Felt cherry Ando - varieties and agricultural technology


Ando cherry: fruitful and tasty, suitable for hedges and curbs

In early May, on many household plots, you can admire the light pink clouds of blooming felt cherry; in July, juicy fruits light up on these bushes against the background of emerald corrugated green leaves with bright rubies.

They are similar in appearance to common cherries, but genetically these cherries are very distant relatives. By its nature and biological characteristics, felt cherry is closer to plums and crosses with plum, peach, cherry plum and apricot, and is incompatible with “real” cherries - common and steppe cherries. It is distinguished into a special genus - micro cherries.


Felt cherry (Prunus Tomentosa) originates from Central China, which is why it is also called Chinese. From there, the culture moved to Korea, Japan, North America, and at the end of the 19th century reached the Far East. There, until now, the concept of cherry is associated with felt cherry, and mostly unvaccinated seedlings grow in the gardens. The felt cherry owes its appearance in the European part of our country to I.V. Michurin, who bred a large-fruited form and described it under the name Ando. Felt cherry was named because of the pubescence, which resembles felt, which covers the shoots, leaves and even fruits.

The virtues of culture and agricultural technology

This shrub with a spreading crown has a lot of advantages: unusually high frost resistance, stable productivity, early fruiting. Ripe fruits, ripening a week or one and a half earlier than ordinary cherries, are convenient to pick (the maximum plant height is 2.5-3 m), they practically do not crumble.

Unfortunately, in years with many snows with a cold, lingering spring, felt cherry often suffers from underpinning of the trunk. Some varieties lose juice when removed, poorly transported.

Cherries are suitable for creating hedges, curbs, strengthening the slopes, you can plant it in rows (after 1.5 m in a row and 3 m in the aisle). Since it is self-fertile, that is, it is not capable of self-pollination, several varieties are placed nearby. The best time to plant is early spring, before bud break. You can plant cherries in autumn - in September, but seedlings purchased in mid - late October are better to dig in until spring.

Soils for felt cherries are preferred light loamy, sandy loam... Heavy waterlogged soils and peat bogs are not suitable for it. The landing site is sunny, elevated, without stagnation of spring waters.

Fertilize the bushes after flowering, adding 5-7 kg along the edges of the trunks organic fertilizers, 20 g of potash, 30 g of nitrogen, 70 g of phosphorus fertilizers. Once every five years, the soil is limed.

The center of the crown is annually thinned out, preventing thickening, and 10-12 strong shoots are left.

Bears fruit felt cherry abundantly, usually already in the third year, and annually, for 15-18 years. With proper planting and proper care, yields can be up to 4 kg per plant. Fruits, ripening almost at the same time, densely stick to the branches, which looks very beautiful, but such an abundance makes picking difficult. The berries are juicy, aromatic, sweet, weighing up to 4 g with a color from light pink to dark red.

Ripe fruits are best eaten immediately, since they are poorly stored. For processing or transportation, cherries are harvested before they are fully ripe, as soon as they reach their maximum size and are almost completely colored.

To protect against hares and mice, which can completely destroy the landings, poisoned baits are laid out, the trunks are covered with a net at the base.

Felt cherry in our conditions has long been considered a crop that is practically not affected by diseases and pests, but recently there has been an outbreak of a dangerous mushroom disease - monilial burn: first flowers, leaves wither, then the whole branch. After two to three years, the entire plant may die. To combat the disease, use a 0.1% solution of foundationol (10 g per bucket of water). Spray during flowering. If the weather is wet and cool, the operation is repeated at the end of flowering. Affected shoots are removed, it is advisable to cut them off completely, without leaving "hemp", which then dry out and can, breaking off, further damage the shoot. The place of the cut must be isolated with a garden pitch.

In gardens located in lowlands, in places where a lot of snow accumulates in winter, with frequent thaws in winter, plants often suffer from damage to the bark of the lower part of the stems - the so-called "damping out of the root collar". The defeat is possible with separate foci or a solid ring. In the spring, the cherry begins to bloom normally, but then it gets sick and dries up.

Reproduction of felt cherries

The main way of reproduction of a species (but not varieties!) Is simple sowing of seeds. The seeds are collected, washed and slightly dried in the shade. At the end of August, the seeds are mixed with wet sand and stored in a cool room until October, and then sown on the garden bed in grooves 2-3 cm deep. In spring, friendly shoots appear. With good care, seedlings grow quickly and already in the first year of life reach a height of 40-50 cm. In the fall or spring of next year, they must be planted.

Propagation by green cuttings allows you to obtain varietal planting material, but this method is applicable when there is a greenhouse equipped with a fogging installation.

