Linden is the most widespread naturally occurring in the Northern Hemisphere. Such a tree is one of the most valuable, because it provides medicinal raw materials, wood, and is also an excellent flower stalk.
The genus Linden (Tília) is represented by both trees and shrubs. It unites approximately 45 species. In the modern classification, this genus is part of the Malvaceae family. Some representatives of the Lipa genus can live for about 500 years. Interestingly, for the first time, a tree begins to bloom only in the twentieth year of growth.
The shape of the leaf plates can be quite varied, namely: heart-shaped, oblique-oval or obliquely heart-shaped. They have a serrated edge, while their venation has an arcuate shape. During the opening of the buds, stipules are formed at the base of the leaf plates, which fly around quite early. Often there is a nectary at the base of the leaves. In the warm season, the leaf plates are painted in a dark green or green hue, while in the autumn months the color changes to a beautiful golden yellow.
The umbrella-shaped inflorescence has grown together with the bracts. Creamy or golden yellow flowers have a pronounced slightly sweet aroma, which is very attractive to both bees and other pollinators. Their corollas are five-membered. Each flower has a variety of stamens, which are collected in five bunches.
Linden blossom time is influenced not only by weather conditions and region, but also by the type of tree. Flowering can begin in June or July and last for about 15 days. When the flower is pollinated, a five-nested ovary is formed in its place, with 2 ovules in each of the stars.
Such a plant is classified as deciduous. The tree is distinguished by a powerful deep-lying root system. Typically, life expectancy is directly related to the type of plant, however, on average, it can live from 500 to 600 years. But there are trees whose age reaches about 1 thousand years. In such a long-liver, the height of the trunk can reach 40 meters, and its diameter - up to 5 meters. The shape of the lush crown can be pyramidal, round or ovoid.
Young trees are covered with smooth bark, which can be olive or brown. While the branch is young, it is almost red in color. In an adult linden, the bark becomes darker and thicker, while it is covered with deep cracks.
Linden Beauty, benefit and functionality
Such a tree has become widespread in culture, it can often be found in squares, parks, as well as along alleys and boulevards. Linden is also quite widespread in natural conditions. Different types of linden are found in almost every European country, up to the northernmost ones - Finland and Norway. On the territory of Russia, this plant is most often found in the Caucasus and in the Arkhangelsk region.
Only linden among all broad-leaved species is simultaneously distributed in the wild in the Far East, beyond the Urals and in the middle lane. In the east of North America, only 1 species is found - the American linden (Tilia americana). Linden prefers to grow in areas with nutritious soil in regions with a relatively warm and mild climate, while it is important that a large amount of precipitation (at least 500 mm) falls in the area every year.
Below will be described those species and varieties of linden, which are most widespread both in natural conditions and in parks and gardens.
This hybrid is also called heart-leaved, or European (Tilia europaea). It was bred using cross-pollination, with 2 species of linden taken: large-leaved and small-leaved. Unlike other species and varieties of linden, the flowering of such a plant begins very early, namely: at the end of May (less often in the first days of June).
This hybrid holds the record for life expectancy among lindens, it can live for about 1250 years. The yellow inflorescences contain from 3 to 8 buds. The length of the dark green smooth sheet plate can be up to 90 mm. This linden tree grows best in a well-lit area with neutral soil.
Such decorative varieties as grape-leaved and split-leaved are especially popular in culture. It is characterized by increased resistance to frost and drought, and the tree also grows well in an urban environment with a strong air pollution.
This type is most widespread in the European part of the continent. It is quite common in nature in the Crimea, the Urals, the Caucasus and Western Siberia. The species is also called the winter linden (Tilia cordata Mill).
The plant can reach a height of about 30 meters. The crown of such a tree has an unusual shape: its lower branches droop to the ground, and the middle and upper branches grow vertically upward. Smooth small leaf plates are heart-shaped and have long petioles (30 to 60 mm in length). They are colored green, with a lighter shade on the underside.
Compared to the large-leaved linden, the opening of the buds of such a plant occurs half a month earlier. The color of the bark is grayish yellow. This linden blooms in June-July. The upward-directed inflorescence consists of 5 to 11 yellow-colored flowers. Seed ripening is observed in the first days of August. This hardy and unpretentious tree is quite popular in park and garden landscape gardening.
