main thing is to observe proper care of the plant and prepare the soil before planting it.

Description and characteristics of Jerusalem artichoke

Jerusalem artichoke - perennial plant, with a powerful root system and a straight stem up to 4 m tall. The leaves are large, 20-25 cm long. The flowers are small, up to 10 cm in diameter, yellow or golden. On underground shoots are formed tubers (white, red, purple), taste like turnips, with white flesh.

They are very nutritious and contain:

  • fructose
  • trace elements (silicon, manganese, chromium)
  • macronutrients (potassium, sulfur, phosphorus)
  • protein
  • vitamins (B, C, carotene)
  • amino acids (methionine, threonine, lysine)

Earthen pear is a high-yielding, drought and frost-resistant plant. Vegetable stalks can withstand temperatures as low as -12 degrees. Tubers are able to freeze for a month in the ground at -10 degrees, thaw and rise in spring.

Jerusalem artichoke brings a bountiful harvest regardless of the weather. It is considered a safety crop.

Origin and distribution of the plant

Jerusalem artichoke is native to North America. It got its name from the Topinambo Indian tribe. They grew and ate root crops long before the arrival of Europeans.

The vegetable culture came to Europe from Canada in the 17th century. The unpretentious plant quickly took root on the new continent. Jerusalem artichoke is traditionally used in the cuisines of England, Holland and France. In Germany he was nicknamed earthen pear and schnapps potatoes (here vodka is made on its basis).

In Russia, the vegetable culture became known in the middle of the 17th century. Root-based wine was used to treat diseases of the heart and blood vessels. Then it was considered a rarity, only the rich ate it.

After a hundred years, the earthen pear spread everywhere. Fruit stew, boil and fried, should not be consumed raw. Roasted Jerusalem artichoke tastes like sweet fried potatoes.

Application in medicine

Jerusalem artichoke contains inulin... Once in the human body, this polysaccharide cleanses the blood from cholesterol and decay products.

In addition, Jerusalem artichoke:

  • Treats gastrointestinal diseases: gastritis and pancreatitis. Eliminates dysbiosis, relieves constipation and colic.
  • It removes slags and salts of heavy metals from the body.
  • Has a diuretic effect. Useful for people with kidney stones.
  • Lowers blood pressure... Recommended for hypertension.
  • Reduces sugar levels in the blood thanks to inulin (help with diabetes).
  • Strengthens the heart and prevents the deposition of salts in the body (useful for osteochondrosis, arthrosis, gout).

The right choice of soil for planting Jerusalem artichoke

Earthen pear grows on any soils, except for strongly acidic and waterlogged... Abundant shoots are provided for:

  • loose black soil
  • light loam
  • floodplain soil

The plant is responsive to humus and mineral fertilizers.

The root crop is resistant to many diseases and parasites (Colorado potato beetle, nematode and late blight) and does not require pesticide treatment.

Growing and care in the open field in the country or in the garden

Tubers need to be planted in the ground in the beginning of Maywhen the air warms up up to 18 degrees... In the fall, the site is prepared:

  • dug to the depth of the future planting of tubers (15 cm)
  • remove dirt from the ground
  • add manure to the soil

Large tubers are selected for planting and reproduction. Sore spots are cut off and covered with charcoal. The more healthy tubers there are, the more abundant the harvest will be.

The soil is loosened and leveled before planting, dividing into rows by 70 cm... Tubers need to be planted from a distance 40-50 cm apart... This is important because in summer the seedlings will reach a height of two meters. Jerusalem artichoke foliage is dense, intertwined with close planting. This can seriously complicate the care of crops.

Before emergence and after the soil loosen and hoe... From planting to harvest, the root crop needs in abundant watering... It is important not to flood the plant. Excess moisture is dangerous by rotting and the appearance of slugs. And the disadvantage is slow development and small fruits. Jerusalem artichoke once a month feed potash and nitrogen fertilizers.

It is important to observe the growth of the plants. If they grow sluggishly, lose leaves and become covered with bloom, then this is a sign of disease or pests. Affected plants are removed and burned.

