Daylily is called a lily for the lazy. And the Czech writer Karel Čapek, in love with gardening, dubbed the daylilies “the flowers of an intelligent lazy person”. Probably, the poet of gardening dealt with natural species of daylily, they are really very unpretentious.
But if you want to see something more prettier than the usual red and yellow daylilies in your garden, you will have to get to know the nature of this plant better!
Read more about growing daylilies below.
Daylily (Latin Hemerocallis), or krasodnev - herbaceous rhizomatous perennial of the subfamily Daylily family Asphodelovoe. Homeland - East Asia. Daylily is familiar to mankind since ancient times, but for the first time science spoke about it in 1753, when Karl Linnaeus gave him the name "hemerocallis", which consists of two Greek words: "hemera", which means "day, day", and "callos" which means "beauty". In Russian, the plant is called krasodnev, that is, beauty that lives only one day.
Not only the cultivated species and varieties of daylily are beautiful, but also the “savages” growing in nature. In addition, daylilies are so unpretentious that growers call them the plant of a lazy gardener, but this is only true for older varieties. In recent years, the daylily, thanks to American and Australian breeders, has been at the height of fashion: the new varieties, although more capricious than the previous ones, are so incredibly beautiful that it is not at all a pity for the time and effort spent on them.
The adventitious roots of the daylily are cord-like, usually fleshy, thick, and this helps the plants survive in drought. Leaves are basal, broadly linear, two-rowed, arcuate or straight. The flowers of the daylily are six-partite, large, most often funnel-shaped, orange, yellow, red-brown or yellow shades, collected in several pieces in inflorescences. Up to three flowers bloom at the same time, and the total duration of flowering of the daylily bush is more than three weeks. One or more leafy peduncles, depending on the species and variety, from 30 cm to 1 m in height, sometimes even higher. The fruit of the daylily is a triangular box with seeds. In horticulture, both natural plant species and numerous cultivars and forms are used.
In nature, in their natural habitats, daylilies grow among shrubs at the edges of forests, therefore, logically, it is best to grow it in partial shade, and this will be correct if partial shade is in Australia, Africa or the south of France. In our gardens, daylilies planted in partial shade may not have enough light and warmth for full flowering, especially when it comes to hybrid varieties. Only bright sunlight will make the daylily bloom unique.
In the photo: Growing daylilies in a flower bed
As for the soil for the daylily, although the plant is unpretentious and any garden soil will suit it, but if you want to get the most out of the daylily, it is better to adjust the soil in which you immerse the daylily root in accordance with its tastes: add sand to the clay soil and compost, in sandy - clay, enrich the sod-podzolic soil with compost.
The ideal soil composition is rich loam with good drainage. In terms of acidity, the soil should be neutral or slightly acidic.
If creating good drainage for the site is a problem, make raised ridges for the daylilies. For the rest, daylilies require attention, but do not cause trouble.
Daylilies in garden design are used both as single plants and as group plants. They look great against the background of trees and shrubs (viburnum, panicle hydrangea, bamboo). From dense bush varieties of daylily, very beautiful borders are obtained, and undersized, small-flowered species and varieties are very good near stone hills, on the banks of a reservoir or river. Daylilies are also used as a decoration for winter gardens; they stand for a long time in a cut in bouquets.
In the photo: Orange daylilies in the garden
Since by the end of summer many daylilies lose their decorative effect, think in advance in the composition with which plants to plant them, so that the yellowed, dying daylily leaves are not visible.
Designers advise using decorative cereals, physostegia, yarrow of different shades or spotted loosestrife.
Plants are planted from spring to autumn - planting time depends on your climate. If winter comes early and quickly in your area, it means that the daylily planted in the fall may not have time to take root before frost and will die, because on average a plant needs a month to take root. But if you choose garden forms with an early or medium flowering period, then even in latitudes far from the south, your daylilies may have time to prepare for wintering in the garden. Moreover, mulching the garden with wintering daylilies can protect them from cold and frost.