Large-leaved linden is also popularly called flat-leaved or summer linden. Such a variety in nature is widespread in the Caucasus, Ukraine, Moldova and European countries. The tree reaches a height of about 40 meters, while the diameter of its trunk is about 6 meters. The crown has a spreading pyramidal shape. This linden grows best in areas with very nutritious humus soil. The pubescent ovate leaf plates have a dark green color, their length is about 14 centimeters.
Such a tree differs from small-leaved linden in the size of its foliage, as well as in the flowering period, which occurs in July. The inflorescence contains from 2 to 5 buds. The drooping flowers are colored yellow. The fruits are oval-shaped five-ribbed nuts, their ripening is observed in August. In culture, such decorative varieties as grape-leaved, golden-leaved and pyramidal are popular.
In Russia, the Manchu linden can be found in the Far East. Moreover, in Europe, it is very popular in culture; it can often be seen in parks and gardens. This shade-tolerant species is very resistant to frost. If we compare this tree with other types of linden, then it is undersized, almost dwarf. The maximum plant height is 20 meters, and the average is about 15 meters. The linden tree is decorated with a lush spreading crown. This look, if desired, can be given the shape of a bush.
On the surface of the greenish-yellow branches, there is a tomentose pubescence. The length of the leaf plate is about 30 centimeters; there is pubescence on its surface. The peculiarity of this species is that sterile and fertile shoots differ from each other in foliage. On the fertile branches, there are notched-toothed green glossy leaf plates of a rounded shape, there is pubescence on the seamy side, and the front is bare, the length varies from 6 to 12 centimeters. On sterile branches, the foliage has the same shape, but it is two or three times larger. In coppice stems, the foliage is cut more strongly, while shorter petioles grow.
The inflorescence includes from 5 to 15 buds, while the fruit is formed from every second flower. Lemon yellow corollas are about 12 mm in diameter. The fruits are densely pubescent nuts with a diameter of about 11 mm. Ripening is observed in September.
LIPA - planting, care, reproduction, use in the landscape // collection and harvesting of linden blossom
In nature, linden reproduces mainly by seeds. Moreover, in culture, it is often propagated by layering, cuttings, root shoots or grafting. To create a dense hedge from such a tree, experts advise reproduction by layering. In this case, the planting of grown seedlings should be carried out in a wave-like manner, in a checkerboard pattern or in lines. Saplings are planted in autumn or spring.
Before you start planting seedlings, you should prepare trenches or pits, the depth of which should be at least half a meter. At the bottom of the planting pit, a drainage layer is made, for the creation of which you can use fragments of bricks, rubble, sand or pebbles. The soil remaining from digging a hole or trench is combined with compost, humus, drill flour, a little sand and 40 grams of superphosphate per seedling are also added. In no case should fresh manure be used as fertilizer. In order to protect young plants from strong gusts of wind, pegs are installed during planting, which are necessary for tying the trunk.
Linden is distinguished by its moisture-loving nature; therefore, young trees growing in regions with an arid climate are provided with regular watering. Those trees over 5 years old are drought tolerant and do not need watering. After the seedling is planted in a permanent place, during the first two years, root fertilization with nitrogen fertilizer should be carried out several times during the season. This contributes to the growth of green mass.
A well-drained soil that is rich in nutrients is best suited for the plant. It responds perfectly to the introduction of lime into the soil, while its reaction to the accumulation of salts will be extremely negative. Mature trees can withstand frosts down to minus 48 degrees, and they are not harmed by climate fluctuations. The root system grows in breadth and depth. It is sensitive to cramped conditions under the condition of a dense planting.
The first time a linden tree is cut in the third year of life. As a rule, the side branches are shortened by a third of the length. This is necessary to form a crown with pronounced axial symmetry. After a tree is 20-30 years old, it is considered mature.
Linden. Features of the reproduction of linden
The propagation of linden by seeds is distinguished by its duration, because the resulting seedlings become mature only by the age of twelve. Seed material needs to be stratified. To do this, he is placed in boxes filled with moistened sand or sawdust, where he must spend about 6 months. Try to keep the air temperature 0-4 degrees. It is worth noting that when sowing unstratified seed in the spring, you are unlikely to be able to see the seedlings.
When spring comes, carefully remove the seeds, along with sawdust or sand, and dig them into the garden. At the same time, try not to destroy the microflora that has formed near the seed. If everything is done correctly, then the chance of seedlings spawning will increase significantly. However, remember that only the most vigorous seedlings will be able to emerge.