Reproduction by grafting is carried out during the period of active sap flow, which can be established by simply cutting off the shoot. Inoculation is done either by budding with a bud, or by copulating with a cuttings on a stock - thorny plum, cherry plum or Vladimirskaya variety.

Felt cherry varieties

The first varieties were created by scientists from the Far Eastern Research Institute of Agriculture: Pionerka, Ogonyok, Khabarovsk, Amurka, Leto. As a result of crossing sand cherries and felt cherries, new wonderful varieties were obtained: Alice, Delight, Vostochnaya, Detskaya, Krasavitsa, Okeanskaya virovskaya, Skazka, Smuglyanka, Tsarevna.

It is worth noting that the bulk of dry matter in fruits is carbohydrates, sugars contain from 6 to 16% (with the advantage of glucose over fructose). By the amount of iron, cherries are superior to apples.

The positive properties of P-active substances are anti-radiation, tonic, capillary-strengthening and antihypertensive action; vitamins C, B9, IN2 prevent anemia, oxycoumarins - the formation of blood clots.

Fresh felt cherries are used, suitable for making juices, compotes, wine, they make delicious jams, preserves, preserves, marshmallows.

Nikolay Khromov, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences, Researcher, Department of Berry Crops, GNU VNIIS im. I.V. Michurina, member of the R&D Academy

Other materials about felted cherry:
Vladimir Starostin. Felt cherry
G. Alexandrova. Features of growing felt cherries
V. Stepanychev. Growing felt cherries


Felt cherry - cultivation technique in the Moscow region

Summer residents are very fond of planting cherries on their plots. This tree grows quickly, beautifully both in flowering and fruiting. And its fruits are perfect for homemade preparations. Let's remember, at least, compote or cherry jam. But the trouble is, the common cherry suffers greatly from such a disease as coccomycosis. Cherry orchards die very quickly from it. But the felt cherry is not susceptible to coccomycosis, the cultivation technique of which is suitable for the Moscow region.

What is felt cherry?

She was brought to us from the Primorsky Territory. It got its name from the delicate felt cannon that covers the shoots and leaves of the fruit bush. Abundant flowering of felt cherry begins in mid-May. Its pedicels are very short and therefore the branches seem to be strewn with flowers for years. The berries are mostly red, less often burgundy, carmine or pink. Ripen almost all of July. The pulp is tender and juicy.

The disadvantage of felted cherries is the so-called wet tear-off when harvesting. This significantly spoils the appearance of the harvested fruits. With good care, you can get up to 290 kg of berries from one bush. Felt, unlike common cherry, bears fruit annually.

Agrotechnology of growing felt cherries in the Moscow region is simple. The main thing is that it is resistant to coccomycosis. Its bushes are very light-requiring, so choose open places for planting. In the shade, the branches of the felted cherry will stretch strongly and fruiting will deteriorate.

The plant does not tolerate peat and clay soils poorly. Cultivated sandy loam and light loamy ones are better suited to him. Be careful with loosening in the root zone. The roots of the plant are superficial and are located in the upper soil layer, no deeper than 35 cm.

It is necessary to plant several seedlings of felt cherries at once, since it is self-fertile. It does not interbreed with ordinary cherries, but with plums and cherry plums it can quite. True, in this case, too few fruits are tied. Felt cherry varieties are very popular sand-toment with a dark color. It is obtained by crossing with a sand cherry. A variety was obtained from her Damanka almost black fruit.

Felt cherry flowers tolerate frosts down to -3 ° and are an excellent honey plant. The bushes can withstand severe frosts, but their cambium and the core of perennial branches can freeze. Frozen in early spring should be removed.

The popularity of felt cherries is growing not only in the Moscow region. Breeders are working towards making varieties with firm flesh to reduce the wet take-off mentioned here. These include varieties Natalie, Delight, White (early ripening), Oriental, Alice, Princess, Jubilee, Darkie (average ripening period), Damanka, Oceanic, Triana, Beauty (late ripening). By selecting varieties of felt cherries according to the ripening period, you can extend the collection of fresh and tasty berries.

The main breeding method for felt cherries in the Moscow region is green cuttings. It is better to use plum or apricot seedlings as a rootstock, grafting above the snow cover so that the cuttings do not undermine.


Reproduction methods

In summer cottages, felt cherries are propagated in several ways:

  • seeds
  • cuttings
  • layering.

Let's dwell on each type in more detail.