In the photo: How daylilies grow in a flower bed
From these considerations, proceed when deciding when to plant flowers. Florists believe that the best time to plant a daylily is in the middle lane in May or August. It is also better to divide and replant daylilies in spring or August.
Before planting a daylily, pre-purchased planting material should be soaked in water or highly diluted mineral fertilizer a few hours before planting in the ground so that the roots swell and come to life, and then you will immediately see which of the roots should be carefully removed. Cut the rest of the roots to a length of 20-30 cm.
In the photo: Young daylily
Dig a separate hole up to 30 cm deep for each bush or cut, and do not forget that you are planting a daylily for a long time, and the bush that has grown over time up to 50-70 cm in diameter should not be cramped. Pour a mixture of sand, peat and humus into each hole, add ash with superphosphate or potassium-phosphorus fertilizer, lower the roots into the hole, distribute them over a mound so that there are no voids under the roots, fill the hole with soil, but not completely.
Plant Heuchera - will look great next to
Then, holding the plant with one hand, squeeze the soil around it well, water abundantly, filling the hole with water to the brim (if the water is quickly absorbed, it means that you have poorly compacted the soil, so pour dry earth on top and compact it again), and only now pour soil to the edges of the hole. Very important, so that the root neck of the daylily is at a depth of no more than 2-3 cm, otherwise growth retardation and the risk of plant decay are likely. If you did everything correctly, then the moisture received during planting should be enough for the plant to root.
Daylilies grow in one place up to 15 years, but age affects the quality of flowering. As soon as you notice that your already middle-aged luxurious daylily has begun to lose its former beauty, the flowers on its peduncle have become smaller, and they themselves are smaller, it means that it's time to plant the bush. Dig in the bush along its outer border and carefully remove it along with the clod of earth, being careful not to damage the roots. Place the roots under a strong jet of water to wash away the soil, then gently fan them apart.
With a certain skill, you can do without knives or pruners, but if you still had to cut the roots somewhere, treat the wounded places with a fungicide.
Planting and replanting plants is best in cloudy weather, and if you had to wait for it, dig in the delenki and daylily bushes in the sand so that new roots do not grow immediately, and you may not remember them for two weeks. Before planting, shorten the roots by removing the rotten and dead ones, trim the leaves to 15-20 cm in the shape of an inverted "V" and plant the cut in the place that you defined for it in the way described above.
In the photo: Dense planting of daylilies
Daylilies are a lot of fun, but they require very little attention. For example, they do not need to be watered frequently. Watering is necessary for daylilies only during prolonged drought, but then you really need to pour water abundantly at the root in order to deeply saturate the soil with water, watering time is evening.
number top dressing depends on the quality of the soil in the garden, so decide for yourself how many times you have to fertilize the soil around the daylilies, which is better to underfeed than to overdo it with fertilizers, but two fertilizing are required.
And remember: after fertilizing, water the plants well.
Mulching of the soil is of particular importance. This is done so that the earth does not compact over the root collars. The center of the bush is mulched with coarse river sand with a layer of up to 3 cm. The soil between the bushes is mulched with peat or compost, if the soil is poor, if the planting is located on rich soils, then it is better to mulch with needles or tree bark. This is done in order to protect plants from temperature fluctuations, preserve moisture in the soil and prevent the appearance of weeds. The mulch layer should be 6-7 cm.
If for some reason you do not want to mulch the area with daylilies, do not forget to loosen the soil after watering, destroy weeds and remove wilted flowers.
In August, it's time to replant daylilies, while dividing the bushes. This is a vegetative way of reproduction of daylilies, which we have already discussed in detail. In addition to dividing the bush, the reproduction of daylilies occurs by seeds, but this species does not retain varietal characteristics, therefore it is used only by breeders to develop new varieties. There is another way to reproduce the daylily - without digging out the main bush, but it is only suitable for varieties that form loose bushes.
Planting and caring for dahlias - detailed information
At 3-4 years of age, the daylily is separated from the daughter outlet formed by it, which has already formed roots: a sharp shovel is placed vertically in the place of the intended cut and a part of the bush is separated by a sharp push of the foot, then the cut from the mother bush is cut from the bottom, taken out of the ground and transferred to transfer to another place. Cuts and damaged roots are treated with ash or crushed coal. This should be done in the spring, when the leaves are just beginning to grow, or in the fall after cutting the leaves from daylilies.
