Gooseberry


Common gooseberry (Ribes uva-crispa), either European or rejected - this species is a representative of the genus currant of the gooseberry family. The homeland of such a plant is Western Europe and North Africa. Under natural conditions, it is still found in South and Central Europe, Central Asia, the Caucasus and North America. J. Ruel was the first to describe the gooseberry in 1536 in the book "De natura stirpium". The existence of gooseberries in European countries became known only in the 16th century, while in the 17th century in England its popularity increased sharply, as a result, intensive work of breeders began to develop new varieties of such a crop. At first, only a few varieties of gooseberries were obtained, but by the 19th century there were already several hundred. Also, specialists from America worked on gooseberries, they received a hybrid of this plant that is resistant to powdery mildew, which is considered the main enemy of this culture. Today, gooseberries are cultivated in almost every country. In Russia, such a plant is called "northern grapes."

Gooseberry features

Gooseberry is not a very large shrub, the height of which does not exceed 1.2 m. The peeling bark is colored brownish gray. The plant has leaf spines. On the surface of young shoots of a cylindrical shape, there are thin needles - these are thorns. The petiolate dull leaf plates are short pubescent, they have a cordate-ovoid or rounded shape and a length of about 60 mm. The leaves are three-five-lobed, with obtuse teeth along the edge. Axillary pale red or light green flowers open in May. The fruits are spherical or oval-shaped berries, reaching 1.2 cm in length (in some varieties, the length of berries is about 4 cm), their surface may be bare or there are rough bristles on it, there is a well-distinguishable venation. They can be colored white, green, yellow or red and ripen from June to August. The fruits of such a shrub are very tasty and healthy, they contain metal salts, vitamins, organic acids and tannins. This plant is an early honey plant, it helps to attract a large number of pollinating insects to the garden plot. The gooseberry is self-fertile, therefore, if desired, you can plant only 1 bush in the garden, and it will yield a crop.

Gooseberry. Planting gooseberries

Planting gooseberries in open ground

What time to plant

You can plant gooseberries in open ground in spring or autumn (from the last days of September to the second half of October). Experienced gardeners recommend planting such a culture in the autumn, since before frost the seedlings take root well, and they have a fairly powerful root system.

Before proceeding with the direct planting of gooseberries, you need to find the most suitable site for this, which would comply with all the rules of agricultural technology of this culture. It should be noted that the root system of such a shrub is long, and therefore lowlands for planting it are not suitable, since the likelihood of developing a fungal disease is high in such an area. A well-lit place, located on a flat area or on a hillock, is suitable for landing, which should have reliable protection from cold winds blowing from the east and north. The soil should be slightly acidic or neutral, while its pH is about 6. Sandy, loamy, sandy loam and clayey soil is well suited for growing such a culture, while in the latter case, the surface of the site will have to be loosened very often.

Planting gooseberries in autumn

Weeding of this shrub is complicated by the fact that it has sharp thorns, in this regard, in the first autumn weeks it will be necessary to remove all root-sprouting weeds (for example, wheatgrass) from the area allocated for planting gooseberries. Immediately before planting, the soil should be dug up, while trying to remove all the rhizomes of the weeds. After that, the surface of the site is leveled with a rake, while all large lumps need to be broken. The preparation of the planting pit should be done 15–20 days before planting, which will allow the soil to settle well. The length, depth and width of the fossa should be half a meter. While digging a hole, the upper nutrient layer of the soil must be thrown to one side, and the lower infertile - to the other. The top layer of soil must be mixed with 50 grams of potassium sulfate, with 10 kilograms of humus or rotted manure and 50 grams of superphosphate. If you apply fertilizer during planting, then you will not need to feed the gooseberries for several years. In the event that the soil is clayey, then 1 bucket of river sand should be poured into the landing hole. During planting, a distance of 1–1.5 m should be observed between seedlings, while the row spacing should be about 3 m.

For planting, one-two-year-old seedlings with a developed root system are suitable (the length of the roots should be about 0.25-0.3 m), as well as several powerful shoots. Before planting a gooseberry, it must be immersed in a solution of organic fertilizers for 24 hours (3-4 large tablespoons of sodium humate for half a bucket of water). The seedlings should be placed in the pit at a slight slope or straight, while after planting, its root collar should be buried a few centimeters into the soil. The root system of the plant must be carefully straightened out. The pit must be filled up gradually, while constantly compacting the soil. The seedling should be watered with 10 liters of water. After the liquid is absorbed into the soil, its surface will need to be covered with a layer of mulch (humus or peat), while its thickness should be 20–30 mm. If you mulch the site, then this will significantly reduce the number of watering, weeding and loosening. The planted plant will need to cut off all the shoots, the length of the remaining segments should be about 50 mm, while each of them should have 5 or 6 buds.

