Owners of suburban areas characterized by a complex relief shape, striving to equip the territory as comfortably as possible, often choose wooden decks. Wooden flooring raised above the ground can not only expand the space in front of the house, but also help to develop a site that, at first glance, is unsuitable for use. Where hilly ground turns into a slippery surface after rain, a wooden deck is the ideal solution.
The basis of the platform is made up of wooden strips laid on thick beams or directly on the ground. Such platforms are appropriate in areas with uneven terrain. With their help, you can achieve several goals at once:
Wooden flooring is an excellent element of landscape design, on which you can equip a seating area, or use it instead of an open veranda. Some owners build platforms not only on the first, but even on the upper floors of a country cottage.
The deck is a multifunctional structure that can act as a worthy alternative to the traditional terrace on the ground floor.
The deck does not have to be part of the house. A platform can be used to enclose an outdoor pool, a decorative pond, or decorate a recreation area closer to the garden.
It is always convenient to sit on such a platform, placing garden furniture on a flat surface. With its help, you can refine any place on the site, using even the islets, unsuitable at first glance, for use.
The platform, built in front of the porch, can smoothly transition into a courtyard-patio hidden from prying eyes, connecting with it by a series of steps
Wooden flooring can be safely used when arranging a patio. The constructed platform creates the effect of terracing the hilly area. Only the terraces in this case are not land plots, but wooden platforms connected by steps.
But it should be borne in mind that wooden decks are not able to fit into all areas of landscape design. They will look most appropriate against the background of country-style wooden houses. The wood flooring also fits well into the wild garden.
Scaffolds are erected from planed boards, which are laid on longitudinal and transverse beams fixed on piles. The role of the piles that raise the platform above the ground can be played by brick pillars or wooden beams.
The flooring pattern is largely determined by the size of the boards, the way the strips are laid and the dimensions of the structure being constructed. When arranging the flooring, most often the strips are laid parallel to the sides of the base.
To create the illusion of expanding the area, it is better to lay the boards diagonally: in this case, attention will be focused not on the details of the structure, but on tracking the pattern.
More complex compositions such as a checkerboard or herringbone look advantageous in combination with surrounding textures, made in the same style.
There are often cases when a conceived drawing does not give the desired effect. For example, when the platform is located between a house, the facade of which is made of wooden shingles, and a garden path, decorated with cobbled tiles. In such a situation, it is better to choose a decking with a simple pattern, where the boards are laid out parallel to the sides of the platform base.
To avoid disappointment when choosing a drawing, the designers recommend, in addition to drawing the flooring itself, to make a sketch of the drawing on tracing paper. For a better visualization of the author's idea, the drawing and sketch should be carried out on the same scale.
The more sophisticated the drawing of the constructed platform, the more complex the structure will have on the basis of the platform erected for its arrangement.
So, when drawing up a diagonal pattern, frequent installation of a lag will be required. To create more complex views, you will need already double logs from a massive bar, the intervals between which allow you to place the end plate.
The form of the platform can be any:
Decks of a rectangular shape look most advantageous along the wall of the house, and square platforms are successful in an angular arrangement between adjacent walls.
Railing is one of the key elements of the platform, giving it safety and reliability. This is especially true if the deck is being built on the shore of a reservoir.
Low partitions and openwork trellises will help to hide from the wind in inclement weather and retire from prying eyes for rest and relaxation
By placing flowerpots with flowers next to wooden fences, you can easily turn your relaxation area into a blooming green oasis.
There are many ways to build wooden platforms. Most of them can even be done by craftsmen with only basic carpentry skills.
The platforms are constructed from standard planks with dimensions: 50x75 mm, 50x100 mm, and 50x150 mm. A good effect is achieved both when using strips of the same width, and by alternating boards with different widths.
Craftsmen do not recommend using boards 200 mm wide for these purposes. They do not drain water well, and moisture trapped on their surface often leads to warping of the wood. Unsuitable for arranging decks and bars measuring 50x50 mm. They are also easy to twist and deform.
The strongest flooring is obtained from planks measuring 50x100 mm and 50x150 mm, laid parallel to the sides of the base platform
For arranging the platform, different types of wood are used:
Boards for arranging the flooring must be free of bark. For the manufacture of lags, it is better to choose non-milled boards of the 2nd or 3rd grade, the moisture index of which is 10-12%. Support beams are best made from blanks of a square bar with a side of 75 mm.
Regardless of the choice of wood used to extend the life of the flooring, the surface is treated with antiseptics and moisture-repellent compounds.
The use of glazes, available on the market in a wide color palette, makes it possible to implement any design exterior solutions
Fire resistance of wooden platforms is achieved by additional surface treatment with fire retardants.
The dimensions and dimensions of the platform depend on the place where the deck will be located and its purpose. Avoid placing the platform in full shadow from the wall of the house. Dampness and shading are a fertile environment for the development of fungus.
If the deck will act as a dining area, then provide enough space for installing a furniture set, allocating an area for free passage
If you are planning to use the platform for taking sun procedures and relaxing with your family, calculate the area for installing sun loungers.
To visualize what area the deck will cover, and how it will look from the windows of the upper floors, draw a plan of the structure. It is better to draw a plot plan on graph paper, maintaining a single scale of buildings. If the platform will be built on a slope, draw a side view of the structure to indicate the slope. A well-designed drawing will simplify the task of determining the height of the support pillars to create a perfectly horizontal surface.
In place, determine the site where the support pillars will be dug in. When choosing a place for installing piles, do not forget to take into account the utility pipes laid to the house in the ground. Your task is to provide the necessary access to the inspection hatches in order to carry out preventive and repair work, if necessary.
