The cultivation of tomato crops in this region is accompanied by certain difficulties. Tomatoes are best cultivated in greenhouses, because the harsh climatic conditions can hinder their normal development. But even in these conditions, it is possible to obtain good yields, if all the tips developed directly for the area are followed exactly. When to plant tomatoes in a greenhouse in Siberia further in our article.
If the greenhouse does not have heating and is not intended for growing crops all year round, then planting tomatoes using a seedless method, directly from seeds, will not work even in central regions of Russia. And what can we say about the northern regions, Siberia? A short summer will simply not be enough for full cultivation. So with the onset of spring, you should purchase seeds and all the preparations necessary to plant seedlings.
Sowing is carried out in a moist prepared soil composition. The boxes are covered with plastic wrap and placed in a warm place. As soon as shoots begin to appear, the boxes are transferred to the windowsill or additional lighting is organized.
During the growth period, the seedlings are dived twice. The first transplant is performed at the stage of the second - third leaf, the sprouts are moved into cups of ten centimeters in diameter. The second pick is carried out two weeks later, and the containers are two to five centimeters larger in diameter.
After the second dive, the seedlings begin to harden, preparing to plant in a greenhouse or open ground. To this end, in warm weather, it is put out on the street or on a loggia, windows are opened in order to accustom the seedlings to a lower temperature regime and exposure to sunlight.
When the seedlings will be fifty days from the moment of the beginning of growth, and the height of the bushes reaches thirty to forty centimeters, the plants should be fully prepared for transplantation into the greenhouse. They are even kept inside for several days without transplanting, making it possible to get used to the microclimate better.
There is no exact transfer date - it all depends on your greenhouse structure. If there is heating, then replanting plants is quite possible in the last days of April.
In greenhouses made of polycarbonate or double film, the seedlings are moved in late spring. But for greenhouses, it is best to transfer plants on the twentieth of May.
The indicated dates are considered approximate, since the final decision is made by each gardener individually, taking into account the objective indicators:
Do not forget about local peculiarities. If the climate in the area is mild, then planting seedlings even in a greenhouse without heating is performed in mid-May.
Quite often, there is no way to build several greenhouses, but you really want to diversify your table with vegetables. It is in such situations that it is recommended to consider growing several types of crops side by side. Especially those who get along well.
One such example is tomatoes and peppers. Both crops belong to the nightshade; in close proximity they give good yields. But you have to take into account that the methods of planting and caring for tomatoes and hot or hot peppers are slightly different.
In such greenhouses, the main attention is paid to the arrangement of the beds. Seeds for seedlings of peppers and tomatoes should be netted in late February - early March. In this case, the plants are planted in a checkerboard pattern. First, tall bushes of tomatoes are placed, then peppers are planted between them.
When you pinch the tomato bushes, the peppers will receive the required amount of air and light. And such a planting order will make it possible for ultraviolet light to penetrate to each plant.
Pepper bushes can be planted along tomato beds. The culture will be reliably protected from aphids by the smell of tomato plants... Another option for the placement of crops: on one side there are tomatoes, on the other - peppers.
Pepper does not tolerate arid air and sudden temperature changes.
When growing vegetables in a greenhouse, take into account their requirements for temperature and humidity.
Onions have excellent compatibility with tomatoes, as they are not particularly demanding on conditions. You can plant early varieties of cabbage, which ripens quickly and will not interfere with tomato bushes.
Another solution is to place strawberry beds along with tomatoes, so that in the spring you can already feast on ripe berries. But in this case, the varieties of tomatoes should be small, so as not to shade the berry bushes too much.
Even if there is enough space, sometimes it is necessary to combine some plantings in the same greenhouse.
Some people try to plant corn, but it must be placed on the north side so as not to block the sunlight from the tomatoes.