Planting gooseberries in spring

Planting a gooseberry seedling in open soil in spring should be the same as in autumn. However, experts still recommend giving preference to autumn planting, since plants planted in spring time, take root worse and have slower stem growth. After planting, the shrub will give a full harvest only in the third or fourth year. Provide him with the right care, and he will delight you with rich yields of delicious berries for 10-15 years.

Gooseberry care

Planting and growing gooseberries is quite simple, especially if the gardener adheres to all the rules of agricultural technology of this culture. In early spring, when the snow has not yet melted, the bushes need to be sprayed with boiling water using a spray bottle. This treatment is carried out in order to prevent a variety of diseases and pests.

It is necessary to loosen the soil surface around the plants to a depth of 8 to 10 cm in May. To reduce the amount of loosening in the future, the area should be covered with a layer of mulch. If there is such a need, then the shrub at the same time should be fed with a solution of nitrogen and potassium fertilizers or manure infusion.

Gooseberry reacts extremely negatively to insufficient moisture in the soil, especially during flowering (spring) and during the ripening period of berries (summer). Experts recommend using drip or subsurface irrigation, in which case the water will immediately flow to the root system of the bush (to a depth of 5–40 cm). For the entire growing season in this way, the shrub will need to be watered 3-5 times. Sprinkler irrigation is not suitable for gooseberries, especially with the use of cold water. In the event that in spring time the soil around the bushes was covered with mulch, then the number of weeding and loosening will sharply decrease. However, if there is still a need to remove weeds or loosening the soil, then such procedures must be carried out, despite the sharp thorns of the plant.

In bushes planted in rows, the hanging branches must be lifted with stretch marks or nets, which should be pulled between the rows at a height of 0.25–0.3 m on both sides of the row.

Gooseberry. Summer gooseberry care. (07/10/16)

Gooseberry care in autumn

In the fall, the gooseberry will need to be prepared for wintering. In order for the shrub to lay the fruit buds of the next year, it is necessary that it does not need nutrients, so it must be fed. Also, pruning is done in the autumn, because it is not recommended to carry out it in the spring.

Fertilizer

Such a shrub gives rich yields for many years, and at the same time it needs nutrients, which it takes from the soil. In this regard, it is recommended to feed gooseberries every year, using both organic and mineral fertilizers. In spring, under 1 bush, you need to add 50 grams of superphosphate, 25 grams of potassium sulfate, ½ a bucket of compost and 25 grams of ammonium sulfate. If the shrub is very large and yields high yields, the specified amount of fertilizer should be doubled. Fertilizing the soil is carried out along the perimeter of the crown, since it is in this diameter that the root system of the bush is located. To embed fertilizers in the soil, it must be loosened. As soon as the plant fades, it must be fed with a mullein solution (1: 5), while for 1 bush from 5 to 10 liters of nutrient solution is taken. Re-feeding with mullein is carried out after 15–20 days.

Gooseberry pruning

Pruning gooseberries in spring

In early spring, before the buds swell, the gooseberries must be cut off. To do this, it is necessary to cut out all the weak, diseased, unproductive, dried, injured and frost-affected stems. It is also necessary to cut out all the basal shoots, and the weakened ends of the branches need to be trimmed slightly to healthy tissue. Remember that spring pruning can only be done before sap flow begins. The fact is that gooseberry sap flow begins very early, and you can be late with pruning. If you cut the plant during sap flow, then this will lead to its weakening. In this regard, experienced gardeners advise pruning this crop only in autumn.

Pruning gooseberries in the fall

Such a shrub needs regular pruning, which should be done every year. Otherwise, already in the third year of the gooseberry's life, its thickening is observed, which negatively affects the quality of berries growing in the thick. And even if you thin out the shrub in time, then it will be easier to spray it from pests or diseases. The most valuable are five to seven year old branches. In this case, the branches of the first three orders, other branches and branches are considered to be low productive. That is why those branches that are more than 8-10 years old should be cut to the base, their color is almost black. As a result, zero shoots will grow in the bush, and after a while they will be able to replace the aging ones. If small fruits of poor quality begin to grow on the upper parts of the shoots, then they must be pruned. You should also cut out far-growing stems, as well as those that are too low. Places of cuts, especially on thick stems (diameter more than 0.8 cm), must be treated with garden varnish, otherwise plant sap will begin to flow out of them.