When the seedlings rise to 30 cm of them spud... Once again, the plants are spud in the middle of summer. When the stems of an earthen pear reach a meter in height, they are tied to strong supports. For example, to wire supports for shrubs.

As soon as the stems grow up, they are neat cut to a height of 1.5 m, the flowers are also removed. This stimulates root development and tuber formation.

When to harvest tubers

The tubers will ripen after 120 days from the moment of emergence. A month before harvesting, feeding is stopped, and two weeks later the stems are cut to 30 cm high. This will help the fruit to form a firm skin and increase its shelf life.

If you leave the tubers in the ground, then they will last until spring... To protect from the cold, the beds are sprinkled with earth mixed with humus and covered with straw. The stems are cut. Temperature changes will not affect the fruits of the earthen pear in any way. They will thaw and freeze again. But the green mass of plants will die if left.

In spring, the fruits in the beds are determined by cut stems. They grow quickly and if you do not control their growth, then the earthen pear is able to displace other plants from the beds.

The best time to harvest is October or November. Later, there will be an outflow of nutrients from the tubers to the stems and leaves.

If it is planned to grow other crops on the site, then the soil is sown with silage plants to begin with. Then they are collected for green fodder, and the earth is dug deep and herbicides are applied to destroy Jerusalem artichoke.

Harvest storage

In the ground

This is where the fruits are stored the longest... To do this, they are laid out in layers in a small hole and covered with peat or sand on top. The storage location is dry and elevated. A ditch 30 cm deep is dug around the embankment to drain water.

In the basement

The harvested tubers are stored in a dark and cool place. A basement or cellar with a temperature is suitable from +1 to +4 degrees and air humidity up to 90%... Root vegetables are stored in wooden boxes. They are covered with sand and covered with plywood.

In the apartment

A glazed loggia or balcony is suitable for storage. If the roots freeze, they will not lose their nutritional properties. They are kept in boxes or bags filled with sand for two months.

It is important to remember that Jerusalem artichoke cannot stand direct sunlight and heat.

Freezer

Root crops are thoroughly washed and dried. For storage, use bags or sealed containers. The fruits are thawed by placing them in cold water. Fresh Jerusalem artichoke is stored in the vegetable section up to 3 weeks, in the freezer - up to 3 months.

It is a mistake to believe that since an earthen pear is an unpretentious plant, then it will not be required to care for it. Growing a vegetable and getting a bountiful harvest takes a grain of attention and a little labor. These are easy and pleasant chores. They will more than pay off with the beneficial properties of an earthen pear. After all, health is the main wealth that must be protected.


Jerusalem artichoke powder: reviews, application

By spring, everyone is deficient in beneficial nutrients, in particular vitamins. But there is a wonderful plant Jerusalem artichoke, which in the early spring can make up for this deficit. It is often grown on personal plots, sold in spontaneous markets. There is also commercial Jerusalem artichoke powder. It also provides tremendous benefits to the body and is readily available from drugstores and health food stores.


Agrotechnics of Jerusalem artichoke

Jerusalem artichoke plantation is laid on a garden plot outside the crop rotation, since it can be grown in one place for 10-12 years. The arable layer should be deep enough, the alkaline reaction should be close to neutral. It is advisable to free the site from weeds and fill it well with organic (10 kg per m2) and mineral fertilizers.

In the early spring, tubers are planted in an ordinary way in ridges 18-20 cm high to a depth of 8-10 cm with a distance between rows of 100 cm, and between plants in rows - 35-40 cm.When planting, you can use not only tubers, but also parts of tubers with a sufficient number of eyes.

When the plants reach a height of 35-40 cm, it is better to re-hilling for better tuber formation.

If Jerusalem artichoke is planted in a small bed, then in the spring it can be covered with a film. Then the green shoots are obtained two weeks earlier than without the film.

On the garden plot, Jerusalem artichoke should be planted at a distance from residential premises and outbuildings, from fruit trees and berry bushes, since old semi-wild varieties with their shoots can penetrate both buildings and the roots of trees and bushes, from where it is rather troublesome to extract them.

