Ondulin, or, as it is also called, Euro-slate, is not a novelty in the building materials market. For more than half a century of history, it has established itself as a strong and durable roof covering. The popularity of ondulin flooring is due to both the affordable cost and operational advantages, and the ease of installation. It is the last factor that often plays a decisive role in private construction, when you need to build a roof with your own hands. Today we will consider the features of the euro slate and tell you how to make a dry and reliable roof with it.
Ondulin looks very similar to classic slate and is the same flat sheets with a wavy surface. If we consider the structure and manufacturing technology, then this roofing material is much closer to roofing material - a cardboard base and bitumen impregnation are also used for its production.
Ondulin with ordinary slate combine only the appearance and a similar installation technology
The thoroughly refined cellulose fibers are dope dyed and pressed into preforms of the desired length and shape. After that, the sheets are impregnated with a bitumen mixture, while simultaneously exposing them to high pressure and temperature. This allows not only to speed up the process, but also to make it more uniform. And so that the material is both strong and elastic, fiberglass, synthetic resins and mineral fillers are added to the impregnation. This technology makes it possible to obtain a roof covering that is different:
And yet, choosing ondulin as a roof covering, one should not forget that it was developed as a temporary material for the rapid repair and restoration of destroyed roofs in the post-war period. Of course, the minuses of the euro slate are much less than the pluses, but it is imperative to take them into account both during design and installation, and during operation.
Errors in installation often lead to deformation of the ondulin, so you should not neglect the rules for laying it
It should be remembered that ondulin does not tolerate carelessness in the arrangement of a wooden frame. Due to an overly sparse or insufficiently rigid sheathing, the sheets may bend over time and the roof will begin to leak... In addition, it will be unsafe to walk on such a flooring. Due to the peculiarities of the production, roofs of this type are presented only in four colors - green, black, red, brown and their shades, so there is no need to talk about any color variety. In addition, cellulose impregnated with bitumen tends to fade in the sun, and in poorly lit places it quickly becomes overgrown with moss. However, with proper care, such troubles can be avoided.
When constructing roofs with ondulin flooring, almost the same frame is used as for a slate roof. The only difference is that no additional structural reinforcement is required for a lighter euro slate.
A standard ondulin roof consists of several components:
Of course, if it is necessary to cover the roof of some undemanding outbuilding with ondulin, then the design of the roofing pie is greatly simplified. In this case, insulation, vapor barrier membrane and counterbeam are not used. As for waterproofing, you should not give it up. A layer of polymer film or roofing material can be installed on top of the crate - so the wooden structures will be maximally protected from moisture and blowing snow.
The design of the roofing cake of an ondulin roof has a lot in common with the device of both soft and slate roofs.
Before installing the wooden elements of the truss system and the roofing pie, do not forget to treat the lumber with an antiseptic with insecticidal protection and a fire retardant. This will increase the resistance of the structure to fire and prevent the damage of wood by fungi and insects.
When starting the construction of a roof with an onduline coating, you should prepare:
In addition, depending on the type of roof (cold or warm), it is necessary to stock up on roll or slab thermal insulation, a vapor barrier membrane, as well as a waterproofing film or roofing felt.
When choosing additional elements, you should focus on the color of the main coating - the tone of materials from different manufacturers can differ significantly
Above, we have already said that when installing ondulin, no special tool is needed. Here is a complete list of what you might need in the process:
It should be remembered that the use of a power tool will significantly reduce construction time. If possible, the hacksaw can be replaced with a hand-held circular saw or electric jigsaw, and the screwdriver with a screwdriver with a suitable set of bits.
To calculate how many sheets of ondulin will go to the roof, you need to follow a few simple steps:
Although the square of a standard Euro-slate sheet is 2x0.95 = 1.9 sq. m, in fact, the effective area is no more than 1.6 sq. m. This is due to the fact that when laying, part of the roofing material is overlapped by adjacent sheets.