Seeds

The easiest option to breed felt cherries in your own summer cottage is to plant seeds in open ground. For this, juicy berries are taken from the most productive bushes and the seeds are separated. Sowing is done in mid-autumn or spring. When planting in spring, the seeds require preliminary stratification at a temperature of 3-5 ° C.

Breeding felt cherries with homemade seeds allows you to preserve all the characteristics of the mother plant and get rich yields with excellent taste of berries.

Cuttings

Felt cherries can also be propagated by cuttings. For this, the middle part of annual green twigs is used. The cuttings are placed in a nutrient solution that stimulates the formation of the root system for a day, and then planted in open ground. Within a month after planting, they take root and grow.

Layers

Very rarely, felt cherries are propagated by horizontal layers. For this, the lower healthy branch is carefully bent and sprinkled with earth. When strong roots appear, the branch is separated from the mother bush, and the plant is transplanted to a permanent place.


Felt cherry Ando - varieties and agricultural technology - garden and vegetable garden

Due to the presence of sugars, organic acids and other biological substances, cherries are widely used in nutrition. It is rich in vitamins C, P and group B, iron, which prevents the development of anemia. Cherry fruit reduce blood clotting and prevent blood clots from forming. Cherry pectin substances promote metabolism, remove heavy metals such as lead and mercury from the body.

Fruits are essential in nutritional therapy for hypertensive patients. A decoction of the peduncles lowers blood pressure and is used for heavy menstrual bleeding. The antiseptic properties of cherry syrup and jam relieve stomatitis pain.

Among stone fruits cherry takes the leading place. It is hardy and drought resistant. Easily propagated by root shoots. Cherries can produce a rich harvest every year if the temperature during flowering contributes to this. Unfortunately, frequent frosts during this period sharply weaken fruiting or completely exclude it. It grows on a variety of soils, but preferably loose. Poorly tolerates waterlogging.

Cherry has a lifespan of up to 25 years. During this period, the plant goes through the stages of growth, fruiting and aging. By the age of ten, the cherry reaches the stage of full fruiting. Further, the yield begins to fall, the gains gradually decrease, and then completely disappear. Trees should be replaced with young ones.

The best planting material in our conditions is self-fertile winter-hardy varieties. It is better to plant cherries in spring. Autumn seedlings develop poorly, often die from severe frosts.

A pit for planting cherry seedlings (60x60x60 cm) is dug out in advance, one or two decades before, so that the soil can be saturated with air. Before planting, two buckets of humus (but not fresh manure), a glass of phosphorus fertilizers and a third of a glass of potash fertilizers are introduced into it. Nitrogen should not be added. Fertilizers are mixed with the topsoil and spread evenly in the pit. A stake is hammered in the center, a small mound is poured from the top layer of soil without fertilizers and a seedling is planted on it, while straightening the roots. Before planting, the roots are examined, damaged, the diseased are removed, very long are shortened. If the roots are allowed to dry, they are immersed in water for several hours, then dipped in a mash made of clay and mullein and planted. Plantings are watered abundantly with water.

Cherry needs pruning more than other fruit trees. Pruning is carried out in early spring - in March. The branches are cut into a ring, without hemp. When forming a crown, ten to twelve are left in a bush cherry, and eight to nine skeletal branches in a tree branch on the central conductor. In the future, it is necessary to monitor their uniform development, preventing thickening. If the trees are bare, rejuvenating pruning is carried out.

Pruning fruiting bush cherries has some peculiarities. One should not shorten annual growths on it, which will preserve the fruit buds in the upper part of the growth. When exposing the branches, pruning is necessary to stimulate growth. Old skeletal branches are subject to pruning. Complete removal of large skeletal branches is undesirable; it is better to prune to lateral branches. Such pruning will contribute to the awakening of dormant buds on perennial wood, the formation of tops, which in two to three years will replace the dying old part of the crown.

A very important point is tree care. Deficiency of nitrogen in the soil, insufficient watering inhibit vegetative growth. Cherry also suffers from illiterate digging. Its horizontal roots are located close to the surface, so it is necessary to dig up the near-trunk circles to a minimum depth of 3-5 cm. Cherry trees should be planted in groups, this contributes to better inter-pollination. If there are no conditions for this, it is necessary to plant two or three pollinator cuttings on the tree. The best varieties of cherries for this are Nadyadnaya, Zolotaya Loshitskaya or Vladimirskaya, Lyubskaya cherries.

Cherries reproduce more often by shoots, which must be taken at some distance from the trunk.Own-rooted trees, which give good yields, have little overgrowth, so they are propagated by root cuttings. In April, they dig up the root, stepping back from the stem by a meter and a half, divide it into cuttings of 10 cm each, plant it in the beds and feed it with urea and mullein.