In nurseries, either soaked or stratified linden seed is sown. At the same time, it is sown in rows, keeping a distance of 15–20 centimeters between the seeds. Seedlings will be unfriendly. Moreover, at an air temperature of 18 to 22 degrees, they will appear no earlier than half a month later.
Crops need to be watered systematically. After the seedlings appear, they are provided with regular daily ventilation, for this the shelter is removed for 1-2 hours. A well-lit place with diffused light is chosen for the seedlings. The optimal daylight hours are from 8 to 10 hours.
Linden is propagated by cuttings very rarely, because they root very poorly. Shoots covered with non-lignified green bark are suitable for harvesting cuttings. It is recommended to always treat the lower sections of the segments with a root growth stimulating agent. Cuttings are planted for rooting directly into the nutrient soil.
The linden tree is highly resistant to diseases and pests. However, if the weather conditions are unfavorable, then problems with the culture can still arise. Most often, the plant is affected by perforated and black spots. To save the plant, it is necessary to regularly destroy the flying leaves with fire, and also to process the tree with Bordeaux mixture. To get rid of white rot, resort to the same measures.
The foliage of a tree can be damaged by a bug, bark beetle, scale insect, gall mites and other pests. To get rid of them, it is recommended to use long-acting insecticidal preparations. As a rule, linden is sprayed with them. Also, the tree can suffer from rodents and woodpeckers.
Dry linden flowers, combined with tea and other medicinal herbs, have been used in alternative medicine for a long time. Most often they are used in the treatment of colds, but they also help with other diseases.
Linden blossom has various healing properties: anti-inflammatory, diuretic, disinfectant and antipyretic. The juice extracted from the flowers is used to accelerate hair growth. Fresh foliage is eaten, and it is also dried and combined with flour for baking. The bark of such a tree was used to obtain bast, which was used for weaving baskets, bast shoes and other products. During the growing season, one tree produces a large amount of nectar. Bees use it to produce high quality honey.
Compared to pine and oak, linden wood is of lower quality. It is characterized by strong shrinkage - coefficient 0.58. However, if all technologies are followed, it will be possible to avoid warping and the appearance of cracks. Density of lumber approximately 450 kg / m3... Like pine wood, linden has not too high abrasion resistance and strength. If such wood is constantly in contact with water, this will lead to its swelling, the appearance of pathogenic fungi and rot. It also differs in that it weakly holds fasteners (nails or screws).
The soft linden wood has a spectacular texture, so it has been used for various crafts for a long time. Brinell hardness - no more than 1.8. Appropriately treated linden lining is used to decorate saunas or baths. The fact is that it has a low thermal conductivity, and when exposed to high air temperatures, it does not emit harmful substances.
In the flown linden leaves there is a large amount of calcium, so they can improve the quality of the soil. Pines grow beautifully around them.
Linden is very popular in landscape design. A crown with large foliage looks quite impressive in spring, summer, and autumn. With proper pruning, the crown can be given a pyramidal or spherical shape. Reverse grafted seedlings look quite attractive; they have beautiful drooping branches (like a weeping willow). And linden flowers also have a very pleasant scent that attracts bees.
LINDEN - what is useful and what is harmful to the human body. The benefits and harms of linden.
Linden is one of the most common trees used for urban landscaping.It is planted in parks and squares, serves to create alleys and hedges. It is appreciated for its unpretentiousness, neat appearance, discreet decorativeness, thick, silky crown, pleasant aroma of flowers and durability. Today, some types of this tree are used in landscape design. A single linden tree with a well-formed, graceful crown, growing in a garden or a local area, looks spectacular. Easily transfers the haircut and keeps the given shape for a long time.
The plant is very unpretentious, it can grow in shady places and in open, sunlit areas. Prefers well-drained, moderately moist soil. Improves soil properties with its own fallen leaves. Excess or lack of moisture oppresses the plant and negatively affects its development. In Russia, small-leaved linden is widespread, the areola of which falls on the European part of the country.
You can grow linden from seeds or using seedlings. Under natural conditions, seeds, falling into the ground, are stored in the soil for a year until the next spring. Thus, they are stratified. In artificial stratification, seeds are cooled in a humid environment. To do this, they are placed in a container with wet sand and stored in a cool room at a temperature not exceeding 0 ° C. The duration of stratification is up to 5 months. Sprouted seeds are planted in prepared soil in spring. Seeds can be sown in autumn without prior stratification, but their germination rate will be much lower.