Daylilies rarely get sick and are affected by pests, however, problems sometimes arise. The most dangerous pests for daylilies are thrips, lily mosquitoes, water voles and slugs.
Thrips They penetrate into plants from the ground at a temperature of 10-12 ºC and begin their destructive life activity for plants: they suck out juice from leaves, stems and petals, from which the flowers are deformed even in the buds. If you find thrips, dig up the plant and destroy it along with them - burn it. As a preventive measure, treat the land around daylilies with insecticides in spring and autumn and do not leave plant debris, which may contain pests, in the beds for the winter.
Lily mosquito lays the larvae in the buds of plants, and the larvae, growing up, feed on flowers and deform them. But this is not a mass phenomenon, so it is enough to simply remove the damaged flowers.
In the photo: Large white daylily
Water voles love to feast on not only the roots of daylilies. The trouble is that once every three to four years there is a peak in the increase in the number of rodents, and then they eat the roots of young apple trees, bulbs of lilies and tulips, and the roots of daylilies. You cannot get rid of them, but you need to fight with the usual methods of fighting rodents.
Slugs you will have to collect it by hand or use the Thunderstorm preparation.
As for diseases, the daylily is most often sick with fusarium, rust and root rot.
Root rot manifests itself in the spring, when the already grown young leaves suddenly stop growing, turn yellow and are easily pulled out of the ground. You need to dig up the plant, cut out all areas affected by rot, rinse the rhizome in a pink solution of potassium permanganate, treat the wounds with a fungicide, dry the rhizome for two days and transplant to another place. Don't expect it to bloom for two years. In the area where the diseased plant grew, do not plant daylilies for at least a year.
In the photo: Daylily after the rain
Rust manifests itself in daylilies only if patrinia grows somewhere nearby - do not place them in the neighborhood, and you will not have trouble. For prevention, carefully treat daylilies with fungicides.
Fusarium - a known misfortune. Affected plants have a depressed appearance, the leaves turn yellow and die prematurely, the roots look like dust. The disease is fungal, destroyed at an early stage by fungicides. If the infection is in full force, the plant will have to be burned, the soil where it grew, and the neighboring plants need to be sprayed with Fundazol. As a preventive measure, sterilize garden tools, add Fitosporin-M to the irrigation water, loosen the topsoil after watering.
In the photo: Growing a daylily in the garden
According to one of the classifications, daylilies are divided into deciduous, or dormant, semi-evergreen and evergreen. Sleepers (Dormant) daylilies are distinguished by the fact that in the fall their leaves wither, die off, the plant goes into a state of dormancy until spring. Evergreen in our latitudes have only two to three weeks of rest. Semievergreen occupy an intermediate position: in warmer climates they behave like evergreens, in cool climates - like deciduous ones: the leaves turn yellow, but growth does not stop completely.
How to plant and care for irises - in detail
In deciduous daylilies, or dormant daylilies, it is better to cut the aerial part for the winter, but not very low, leave 15-20 cm above the surface. You don't need to cover them, since dormant daylilies are winter-hardy plants. However, in the eastern and northern regions of the country, in the event of a snowless winter, evergreen and semi-evergreen daylilies can freeze out, especially if the frost is -20 ºC and below. Therefore, for the winter, it is better to cover them, like newly transplanted bushes, with dry leaves, spruce branches, straw or sawdust, but do not forget to remove the shelter in early spring, as daylilies wake up very early.