A detailed roof plan not only simplifies the design process, but also allows you to perform calculations with the required accuracy
To check the correctness of the calculations, the total area of all roof slopes must be divided into a useful quadrature and a margin for cutting and joining the material must be added to the result obtained. Depending on the type of roof, the correction can range from 10-15% for simple gable and hip structures to 15-20% if the roof has a complex geometry:
When determining the molding of additional elements, it is necessary to take into account both their standard length and the width of the overlap. Usually, at the junctions of ridge, chip and valley elements, a 15-centimeter overlap of adjacent parts is quite enough.
For the installation of ondulin, special nails with a wide head and a curved washer are used - thanks to them, a reliable attachment and a snug fit to the tops of the waves are carried out. There are two types of fasteners on sale - with a monolithic head and with a cap that covers the metal head of the nail. Both of them can be made of polyvinyl chloride or polypropylene. These materials are flexible enough to protect the attachment points from leaks, and in addition, they are resistant to sunlight and weather conditions.
To attach the ondulin, special gwodzi with wide caps made of high-quality plastic are used
Manufacturers produce nails in the same shades as the base coat, so you can always choose fasteners to match the roof. Their rod is made of galvanized steel and has a length of 70–75 mm with a standard diameter of 3.55 mm, due to which the metal part reliably enters the crate to a depth of more than 10 mm.
Each sheet of euro slate must be fastened at 20 points, which allows you to fairly accurately calculate the required number of hardware... However, the calculation does not end there - it is also necessary to determine the number of nails with which the valleys, skates and chips will be attached. Knowing the length of these sections, the total number of additional elements is determined. The result obtained is multiplied by 6 (each of them is fastened at 6 points) and added to the previously obtained figure. By making a small allowance for damage and loss of fasteners during operation, you can get the most accurate amount of their consumption.
Cardboard sheets impregnated with bitumen-polymer compositions are a rather soft material, so you can use both a circular saw and a regular wood hacksaw to cut them. The difficulty lies only in the fact that the saw teeth become clogged with resin very quickly during operation.
Ondulin is quite easy to cut with a hand saw, so you can do without a power tool
In order not to clean the tool from sticking bitumen after 1-2 cuts, experts recommend lubricating the cutting part with any mineral oil. If this method does not seem very aesthetic to you, then you can use another advice from experienced roofers - regularly moisten the hacksaw with cold water.
Ondulin is a fairly durable and flexible material, but do not be fooled by this. You should walk on the finished flooring as carefully as possible, stepping on the tops of the waves only in those places where the sheathing boards pass from below. To make moving on the roof safer, you can use a special pitched ladder and walkways. They will also be useful in the future - for inspection of the roof and current repairs.
Roof ladder will save time and nerves during installation and during the maintenance of the roof
In building stores, roofing stairs are represented by products made of steel, aluminum profiles and wood, but experts recommend making such devices with their own hands. Firstly, this will allow you to save a little, and secondly, homemade stairs and bridges will correspond to the characteristics of roof slopes.
To build a pitched staircase you will need:
Having cut off the boards of the required length, they are laid on a flat surface. After that, with a step of 40-50 cm, the crossbars are nailed. At the top of the staircase, the ladder is equipped with a wooden "hook" made of pieces of planks and beams - with its help, the device can be hooked onto the ridge. Determining the parameters of the hook, be sure to take into account the steepness of the slopes, own weight and dimensions of the stairs. If you are interested in the minimum dimensions of the mating part, then experts advise making a hook at least 30 cm long.
The construction of an ondulin roof includes several stages:
In addition, when constructing a warm roof, it will be necessary to think over the ventilation of the under-roof space and mount thermal insulation. We will consider the features of all these processes in detail.
Due to the insufficient rigidity of the ondulin, the lathing for this roofing material must take into account the angle of inclination of the roof. Otherwise, during heavy snowfalls, the flooring may bend and the roof will begin to leak.
The structure of the sheathing for the roof made of hard bitumen sheets must correspond to the slope of the roof slopes
There are three main ways of arranging a base for a euro slate:
Installation of a wooden base is carried out in the classical way. On cold-type roofs, a bar or board is nailed directly to the rafters, and when arranging a heated roofing cake, a counter-lattice is used.