Coccomycosis (leaf spot) is very dangerous for cherries, which not only reduces, and sometimes completely destroys the crop, but also leads to premature leaf fall and drying of trees. It affects cherries, plums, and cherry plums (leaves, petioles, stalks). The fungus hibernates in fallen leaves, and during the cherry blossom period, it is initially infected with spores (massive - at the end of flowering). In early July, the leaves are covered with small reddish spots. On their underside, a whitish-pink bloom appears on the spots - the conidia of the fungus, which settle during the summer. Fighting it is the main task of the gardener. For this purpose, fallen diseased leaves must be collected and burned. Trees are sprayed with 1% Bordeaux liquid immediately after flowering, again - after two weeks, the third time - after harvest. Before the leaves fall, the trees are treated with a 4% urea solution.


Felt cherry Ando - varieties and agricultural technology - garden and vegetable garden

Lyubskaya. Distributed in almost all cherry-growing countries. The trees are small, up to 3 m in height, with a rounded or spreading crown and drooping branches. The yield is high, annual. Refers to bush cherries.

Fruits are large, up to 5 g, heart-shaped, slightly compressed from the sides. The skin is shiny, dense, dark red. The pulp is dark red, with colored juice, juicy, sour. The fruits are suitable for fresh use and are universal for all types of processing.

The variety is self-fertile, but it is strongly affected by coccomycosis. It is zoned in all regions of Belarus and is the main industrial grade.

Novodvorskaya. Bred at BelNIIKPO by E. P. Syubarova by sowing seeds from free pollination of the cherry variety Seedling No. 1. A tree of medium growth vigor, with a wide and dense crown. Winter hardiness of trees is good. The leaves are affected by coccomycosis.

Fruits weighing 4-5 g, oval. The skin is shiny, dark red, almost black. The pulp is dense, with strongly colored juice, sweet and sour taste. The stone is small, lagging behind the pulp. The fruits ripen in the second half of July, for universal use.

The variety is partially self-fertile, but the highest yields are obtained when planted together with the best pollinators: Griot Ostgeimsky, Vladimirskaya, Local sour cherry. The variety is zoned throughout the republic.

Seedling No. 1. Bred at BelNIIKPO by E. P. Syubarova by selection of seedlings from free pollination of Local sour cherry. A typical representative of the Amorel group. The tree is vigorous, with a round, compact crown.

Fruits are medium-sized, up to 3 g, flat-round, light red. The pulp is light yellow, juicy, sweet and sour, with colorless juice. The bone is small, free. Ripen in the second half of June. The fruits are used fresh.

Winter hardiness of trees and flower buds is high. The variety is resistant to coccomycosis, self-fertile, bears fruit well even in single-variety plantations. Since 1954 it has been zoned throughout the republic as an early dessert variety.

Early pink, Cupid, Ogonek, Darkie - varieties of felt cherries. They grow well in Belarus. They are small compact bushes. Fruits ranging in size from 3.5 to 1.5 g, on a very short stalk, pleasant sour-sweet taste. They ripen in July and are mainly used for dessert. Recommended for home gardening.

The cherry is beautiful at the time of flowering. It is also beautiful by autumn, when it is densely sprinkled with bright fruits.

But it's not just beauty. Cherry fruits contain sugar, pectin, organic acids (mainly malic and citric), tannins, vitamins C, B, PP, carotene, folic acid, minerals: potassium, iron, magnesium, especially copper in cherries, anticoagulants, which have a destructive effect on blood clots in blood vessels.

Cherries grow on the plots of many amateur gardeners, but not all of them bear fruit every year. This culture is very demanding. Successful cultivation of it depends on the correct choice of a place for planting, selection of varieties, careful care. Mistakes made when planting cherry trees not only reduce the yield, but also lead to premature death of the trees.

- First of all - brief information about the varieties.

Variety Vladimirskaya. Harvest from one tree - 5 - 6 kg. Ripening period is average, fruit weight 2.5 g. Good winter hardiness.

The variety is Lyubskaya. Harvest - 10 - 12 kg. Ripening later. Fruit weight 3.5 g. Average winter hardiness.

Moscow Griot variety. Harvest - 6-8 kg. Early ripening. Fruit weight 3.0 g. Average winter hardiness.

Zagorievskaya variety. Harvest - 6 - 8 kg. Ripening period is average. Fruit weight 4.0 g. Average winter hardiness.

The variety is youth. Harvest - 8 - 10 kg. Ripening period is average. Fruit weight 4.5 g. Good winter hardiness.