All natural species of daylilies are beautiful, so they are readily used in floriculture, especially since they are very easy to care for and undemanding to growing conditions. In addition, they are resistant to diseases and pests, tolerate drought and waterlogging well, they are durable, finally. Popular species are yellow daylily, red daylily, Du Maurier daylily, lemon yellow daylily, Middendorf daylily. Let's talk a little about some:
In the photo: Daylily lemon yellow
In the photo: Daylily orange
Or daylily garden - the general name of numerous varieties of hybrid origin, of which there are already more than 60,000. color scale, which is difficult to say what color of the daylily is not in the culture. Hybrid daylily is the subject of a voluminous and structurally complex classification, in which plants are divided according to the length of the peduncle, the shape and size of the flower, the timing of flowering, color, the type of vegetation and many more features, and we will not delve into the presentation of this scientific work, created to a greater extent for scientists and specialists. We will introduce you to some interesting species and varieties of daylilies that will help you get an impression of this amazing and beautiful flower.
This is, simply put, a terry type of daylilies with additional perianth petals. All varieties are incredibly beautiful. For example:
In the photo: Daylily Double Dream
In the photo: Daylily Double Yellow
In the photo: Daylily Double Cutie
Cultivars with flowers in which segments are much longer than width and resemble spiders in shape:
They come in all colors, shapes and sizes. Daylilies are so beautiful that they might not have a scent at all, but growing a flower in your garden that combines beauty and a wonderful aroma is the dream of any grower:
In the photo: Daylily Ode to Faith
In the photo: Daylily Stella do Oro
It must be said that among the varieties and forms of daylilies there are many that can be conventionally called white. Here is some of them:
In the photo: White daylily
In the photo: White daylily
The fact is that absolutely white daylilies do not exist either in nature or in culture, so breeders have introduced the expression "near white", which means almost white, into everyday life. In fact, the petals of daylilies, called white, are very light shades of cream, melon, pink, lavender or yellow.
Currently, scientists are working towards increasing the doubleness and diameter of the flower, increasing the corrugation of the petals, and the daylily is such a promising material for breeders that many new beautiful varieties and forms can be expected in the very near future.
Sections: Garden plants Perennials Herbaceous Flowering Asphodelic Plants on L
The genus of daylilies has been popular with gardeners for several centuries.
From the original 15 species found in the East and Central Europe, thanks to breeding work, more than 35 thousand hybrids have been obtained.
No other plant can match it in the variety of shapes, colors, sizes and heights of flowers.
Individually, they are short-lived, but each plant produces multiple peduncles that give the impression of continuous flowering throughout the month. And if you plant several varieties with different blooming times, then they will delight with graceful flowers from May to August.
Caring for him is easy, and the daylily itself is hardy. Sometimes it seems that it grows by itself.
Daylilies have all sorts of shades: see the photo
red (for example, "Chicago Lights"),
purple ("Evening flight"),
burgundy ("Ninth Millennium"),
Variety Ninth Millennium (Ninth Millennium)
Pink Damask variety
almost white ("Arctic snow"),
variety Arctic snow (Arctic Snow)
Orchid Elegance variety
apricot ("Star Composition")
and other shades of flowers, while it is not at all necessary that they be monotonous.
Flowers can be simple and double ("Ninth Millennium"), gigantic and not so.
Which variety should you choose? This is already a matter of taste for each person individually, and there is plenty to choose from. Gardeners who planted their first daylily bush most often cannot stop and acquire new and new varieties.
Why not, daylily is an unpretentious culture, the care of which is easy, and at the same time decorative for almost the entire season. However, I would like to note right away that all new varieties need especially careful care and adherence to correct agricultural techniques.
Daylilies can be conditionally divided by the height of the bush:
dwarf (about 30 cm) - "Stella de Oro",
medium-sized (up to 80 cm) - "Bela Lugosi"
Bela Lugosi variety
and giants (from 80 cm and above).
According to the size of the bush, the size of the flower also varies. Low-growing varieties are covered with small flowers, and giant daylilies have huge flowers up to 35 cm in diameter.
An amazing feature is that the flower only lives for a day, and then dies off. But the bush constantly releases new and new flowers, so their fragility does not play a special role.
Daylilies, like most horticultural crops, differ in flowering times for
If the climatic conditions are harsh in a given region, or a shaded place is chosen for planting the bushes, then it makes sense to purchase the early varieties.