And this table shows compatibility with tomatoes and an unfortunate neighborhood:
|Vegetables||Successful neighborhood||Unfortunate neighborhood|
|Beans||Corn, celery, garden savory, cucumbers, radishes, strawberries||Onion and garlic|
|Beet||Cabbage, broccoli, lettuce, onion, garlic||Beans|
|White cabbage, broccoli, Brussels sprouts||Beets, Swiss chard, potatoes, celery, dill, lettuce, onions, spinach||beans|
|Celery||Beans, tomatoes, cabbage||Not|
|Corn||Cucumbers, watermelons, pumpkin, peas, beans, pumpkin||Tomatoes|
|Cucumbers||Beans, corn, peas, cabbage||Not|
|Melon||Corn, pumpkin, radish, zucchini||Not|
|Onion||Beets, carrots, Swiss chard, lettuce, pepper||Legumes|
|Peas||Beans, cucumbers, turnips, carrots, corn, radishes.||Onion garlic|
|Potatoes||Beans, corn, peas||Tomatoes|
|Zucchini||Corn, melon, pumpkin||Not|
|Tomatoes||Carrots, celery, cucumbers, onions, peppers||Corn, kohlrabi, potatoes|
Cucumbers could get along well near tomatoes in greenhouse conditions, but they differ in temperature and humidity requirements. And if there is only one greenhouse, then it is recommended to separate it with plastic wrap or some kind of non-woven material.
Tomato bushes do not like it when broccoli, cauliflower, eggplants are placed near them, since these crops have common pests. The neighborhood with fennel and dill is considered undesirable if these greens are not planned for early harvesting.
An excellent solution is to plant radishes, onions on a feather, salads in the greenhouse. When the turn of the tomatoes comes, a place will be made available for them.
Any gardener has his own secrets for growing vegetable plants. Do not be afraid to experiment, you can always find the best combinations for your area. After all, a small plantation planted with various crops will provide you with everything you need for the winter season.
Polycarbonate greenhouses are gaining more and more popularity for growing tomatoes. Weather conditions, especially in the northern regions, often interfere with the normal ripening of the crop. Therefore, gardeners began to use these sturdy structures for growing tomatoes. It is more convenient than at home. They have their advantages and disadvantages, but the main question that interests gardeners is when to plant tomatoes in a greenhouse made of cellular polycarbonate.
Tomatoes are one of the most thermophilic crops. The optimum temperature for growing them should be at + 20-22 C during the day, and not lower than +16 C at night. This applies not only to air, but also to soil.
If the soil is colder than necessary, then the main root will not fully absorb nitrogen and phosphorus, preventing the development of adventitious roots. Because of this, access to water will be limited: the seedlings will not take root well. At +10 C, plants will not absorb nutrients from the ground at all.
For most varieties, the length of daylight is not important in order to start bearing fruit, but the intensity of the light directly affects the volume of the crop. With a lack of light, the growth of the culture slows down, the time from the appearance of flowers to the beginning of ripening of fruits can increase by more than 15 days, which will certainly affect the quality of the crop.
Tomatoes are demanding on moisture. Seedlings and vegetables planted in the greenhouse are watered with warm water every 4-7 days in the morning, grown in the open field - in the evening. The optimum humidity for growing this crop is 70-80%. If the value is too high, the pollen will stick together and will not spill out. Also, with high air humidity, the likelihood of fungus and bacteria growth is high. The lowered humidity does not allow pollen to germinate - fruits do not set.
Tomatoes are not demanding on the composition of the soil, but preference should be given to loamy and sandy loam soil with a slightly acidic reaction of the medium (pH = 6-6.5), because good air exchange and water permeability are important to them. The culture grows well after cabbage, zucchini and cucumbers. But after nightshades and legumes, you should not plant tomatoes, because they severely deplete the soil and also have common diseases.
If there is a greenhouse on the site, then it allows the gardener to get a crop much earlier than when planting tomatoes in open ground. Here, planting dates depend on the type of greenhouse available:
It is clear that, depending on the region in which the site is located, these terms vary. for example, in zones with a warmer climate, tomatoes can be planted in a regular greenhouse without additional heating and shelter in mid-May, and in the Urals - no earlier than May 20 ... 25.
The greenhouse can be used not only in spring and summer, but also in cold weather. For this, the greenhouse must be properly insulated. And then, together with tomatoes, it is permissible to grow watermelons, strawberries, and also plant strawberries and melons. Not every gardener can share the experience of how to grow a watermelon in a greenhouse. The fact is that melons and gourds require a special approach. Tomatoes cannot grow without sufficient ventilation in the greenhouse.
On the contrary, watermelon and melon do not like drafts. This is the main reason why melons and gourds are grown separately from other vegetables. In general, experienced gardeners do not allow the greenhouse to be idle for a long time out of season.
What can be grown in a greenhouse this time of year? On the recommendation of many amateur gardeners, vegetable seedlings can be planted in the greenhouse. With the onset of spring, it can be transferred to the ground. This procedure will have a beneficial effect on the yield of the main crops.