To build the platform, you will need tools:
The size of the strapping of the future flooring depends on the width of the boards used. For example: to lay flooring with a simple pattern, consisting of 21 boards, you will need to build a harness that will correspond to the total width of 21 boards and plus 10 cm, which will go 20 gaps between them.
Regardless of the chosen pattern, the boards are laid on a platform with a gap of 5 mm: this is necessary in order to prevent stagnation of rainwater
When installing the deck on floating soils, to increase the strength and reliability of the building, the wooden ones are not buried in the ground, but placed on concrete slabs equipped with rectangular nests.
Each 15 mm thick base plate is square with a side of 400 mm. They are placed at an equidistant distance of 1.4 meters. In this case, the distance is measured not from the edge of the slab, but from the center.
Having determined the location of the plates and pillars, a fertile soil layer is removed in the designated areas and a layer of gravel is poured. The slabs are laid on compacted crushed stone, poured with concrete, and leveled.
It is important to ensure that the slab nests are in one line and form a right angle relative to the wall of the nearest building.
The remaining unused soil surface is lined with agrofibre cuts. An opaque material will inhibit grass growth. To fix the nonwoven fabric and consolidate the effect, the entire surface is covered with fine gravel.
Support pillars are blanks made of solid timber or glued from boards, having a 7.5-centimeter spike at the base. The pillars are inserted with spikes into the sockets of the plates and bolted to the plates. If necessary, the support legs can always be adjusted in height by sawing off the excess.
To extend the service life of the flooring, the wooden surfaces of the posts are treated with an antiseptic and moisture-repellent composition.
When installing the poles, it is important to ensure that the supports at the lowest point do not fall below the intended height of the platform. Check the horizontalness of the surface each time, focusing on the building level.
Having installed the support pillars, they begin to manufacture the strapping. The first step is to lay out the external beams, fixing them at the corners with butt ends. The intermediate lower beams installed parallel to the wall of the house are placed on shortened pillars.
The beams that will be installed around the perimeter of the deck are laid horizontally and nailed around the support posts
To do this, alternately holding each beam around the support pillars, align its horizontality according to the spirit level. Fix the beams with galvanized screws or 10 cm nails. When arranging a multi-level platform, the beams are separately nailed, first of the lower and then of the upper level. All beams are connected with butt ends at the outer corners.
Intermediate beams are placed on the assembled frame and support pillars. It is important to ensure that the cuts of the intermediate beams are flush with the upper edge of the outer frame.
The technology for laying the scaffold is not much different from the process of laying conventional floors. After sawing the boards with a length equal to the distance from one outer beam to another, lay them across the frame.
If the platform is adjacent to the wall of the house, the board is laid first, placing it at a distance of 10-15 mm from the vertical surface.
In the future, when laying strips to ensure ventilation and natural expansion of wood, a distance of 5 mm is maintained between the boards.
The use of a calibrated wooden spacer will help to facilitate the task of maintaining the required distance between adjacent planks.
The flooring is fixed to the platform with screws, nails or special clamps. To strengthen the fastening, in addition to the screws, the craftsmen also recommend using construction glue. It is applied to the ends of the platform with a pistol. But this method of installation is fraught with the fact that after the glue hardens, it will be impossible to move the boards. This will complicate repairs if the deck is damaged.
A second strip is placed on the crest of the installed and fixed first board. In order to fit the elements as tightly as possible, the comb is gently tapped with a hammer. Nails are driven into the inner corner of the ridge against each log, maintaining an angle of 45 °.
For fixing, it is worth taking nails, the length of which is 2 times longer than the thickness of the boards. When hammering in nails, it is important to sink the caps as deep as possible so that they do not subsequently interfere with the normal landing of the adjacent board. If the boards split during hammering, blunt the tips of the nails by hitting them with a hammer. When driving in, it is better to place the nail itself under a slight slope towards the middle of the board.
Planks are laid along the entire length of the flooring, positioning them so that the convex side of the annual rings looks up: this will minimize lateral warpage and prevent wood cracking
When nailing strips, it is important to periodically check the dimensions of the unsewn part of the platform. To get the last board to be full width, if necessary, adjust the width of the gaps along the way. To adjust the dimensions of the flooring, the last board is sawn lengthwise only as a last resort.
The laid and fixed boards are trimmed. To do this, along the sides of the platform, chalk lines are drawn along which the protruding ends of the boards are sawn off. To get the most even cuts, guide rails are used.
The finished platform is cycled, sanded and covered with several layers of semi-matt or glossy varnish. If the deck is raised more than 50 cm from the ground level, it is fenced with a handrail.
Using the corner support pillars, side railings are built around the perimeter of the deck, placing the bars of 7.5x5 mm horizontally at a height of 45 cm
From bars with a cross section of 3.8 cm, blanks are made for intermediate thin balusters. They are nailed under the railing, placing them at a distance of 5-7 cm from each other.
If a beautiful tree grows within the boundaries of the proposed platform, do not rush to get rid of it. You can always incorporate natural elements into your deck design.
When planning to fit the tree into the platform, during the construction of the structure, you will have to make an internal frame around the obstacle
The opening in the flooring can be left open, or you can arrange it with boards so that they go around the plant. When surrounding the tree with flooring, keep in mind that as it grows, it will increase in size not only upward, but also in breadth.
At the stage of determining the dimensions and drawing up a drawing of the future structure, it is important to provide for a sufficient area of living space for the tree
The deck must not be attached to a tree trunk. This is bad for both the green space itself and the structure. The trunk swaying under the gusts of wind can destroy the integrity of the platform.
There are no particular difficulties in caring for the deck. It is only necessary to inspect the surface annually for cracks that may form during the drying process of the wood. To maintain presentability and prolong the performance of the platform, paint layers should be regularly renewed.
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