Late varieties are not suitable for all regions. It happens that it seems that all agricultural technology is followed, and watering is timely, but the daylily does not want to bloom. This may just be due to the late flowering period.
The bush in cold regions does not have time to lay dormant buds, which are responsible for the release of peduncles, before frost, and the next year it simply does not have the opportunity to bloom. Therefore, it is imperative to pay attention to the timing of its flowering when purchasing a seedling.
Daylily roots are starting to be sold in stores along with spring bulb flowers, so a specific variety can be purchased from March. The root is usually packed in a plastic bag with holes so that it does not rot, and with the addition of wet sawdust, which allows it not to dry out until planting.
Of course, it is better to purchase the plant closer to the date of planting, but if it seems that the selected variety may soon disappear from store shelves, then the root in the package should be stored until planting in a cool, dark, ventilated place, for example, under the bed or on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator.
Now about how to choose healthy planting material. The root must be carefully considered before purchasing.
The time for planting a plant in open ground is mid or late May, when the ground will finally thaw out after winter and warm up enough. If the planting material was purchased with a closed root system, i.e. with a clod of earth, then you can plant throughout the season.
Planting a daylily is not a time consuming operation. There is only one principle - the root is soaked in settled water until it swells for several hours. Anything that remains dry must be carefully trimmed.
The planting pit is shallow, about 25 cm. Inside, you need to mix the earth with peat and humus, add wood ash and mineral fertilizers, sprinkle with earth on top and spill.
In the first year of planting, do not feed the daylily.
BUT you can choose any place for landing: daylilies take root even in the shade, they will just bloom half a month later. Some varieties prefer slightly shaded places, the bright sun can be destructive for them. Also, when planning and choosing a planting site for a daylily, the future diameter of an adult bush should be taken into account - they grow up to 70 cm wide.
As for care, daylilies do not need frequent watering, however, they should be abundant and under the bush (so that brown spots do not appear on the leaves).
Under favorable climatic conditions and regular watering (2 times a week), the daylily can bloom twice in one season.
It is generally better not to get carried away with top dressing, especially in spring: a high content of nitrogenous substances will have a bad effect on flowering, since the bush will gain green mass, and there will be few flowers themselves.
The best time to feed is after flowering.... Just at this moment, buds begin to form, giving flowers for the next year. In such feeding, a high potassium content is important, therefore, it is necessary to pay attention to the composition of the fertilizer.
Usually, complex minerals are used with a ratio of parts of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) in a ratio of 5: 5: 12, respectively.
Preparation for winter depends on the specific variety. If it is old, i.e. the flower is simple, monochromatic, the daylily will calmly overwinter without any shelter.
If the variety is new, then it is better to cover the plant with sawdust, peat or spruce branches. However, in the spring, it is imperative to remove the shelter so that it does not interfere with the ground warming up in a timely manner.
In mid-June, you can again mulch the ground to create a well-groomed appearance and protect against drying out of the soil. Mulching also helps against the appearance of weeds, but in the case of the daylily, this moment is not so important.
The bushes grow densely and do not allow any grass to settle in their zone. It is best to use an air-permeable material as the mulch, rather than a film.
Pruning bushes can be done both in the spring and in the fall. It is necessary to prevent rot.
Recommended timing of pruning daylily:
When pruning, it is important to have a clean pruning shears treated with alcohol after each use. This condition must be observed, since all diseased parts of the plants are usually cut off with this tool, and in order not to spread the infection throughout the site, and daylilies in particular, you should not forget to wipe it.
If there is a desire to multiply a specific variety on the site or just share it with your friends, then this is not difficult. There are no specific terms for dividing, you can do this before flowering or after.
If the breeding process is carried out in the spring, then the newly-made seedling will have time to bloom this year. If divided in the fall, then flowering will fall on the next season.
Below is the sequence for dividing the daylily uterine bush.
As you can see, the breeding process is very easy and straightforward. The daylily bush itself can sit in one place for more than 10 years, but over time it grows old, flowering, of course, is no longer as abundant as in young bushes, so it is recommended to plant daylilies every 5 to 6 years.