In the last decades of the last century, standard varieties of Russian selection were created. This is Tarusa, Krepysh, Monika, Fairy Tale. The varieties Tarusa and Krepysh are similar in appearance to each other. They differ slightly in the appearance of leaves and roots. Experts believe that it makes no sense to grow both varieties. Raspberry tree Krepysh reviews are advised to grow to gardeners engaged in the reproduction and sale of bushes, and those who grow berries - Tarusa.
The stem of Tarusa differs from many others in the absence of thorns. Brown color. The height of the shoots is about 2 m. The leaves are large, with noticeable veins. Young stems are covered with a waxy coating. The fruits are oblong, oval, red, the weight of one can reach 12 g. They taste sweet, delicate, with a pleasant taste and aroma.
Heliotrope (Heliotropium L.) is a genus of perennial plants of the Borage family. The genus includes about 250 species found in most areas with warm or temperate climates.
There are many interesting varieties of heliotrope on the market. The main distinguishing feature of the varieties is the color of the flowers.
|With purple and pink flowers|
|"Chatsworth" - bluish flowers|
|"Marina" Marine with a compact form, purple-blue flowers|
|"Sea Breeze" - violet-blue flowers|
|Odysseus - purple flowers|
|With white flowers|
|"White Lady" (White Lady) - white flowers with a delicate pink-purple tint, smells of vanilla|
In our climatic conditions, mainly Peruvian heliotrope, also known as garden or tree heliotrope, is grown. As the name suggests, this perennial comes from Peru. It also grows wild in neighboring Ecuador. In terms of distribution, the Peruvian heliotrope belongs to the Andean natural area and is one of the most famous local species. It is also called aromatic because it smells like vanilla. The oil obtained from the flowers of this plant is used in the perfumery industry.
Peruvian heliotrope is a perennial, depending on the variety, with a height of 30-60 centimeters. Its varieties differ in color, shape and height. In its homeland, it is a shrub with oval, lanceolate leaves covered with coarse hairs. Flowers with a thin purple, purple and rarely white crown. Peruvian heliotrope blooms from July to September, 3 months after sowing.
Further, the article describes the care and cultivation of the Peruvian heliotrope.
Lindens of various varieties bloom mainly at the end of June - in July, much later than other trees. This happens because linden does not have flowers in hibernating buds; they appear only on one-year-old shoots. For the same reason, it does not bloom in the first years after planting - the tree spends energy on growing shoots and strengthening them, and after that it will allow buds to form on them. Full flowering of a tree can begin only between the 10th and 20th year after planting, not earlier.
The tree blooms for only a few weeks. At this time, the crown of the tree is completely covered with small light flowers, combined into inflorescences of 10-15 pieces. Each has many stamens, but only 5 petals.
Due to temperature fluctuations, especially in the first half of spring, linden can miss flowering. If the reason is just that, there is no need to fear for the tree, if in the future there are no climatic stresses for it, it will bloom next year. Otherwise, the tree needs to be examined - it may be affected by pests or diseases.
Lindens of different varieties do not bloom at the same time. First, wild and large-leaved varieties bloom, later - the Manchurian or Amur varieties. The most intense flowering occurs in those trees that are located in a sunny open area of the garden.
You can find out what the Rudbeckia varieties look like from this article.
What are the varieties of Eustoma and how they look can be viewed at this link.
How Aubrieta flowers look and how they need to be grown can be seen in this article: https://2gazon.ru/ozelenenie/cvety/osobennosti-vyrashhivaniya-obriety-iz-semyan.html.
The tree has more than just decorative value. It is widely used in various areas of life - in industry and traditional medicine.
The leaves and bark of the plant contain a large amount of vitamins and flavonoids. You can use the tree for treatment; on the basis of its green parts, wound-healing ointments and analgesic decoctions are made. Folk remedies from the bark and leaves of the pasta tree have antibacterial, regenerating and anti-inflammatory properties, help with joint, skin and colds.
Catalpa has a very durable wood. It is often used to make garden swings and gazebos, benches, and bathroom furniture. Beautiful brownish-gray products made from unusual wood look good in the interior and landscape, do not require painting and are not afraid of high humidity.
Beekeepers plant catalpa at their summer cottage, the tree is a honey plant and attracts bees.
The seeds are used in the chemical industry. A quick-drying oil is produced from them, which is subsequently added to the composition of paints and varnishes.
You can meet a tree in city parks and squares. An adult catalpa tolerates the ecological conditions of the city well, does not require careful care and does not suffer from frost. Therefore, it is considered a good option for landscaping.