Laying ondulin has a lot in common with installing slate flooring. The differences concern only the scheme of fastening the sheets and some of the nuances of the arrangement of the base. The work is best carried out at an air temperature of -5 to +30 ° C, choosing clear, calm weather.
When attaching the ondulin to the crate, it is forbidden to stretch or squeeze the sheets, since over time this will lead to their deformation and leaks. In addition, the recommended overhangs should not be exceeded. Due to the short protrusions, moisture will enter the under-roof space, while too long visors will deform over time.
When determining the direction of laying, consider the wind load
When installing ondulin, they adhere to a certain fastening scheme for each sheet
Having finished with the laying of the last row, proceed to the installation of additional elements. The construction of the roof ends with the arrangement of places in which pipes and communications pass through the flooring.
For arranging the tops of the roof, special ridge elements with a size of 100x36 cm are used, which are produced using the same technology as the main coating. When installing them, they are guided by the following rules:
The ridge element is laid on a solid crate and attached to each wave
After installing the last panel, the gap between the ridge and ondulin is closed with a universal filler, and plugs are installed at the ends.
When arranging the ridges of the hip roof, it is necessary to leave allowances for ridge elements with a length of 20-25 cm on each side. After installation, the protruding edges are heated with a construction hairdryer, straightened and fixed to the crate.
When installing the gable element, the following scheme is followed:
The chip not only protects the edge of the roof from moisture, but also serves for additional fastening of the outer sheets
After the last forceps has been secured, its edge is trimmed flush with the ridge.
At the junction of adjacent slopes, an additional crate is constructed with a width of at least 25 cm from the center line. Installation of the valley is carried out in the direction from the lower overhang to the ridge, releasing the starting element at a distance of 5–7 cm from the edge of the crate.
Reinforced crate is used to fasten the end elements, otherwise the joint of adjacent slopes may suffer from snow load
As with the installation of other accessories, the overlap of adjacent panels should be at least 15 cm. The edges of the sheets are cut at a distance of 3-5 cm from the axis of the groove, after which they are fastened along all adjacent waves. In this case, nails must be driven in at least 3 cm from the edge of the valley elements.
The joints of the roof to the walls and other vertical elements are protected with a special covering apron. This additional element is a shortened sheet of ondulin with a flat wing located at right angles to the wavy surface. In addition, areas prone to leaks can be protected with Onduflesh self-adhesive tape, which provides reliable waterproofing.
Places of abutments to the walls are equipped with special sealing aprons
If ventilation pipes and other engineering communications pass through the roof, then special insertion elements are placed around them, which can be purchased simultaneously with the flooring sheets. In the absence of such an opportunity, you can use homemade aprons made of thick rubber or seal the joints with Onduflesh tape. In the case when a metal chimney passes through the roof, it is necessary to build a special pass-through box with thermal insulation or use a factory roof cut. For maximum protection against leaks, a non-combustible “Master-Flash” cuff is installed over the chimney.
In the places of passage of metal stove pipes, a special roofing cut is installed
It should not be forgotten that ondulin consists of half of bitumen. For this reason, it is forbidden to use metal pipes if the temperature of the exhaust gases exceeds 500 ° C, as well as if coal is used for firing the furnace. In any case, the chimney must be equipped with a spark arrester.
It should be noted that ondulin flooring is much less prone to condensation than soft roofing or metal roofing. Nevertheless, if the roof structure provides for the installation of insulation, then ventilation of the under-roof space is indispensable.
Ventilation of the roof space is carried out due to the counterbeam and gaps between the ridge and the deck
You can create a ventilation gap between the roofing material and the thermal insulation using a counter lattice, which is attached along the rafter legs. The cross-section of the counter-beam should be such as to provide a gap between the rarefied lathing and the waterproofing layer of at least 3-5 cm. As for the air outlet in the upper part of the slopes, it is provided by special ventilated profiles that are installed under the ridge elements.