Prima variety. Harvest - 10-14 kg. Ripening later. Fruit weight 3.5 g. Average winter hardiness.

Turgenevka variety. Harvest - 8 - 10 kg. Ripening is average. Fruit weight 4.5 g. Average winter hardiness.

Variety Zhukovskaya. Harvest - 4 - 6 kg. Ripening is average. Fruit weight 3.2 g. Average winter hardiness.

Rososhanskaya black variety. Harvest - 6 - 8 kg. Ripening is average. Fruit weight 3.5 g. Average winter hardiness.

The consumer goods grade is black. Harvest - 4-5 kg. Ripening is average. Fruit weight 4.0 g. Low winter hardiness.

All proposed varieties grow well and bear fruit in the middle lane. The main varieties are Vladimirskaya and Lyubskaya. They complement each other well. Cherry Vladimirskaya - medium ripening, Lyubskaya - late. Vladimirskaya surpasses Lyubskaya in terms of the winter hardiness of the crown, the taste of fruits, but inferior to it in terms of the winter hardiness of fruit buds, yield and size of the fruit. Varieties Turgenevka and Prima are highly resistant to a dangerous disease - coccomycosis. Molodezhnaya attracts with its short stature, Zhukovskaya and Consumer goods black - with the dessert taste of fruits.

Most cherry varieties give high yields only when inter-pollinated varieties are planted. Varieties Lyubskaya, Zagoryevskaya, Molodezhnaya are self-fertile. They can grow and set fruit without pollinators, even in cool rainy weather. However, with cross-pollination, the yield is higher.

I will list the best pollinators by varieties: Vladimirskaya - Griot Moscow, Shubinka, Lyubskaya Lyubskaya - Vladimirskaya, Shubinka, Lyubskaya Griot Moscow - Vladimirskaya, Polevka Zagorievskaya

Vladimirskaya, Shubinka, Lyubskaya Zhukovskaya Griot Moscow, Vladimirskaya, Shubinka Consumer goods black —Griot Moscow, Vladimirskaya, Shubinka Molodezhnaya —Vladimirskaya, Shubinka, Lyubskaya Rososhanskaya black —Vladimirskaya, Consumer goods black, Zhukovskaya Prima —Vladimirskaya, Shubinka, Vladimirskaya Turgenevka Consumer goods are black.

By the nature of growth and type of fruiting, cherry varieties are divided into two groups - bushy and tree-like. Bushy varieties (Vladimirskaya, Lyubskaya, Molodezhnaya) bear fruit on annual growths - shoots of the previous year. On very strong growths (40 - 50 cm and more), only growth buds are usually laid. With a weak growth (up to 20 cm), all the buds, except for one apical, are fruiting, therefore, after fruiting, the branches are bare. Growths of medium length (25 - 40 cm) are most valuable, since both growth and fruit buds appear on them.

In tree cherries (Zhukovskaya), the fruits are scattered on bouquet branches - short shoots (1-3 cm) with a bouquet of fruit buds and one growth bud. Bouquet branches develop from lateral growth buds. During the season, these branches form a short growth, on which fruit and growth buds are formed again. Bouquet twigs bear fruit 2 - 4 years


Felt cherry Ando - varieties and agricultural technology - garden and vegetable garden


Felt cherry.

Felt cherry grown recently. Delivered to us felt cherry from the Far East.

Drought-resistant and cold-resistant culture. It grows in the form of a compact pyramidal bush with a height of 1.5 to 3 m. Annual shoots are light green, leaves are small, oval, strongly corrugated, tomentose on the underside, for which the plant got its name. Blooms in early May. Flowers appear on trees earlier than leaves. Therefore, they are very sensitive to frost. Even at -2. -3 0 C flowers can be damaged and berries will not be. To prevent this from happening, in winter it is necessary to periodically trample the snow under the trees, and in the spring to mulch (cover) them with straw cutting, leaves, sawdust. This will delay the thawing of the soil and slow down the activity of the roots. As a result, the plants will bloom 8-10 days later. Felt cherry is propagated by sowing seeds in the ground in the fall. If this operation is postponed to spring, then during the winter the bones are stratified - they are kept in wet sand at a temperature of +1. + 5 ° C. The seedlings retain all the qualities of the mother plant and adapt better to the growing conditions than the imported seedlings. Felted cherry does not like waterlogged lowlands. At the summer cottage, the areas most illuminated by the sun are allocated for it. On clayey viscous soils, sand is added to a hole in the ground and humus at the rate of one part to sand for 2-3 parts of soil with humus. Care - as for an ordinary cherry. Common varieties felted cherry : Ogonyok, Amurka, Khabarovsk.


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