If Jerusalem artichoke is grown for animal feed, it is cut during intense flowering. For fattening pigs, it is finely chopped and steamed.

To use the green part of plants for medicinal and food purposes, Jerusalem artichoke is harvested at the beginning of flowering, then it is dried in a shaded, ventilated room.

Jerusalem artichoke storage

The tubers peeled from the ground can be stored in an unheated storage facility in any container at a temperature of + 2 ° C, replacing the rows of tubers with a layer of sphagnum moss.

Small quantities of Jerusalem artichoke tubers, previously washed and dried, can be stored in the lower compartment of the refrigerator in tightly closed plastic bags. Sluggish, frozen or damaged tubers are poorly stored.


Structure

To understand what medicinal properties a plant has, consider its chemical composition. Note that it is in many ways similar to the composition of potato tubers.

  • A - 2 mcg (0.2% of the daily value for a person)
  • beta-carotene - 0.012 mg (0.2%)
  • thiamine (B1) - 0.07 mg (4.7%)
  • riboflavin (B2) - 0.06 mg (3.3%)
  • ascorbic acid (C) - 6 mg (6.7%)
  • alpha tocopherol (E) - 0.2 mg (1.3%)
  • niacin (PP) - 1.6 mg (8%).

  • aluminum (Al) - 815 mcg
  • iron (Fe) - 0.4 mg (2.2%).

  • potassium (K) - 200 mg (8%)
  • calcium (Ca) - 20 mg (2%)
  • magnesium (Mg) - 12 mg (3%)
  • sodium (Na) - 3 mg (0.2%)
  • phosphorus (Ph) - 78 mg (9.8%).

In addition to all of the above elements, an earthen pear contains digestible carbohydrates: starch, dextrins, and sugars.

The nutritional value of Jerusalem artichoke is 61 kcal (3.6% of the daily requirement for humans). 100 g of tubers contain 2.1 g of proteins, 0.1 g of fat, 12.8 g of carbohydrates. 4.5 g is dietary fiber, 79 g is water.


What to cook from Jerusalem artichoke

Jerusalem artichoke has a bizarre shape and is difficult to clean. To facilitate the process, some housewives blanch it under boiling water and then peel it like a potato. You don't need to peel the skin off the tubers if you thoroughly rinse the tubers under running water with a brush.

To preserve all the beneficial properties of Jerusalem artichoke, it is often used raw to prepare vitamin salads with other fresh vegetables or even fruits. Jerusalem artichoke salads with cucumbers, turnips or radishes, herbs with a simple vegetable oil dressing will be of great benefit.

Jerusalem artichoke is widely used in cooking. It is used as a stand-alone dish or as a component for preparing various dishes. Jerusalem artichoke is fried, boiled, stewed, pickled, salted and canned. It is added to various baked goods as a filling, first and second courses and even compotes, jelly, etc.

Jerusalem artichoke tubers are dried and made into a powder, which is also widely used in cooking. For example, it is used for making diet coffee or mixed with flour in baked goods. Due to the presence of fructose in Jerusalem artichoke, baked goods do not stale, and the consistency of the product retains moisture.

Select and store

If you come across a soft or sluggish fruit when choosing Jerusalem artichoke, you should not buy it. Pay attention that there are no spots on the skin and that the tubers are not shriveled. In this case, roughness is quite acceptable.

Jerusalem artichoke should be stored in the refrigerator in paper bags. It can also be frozen to extend its shelf life.


Jerusalem artichoke varieties

If the gardener decides to grow cabbage lettuce in his beds, then he has a huge selection of all kinds of varieties. This is true for both greenhouse cucumber and radish varieties. Try to find information on the varieties of the earthen pear, especially the zoned varieties. There is no one on the network. I spent half a day looking in state registers for different years, in catalogs ... There is no information. No descriptions. I fished out only the names of forage varieties that are suitable for laying silage in the State Register of Breeding Achievements: 'Omsk White', 'Interest', 'Skorospelka', 'Pasko', 'Solnechny' - that's all. There are no food varieties!

Although one producer in the Moscow or Ryazan region gives powerful advertising: de, buying earthen pear tubers is a great success, and sells from a kilogram to many tons. There is information that breeders in Ukraine are working on the creation of varieties.