As soon as the weather conditions are favorable, the seedlings can be sent to the garden beds, and space is made available in the greenhouse for the main horticultural crops. The soil is already prepared, cultivated, which is conducive toplants grow quickly and a good harvest is expected afterwards.
Basil is the best companion for tomatoes. Its neighborhood scares away horned worms and has a positive effect on the taste of the crop. Therefore, it is worth planting basil in a greenhouse with tomatoes. He also tolerates being close to tomatoes well. He only needs a sufficient amount of light and nourishment.
Mixed plantings with other spicy herbs (thyme, sage, mint) are no less useful for tomatoes, they create protection for the garden from ground pests.
Many gardeners do not know what else can be planted in a greenhouse with tomatoes. For example, to improve the quality of tomato juice and increase the shelf life of the crop, you can plant borage cucumber grass nearby. Among herbs, vegetables cannot stand only being close to lemon balm.
To grow tomatoes in a closed room with its own microclimate, and even with neighbors, you need to clearly remember the requirements of the main culture. Tomatoes prefer good lighting (however, cloudy weather is not critical for them), moderate air temperature, frequent airing, regular fertilizing and watering at the root. When choosing neighbors in the greenhouse, you need to focus on plants with similar requirements. When deciding what else can be planted in the greenhouse along with tomatoes, you also need to take into account the size of the room, the material of the roof and walls, the presence of additional doors and vents.
So, with what you can plant tomatoes in a greenhouse. According to the example described above with the option of open ground, in the greenhouse, for a start, in the same way, before planting tomatoes, you can densely sow early and fast-growing crops - onion and garlic on the pen, salads, radishes, collard greens... When the time comes for tomato seedlings - just make room for them among these crops and you will be able to harvest the "pioneers" for at least a month while the tomatoes are just developing.
What else? Almost all the same crops that we described above, if you prefer growing them in a greenhouse - melons, legumes, greens, cabbage, strawberries, herbs... The main thing is not to forget to tie up tall and voluminous tomato bushes so that they do not obscure their smaller brothers in the greenhouse from the sun.
Let's take a look at some of the most frequently asked questions about the possible neighbors of tomatoes in a greenhouse.
Cucumbers and tomatoes in the greenhouse, in principle, do not interfere with each other. The main problem may be their different requirements for the microclimate. Judge for yourself.
Therefore, if possible, it is better to settle these crops in different greenhouses or to take out the cucumbers in open ground under a film.
Tomatoes and peppers have quite similar requirements for humidity and temperature conditions in the greenhouse. In addition, peppers, like tomatoes, need a garter. So a common trellis is quite suitable for them - pull the wire at a height of about 2 m.
Tomatoes will also help scare off aphids, which love peppers.
However, peppers with tomatoes belong to the same family (Solanaceae), which means the presence of the same diseases and pests that will perfectly wander from one culture to another. If you are able to provide good protection from insects and infections to both, feel free to plant these plants together (checkerboard pattern is recommended). The presence of marigolds around the perimeter of the structure will also help.
Remember only that both cultures love light, so do not thicken the planting, and also carry out the garter of the plants in time and competently.
The main problem of joint cultivation of tomatoes and eggplants in a greenhouse is the same as in the previous case - common diseases and pests of the same family.
Their microclimate requirements are not particularly similar:
Therefore, if possible, avoid simultaneously growing these crops in the greenhouse.
If this is not possible (this also applies to the case of cucumbers and peppers), and you are determined to grow both plants this season, try to optimize their place of residence, somehow delimit the greenhouse territory into areas with different microclimates. This can be done using self-made (plywood, plastic film, non-woven fabric) or industrially (special modules) partitions. It is also good to divide crops into separate beds - heat-loving ones are planted away from the entrance and drafts, and the tomatoes are placed closer to the greenhouse doors.
In any case, having not very compatible crops in the same greenhouse, be prepared for a slight decrease in the yield of each of them.
Well, and, of course, if you are expecting a bountiful harvest, growing tomatoes in a greenhouse, you should remember not only about their neighbors, but also about the rules for caring for them and competent agricultural technology.
In any case, each plot or greenhouse has its own size, soil, microclimate ... Even if you follow the above recommendations, keep in mind that they are quite general. Only your personal experience and observation of your own plants will help you choose the right growing method.
Information about what can be planted with tomatoes will be incomplete without knowing what should not be planted with them in any case. Find the best way to combine plants in your garden and enjoy a great harvest!