Neglecting the technology and rules for laying ondulin, novice roofers often make the following mistakes:
Perhaps, having familiarized yourself with the most annoying blunders, you will not allow them in work and thus you can avoid troubles both during installation and during the subsequent operation of the roof.
As you can see, there is nothing difficult in covering the roof with ondulin. You just have to follow the technology provided by the manufacturer and listen to the advice of experienced craftsmen. Only in this case, one can hope not only for the absence of leaks and durability, but also that the roof will have a neat and attractive appearance. And this is also important, isn't it?
The roof is never eternal. Even if a lot of money has been spent on it, and it is very high quality. It is not a shame if the roof is covered with slate, which is outdated and rotten. But even in this case, it is not worth completely exposing the roof. You can simply put a new one on top of the old coating, without touching the frame, which can always come in handy. This option is less time consuming and requires less cost than in the case when the roof is completely removed. How to independently cover the roof of ondulin, we will consider in detail in this article.
For filing the eaves of the roof, we will prepare the base to which the metal profile will be attached.
Along the wall to the bottom of the beam we attach a board with a section of 100 × 30 mm, for leveling we use a level and a stretched cord.
In places where the board is uneven to the beam, you can slightly trim the surface of the beam by chiselling it with a chisel, and in places where there are gaps between the board and the beam, you can put plywood scraps or a thin board.
After making sure that the board fits evenly, we fix it rigidly using a screwdriver and wood screws 100 mm long
Then, using a level and a cord, we prepare the second board for fastening, the lower part of the eaves should be horizontal, check with a level. Stretching the cord along the end of the board, align the board.
We fix the board rigidly with screws
Preparing a wave metal profile for installation
We pre-cut the profile into strips of the desired size, you can cut the profile using a grinder. To protect the edge of the profile from corrosion, we use a plastic L-ku.
Putting the L-ku on the profile, we drill through holes with a diameter of 4 mm in it and the profile.
We fasten the L-ku to the profile with rivets.
We join the profile in order to fix the L-ku to the next strip of the profile.
We drill and fasten the L-ku of the next profile.
Thus, we prepare the required number of profiles.
We proceed to the installation of the side profile of the cornices, pre-drill holes in the metal wave profile.
We fasten the profile with a galvanized screw, it is recommended to use a galvanized screw, it is less susceptible to corrosion.
All fastenings with screws must be located in the inner wave of the profile.
Having finished with the installation of the side profile of the cornices, we begin to fix the lower profile of the soffits.
Also, having previously drilled through the metal, we fasten it with screws.
Having finished with the fastening of the profile, we proceed to the installation of the decorative metal corner. Before fixing the corner, we put wood or plywood lining after a certain distance (60-80cm) under the external wave of the metal profile for the future fastening of the brackets under the drain gutter.
The corner is made independently of galvanized sheet and painted with paint. The manufacturing method is described in the article "How to make corners for a metal profile with your own hands."
We fasten the corner with rivets to the outer wave of the metal profile. We drill holes for fixing the corner in the lower profile, then in the side one.
We do the joining of the cornices at the corners of the building by cutting the lower metal profile at an angle of 45 degrees, carefully close the joint with a plastic connecting profile.
We also close the ends of the eaves with a piece of metal profile.
There is no way to choose personal plots on your own. But for placing a bath, it is worth choosing the optimal place not according to the preference of the owners, but according to certain requirements and existing standards.
It is recommended to adhere to the following recommendations for choosing the location of the structure:
In addition, it is worth adhering to safety standards and placing the building no closer than 3 m from a residential building. You also need to build farm sheds further away - to retreat from them by 1 m.
The covering for the roof of the garage is made of a variety of roofing materials: roofing material, euro-slate, metal sheets. When choosing it, the general style of decoration of nearby buildings is taken into account. So, if the garage extension adjoins, or is part of the house, its covering is made of the same material as that of the main building.