When should I plant Jerusalem artichoke?

Jerusalem artichoke begins not with seeds, but with tubers. Buy them in March and April from a garden center or vendor. Plant in well-prepared soil, plant 10-15 cm deep with tubers spaced 30 cm apart.

How long does it take to grow Jerusalem artichoke?

Planting Jerusalem artichoke is very similar to planting potatoes. Small tubers or pieces of tubers with two or three buds are planted in early spring, as soon as the soil can be cultivated. The planting should be well watered. The tubers will sprout in two to three weeks.

Can you plant Jerusalem artichoke in the fall?

Jerusalem artichoke can be planted in fall or spring six to eight weeks before your last frost date. ... Make sure every tuber you plant has at least one "eye".

Does Jerusalem artichoke cause gas in the stomach?

Digestion is accompanied by the formation of hydrogen, carbon dioxide and other gaseous products. This leads to the unwanted side effect of consuming Jerusalem artichoke and other inulin-rich foods: flatulence. The effect of Jerusalem artichoke on the formation of gases has been known for many years.

How many tubers does Jerusalem artichoke produce?

Like a potato, a perennial plant of Jerusalem artichoke grows with roots. Water 1 to 3 times a week, depending on the weather. Extremely hot summers can cause artichoke buds to open rapidly into flowers. One tuber can bring up to several kilograms of earthen pear.

How do you know when Jerusalem artichoke can be harvested?

Jerusalem artichoke is usually ready to harvest when the leaves fall off. If you have patience, you can wait for the first freeze. In my experience, the best harvesting season is late September to mid November.

Is Jerusalem artichoke useful for diabetics?

Ground pear tubers have been used in the diet since ancient times to lower blood sugar levels. People with diabetes may find that regular consumption of Jerusalem artichoke can help them maintain normal blood sugar levels.

Is Jerusalem artichoke easy to grow?

Because Jerusalem artichoke is less starchy, many people who are trying to cut back on carbohydrates prefer them to potatoes. Jerusalem artichoke is very easy to grow.Jerusalem artichoke will provide a dense harvest and tall yellow flowers with little or no effort.

Where is Jerusalem artichoke grown?

Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus), also called sunroot, sunchoke or earthen pear, is a type of sunflower native to central North America. It grows wild in eastern and western North America, but is considered an introduced species and grows well throughout the planet.

Can i eat raw Jerusalem artichoke?

Jerusalem artichoke is not actually an artichoke - it is a tuber of a plant belonging to the sunflower family, but it can also be eaten raw. Leaving the skins intact, you can wash, then thinly chop the raw Jerusalem artichoke and add them to any type of salad.

Is Jerusalem artichoke an invasive weed?

Jerusalem artichoke grows without much human care. You can get rid of it by digging out the tubers.

Is Jerusalem artichoke grown in pots?

If you don't have a vegetable garden or plot, you can plant Jerusalem artichoke in a tub in your patio for crops with very low maintenance costs in both time and effort.

Should you peel Jerusalem artichoke?

There is no particular need to clean the Jerusalem artichoke, as a last resort a teaspoon will do. If you peel the tubers, toss them in acidified water until you are ready to use them. Watch them while cooking, as they can turn into porridge rather quickly.

Can I freeze Jerusalem artichoke?

Jerusalem artichoke is easy to freeze and does not lose its vus. You can store tubers in the freezer for a long time. Without cooling, Jerusalem artichoke will flabby and disappear quite quickly.

What's the best way to store Jerusalem artichoke?

Place the tubers in plastic bags or a wet sand container in a cold basement or cellar. At low temperatures and high humidity, tubers are stored for 2 to 5 months. Jerusalem artichoke tubers are not stored in the same way as potatoes.

Are Jerusalem artichoke leaves poisonous?

Despite its name, Jerusalem artichoke has nothing to do with Jerusalem and is not an artichoke, all parts of the plant can be used in writing tubers, leaves, flowers.


Watch the video: How To Grow Jerusalem Artichokes. Sun Chokes


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