Like every plant on the site, the daylily has its own pests and a set of possible diseases.
The pests that can attack the bush include the daylily mosquito (gall midge). He lays his larvae in a flower bud, they begin to devour him, which has a very adverse effect on the appearance of the plant.
However, the bush produces so many flowers that the affected ones constitute a very small part. Therefore, they can simply be torn off with your hands and burned.
Such common pests as aphids, spider mites, thrips can also spoil the bush, they must be dealt with by spraying the plants with Fitoverma solution.
You should forget about the underground daylily eaters, which cause irreparable harm to the roots and root collars - about nematodes and bears. To remove them, you need to buy a special powder and pour it into the ground.
In general, pests are very closely related to the spread of plant diseases, because it is they who carry viruses and fungal spores from one bush to another. Therefore, the fight against them is very important.
And the main disease that is detrimental to the bush can be rot of the root collar, caused by improper planting or excessive watering.
If there is still hope to save the bush, then it should be:
In addition to this rot, spots and stripes may appear on the leaves and stems, which may indicate fungal or viral infections.
In order to avoid all this and not ask the question “What is happening to my daylily?”, It is better sometimes to make preventive spraying of them with solutions of fungicides.
In case of viral diseases, you should also use special means of struggle.
Based on the foregoing, it can be argued that it is worth planting at least one daylily on the site, and with proper care, it will delight its owner with constant abundant flowering. Even a “teapot” gardener will be able to grow some of the old well-known varieties without making any special efforts to grow it.
The most common breeding method for these flowers is by dividing the bush. You need to choose a culture that is at least 5 years old. Before division, the bush is watered abundantly, carefully removed from the ground, divided into several parts, very long roots are shortened and the divisions are planted in new areas. Each seedling must have full, healthy roots. This method of reproduction is also a procedure for rejuvenating daylilies. After such a planting, flowering occurs more magnificently, the number and size of flowers increases significantly.
In August it is time to replant the daylilies while dividing the bushes. This is a vegetative way of reproduction of daylilies, which we have already discussed in detail. In addition to dividing the bush, the reproduction of daylilies occurs by seeds, but this species does not retain varietal characteristics, therefore it is used only by breeders to develop new varieties. There is another way to reproduce the daylily - without digging up the main bush, but it is only suitable for varieties that form loose bushes. At 3-4 years of age, the daylily is separated from the daughter outlet formed by it, which has already formed roots: a sharp shovel is placed vertically in the place of the intended cut and a part of the bush is separated by a sharp push of the foot, then the cut from the mother bush is cut from the bottom, taken out of the ground and transferred to transfer to another place. Cuts and damaged roots are treated with ash or crushed coal. This should be done in the spring, when the leaves are just beginning to grow, or in the fall after cutting the leaves from the daylilies.
Daylily is a highly decorative and unpretentious plant. It is able to thank the grower for good care with long and lush flowering.
Regular care of the plants after planting consists of watering, loosening the soil and removing weeds.
In the warm season, actively growing and flowering perennials require a lot of water. If daylilies are thirsty, this can be seen by faded foliage, refusal to form, or dropping buds. Perennials respond excellently to additional humidification in summer. Therefore, daylilies can be planted near water bodies or use very shallow sprinkling.
The best time to water daylilies is early morning or evening, when there is no risk of sunburn on the flowers.
With proper planting and care, the flowers of daylilies, as in the photo, appear in the same summer. In the first year, the plants are not additionally fed. The introduction of complex fertilizers for flowering ornamental crops begins next spring. When choosing a product, it is better to give preference to formulations with a moderate nitrogen content, causing foliage to proliferate to the detriment of flowering. During the summer, perennials are fed twice, and closer to autumn, the plants receive potassium-phosphorus fertilizers for better preparation for winter.
Plants are hardy, but can suffer when there is too little snow on the site. Therefore, in snowless winters, it is better to cover daylilies with spruce branches, needles, straw and other materials at hand. As soon as the massive melting of the snow begins, the daylilies are released, otherwise pret develops on the root collars of the plants.