Soft cover for wooden garage roof
Since the concrete slab does not allow water to pass through, the roof from it practically does not need additional coating.But, if a used slab is taken, or the concrete product has mechanical defects, additional protection will not be superfluous. In this case, the roof of the garage roof is made of soft materials: concrete is ground, one or more layers of euroruberoid are laid on top of the resin.
Installation is done hot or cold using a special burner or adhesive mastic, respectively. In both cases, the work requires accuracy, care and careful handling of the fire. Resin, bituminous mastic, and the roofing material itself are fire hazardous materials, so it is recommended to trust this work to experienced craftsmen.
The most rational type of roof for a small truss structure is inexpensive sheet material. Most often, parking spaces are covered with slate, metal tiles, corrugated board. The more expensive material for the roof of the garage roof is used to decorate the box in the same style as that of neighboring buildings, or to ensure the harmony of the surrounding exterior.
Garage roof covering - extensions, selected according to the main building
When using a sheet covering, a waterproofing layer must be installed under it. If the attic space requires insulation, then the roofing cake includes the following layers:
Hydro and vapor barrier is provided with special construction membranes. For thermal insulation, use building glass wool (if the room is not heated, i.e. not part of a residential building), or modern mineral insulation.
The production of this roofing material has been carried out since 1994. Then it was invented in France. In our country, he appeared relatively recently, but he has earned his popularity well deserved. The technology for the production of euro-slate, as we also call ondulin, is based on impregnation of compressed cellulose with bitumen. The sheets are made wavy, similar to the usual familiar slate.
Ondulin roof - practical, durable and aesthetically pleasing
The color of the sheets depends on the pigment added to the bitumen impregnation, as well as on its saturation. The surface of the sheets is treated with thermal resin and other mineral components. This provides moisture resistance and strength.
Ondulin sheets are available in a wide variety of colors
Ondulin, a photo of which can be found in various online stores, consists of several substances:
Helpful advice! Since bituminous components predominate in the composition of ondulin, when heated, it emits a persistent smell of oil products. For this reason, it is not recommended for use in childcare facilities and in places where the air circulates poorly.
Ondulin leaf composition - sectional view
The standard dimensions of the ondulin sheet do not differ much from the dimensions of the slate sheets and are:
Sizes and characteristics of sheets of ondulin from different manufacturers
The difference lies in the weight, which is significantly less, and the shallower wave height. It is the weight that is the main advantage over other roofing materials. After all, the details of the rafter system for an ondulin roof can be much thinner. Since this material can be conditionally attributed to the soft type of roof, its installation is very convenient. The sheets are fastened to the crate with nails with large caps. You can cut them with a regular hacksaw or circular saw. The dimensions of the ondulin allow it to be laid alone or together, which greatly reduces the cost of installation work. As disadvantages, we point out: the smell when heated and a low fire safety class.
Ondulin is attached using special nails with closing caps
The overlap must have sufficient strength to withstand loads, both from its own weight and useful (equipment, furniture, people in the building, etc.).
The parameters of the payload per square meter of overlap are established by building codes depending on the purpose of the premises and the characteristics of the equipment installed in them. For attic floors, the payload can be no more than 105 kg per square meter, for interfloor and basement structures - up to 210 kg per square meter.
The overlap should be rigid and not bend under the influence of loads. Values of deflections permissible according to the norms: from 1/200 span for attic structures and up to 1/250 for interfloor floors.
When installing the slabs, it is necessary to provide for a sufficient degree of sound insulation. Its value is regulated by building codes or special recommendations for the design of buildings for various purposes.
For this purpose, it is necessary to carefully close all the cracks at the joints of the material, so that the sound does not pass from the premises, which are located below or above.
If the ceilings separate rooms, the temperature difference in which is more than 10 degrees (for example, a structure between an unheated basement and the first floor or an attic and the first floor), then they must be well insulated. If necessary, it makes sense in this case to increase the layer of heat-insulating material. No type of floor, especially one made of wood, can withstand prolonged exposure to an open flame. But each of the building materials has its own fire resistance limit.