How to properly prune gooseberries

Gooseberry diseases and their treatment

Powdery mildew on gooseberries

Powdery mildew (spheroteka) is the greatest danger to gooseberries. This disease can leave the gardener without a crop, while if the shrub is not treated, then in a few years it will die. The most intensive development of the spherotek is observed in damp warm weather. In the affected shrub in the last weeks of spring or the first - summer, a loose bloom of white appears on the surface of the stems, leaf plates and berries. After some time, this plaque becomes a brown crust. In the affected stems, curvature and drying are observed, twisting and cessation of growth of infected leaf plates occur, they become brittle. Affected fruits are not able to ripen, cracks appear on their surface, and they fall off. To cure the affected plant, before it blooms, it is necessary to spray it with a solution of the HOM preparation containing copper (for 1 bucket of water, 40 grams of the substance). You can also treat the bush before it blooms and at the end of flowering with Topaz (follow the instructions on the package). Most often, this disease affects the following varieties: Golden Light, Russian, Date, Prune and Triumphal. There are also varieties that are highly resistant to this foreign disease (her homeland is the territory of America): Senator, Houghton, Grushenka, African, Finets, etc. Moreover, most of these varieties resistant to the spherotek were the result of the work of breeders from America.

Other diseases

In some cases, such a shrub can be affected by anthracnose, mosaic, white spot or goblet rust. If the bush is affected by the mosaic, then it must be dug up and destroyed as soon as possible, the fact is that this viral disease is incurable. For the treatment of shrubs affected by spotting, anthracnose and rust, copper sulfate, Nitrafen or Bordeaux mixture are used. In this case, the plant is treated in 2 doses: the first spraying is carried out in early spring before the buds open, and the second - 1.5 weeks after the end of harvesting. For prevention purposes, at the beginning of the spring period, the area where the gooseberry grows must be freed from fallen leaves, because they may contain pathogens, and weeds must also be removed in a timely manner.

Gooseberry diseases American powdery mildew, spheroteka

Gooseberry pests and control

In some cases, pests can settle on the shrub, while the most common harm to the plant is gooseberry moth and shoot aphid. Before the gooseberry blooms, a moth butterfly appears from the soil. She arranges clutches of eggs in the flowers of the plant. When the flowering comes to an end, caterpillars of a rich green color will appear from the eggs, they gnaw the berries and eat the seeds. If aphids settle on the bush, then the leaf plates will begin to curl, the stems become thinner and become crooked, their growth will stop, crushing and falling of unripe fruits is also observed. To get rid of these pests, the bush must be sprayed with Fufanon or Aktellik. However, as you know, it is easier to prevent pests from damaging the shrub than to get rid of them later. Therefore, the following preventive measures should be regularly carried out:

  1. After all the snow has melted, the surface of the soil under the plants must be covered with a very dense material (for example, roofing material), while its edges are sprinkled with soil. As a result, fire butterflies will not be able to get out of the ground. When the bush fades, this shelter must be removed.
  2. In the autumn, the shrub must be earthed to a ten centimeter height.
  3. It is necessary to carry out a systematic collection and destruction of the fruits, inside which the caterpillars are located.
  4. Faded bushes should be treated with Lepidocide or Bicol.

Protecting gooseberries from caterpillars Gooseberry moth. Garden World site

Gooseberry varieties with photos and descriptions

All gooseberry varieties are divided into American-European (hybrid) and European.In comparison with hybrid varieties, European varieties have a longer productivity period and larger berries. But at the same time, European varieties are more susceptible to damage by various diseases and pests. Also, all varieties are conventionally divided according to the size, color and shape of the fruit, according to the ripening period, yield, as well as the presence of thorns or their absence. The best varieties:

  1. African... This winter-hardy variety does not have a very large number of thorns. Medium-sized berries have a dark purple color, there is a waxy bloom on the surface. The pulp is sweet and sour with a currant flavor. These fruits are well suited for making jelly.
  2. Black Negus... The fruits are black, covered with a glossy skin. This frost-resistant mid-season variety, which is strongly thorny, was created by Michurin, but to this day it is very popular with gardeners in the middle latitudes. Small fruits do not crack and have a sweet-sour taste. Jam, wine, preserves and compotes are made from them.
  3. Lights of Krasnodar... This thornless variety is suitable for growing in all climatic conditions. The fruits are large red.
  4. Russian yellow... This variety is resistant to fungal diseases, it has a small number of thorns, which are mainly found in the lower part of the stems. The fruits are large, yellow, oval, remain on the bush for a long time.
  5. White triumph... This variety is distinguished by its fast growth and productivity. When ripe, greenish fruits acquire a slight yellowish tint. They are sweetish, remain on the bush for a long time.
  6. Date fruit... This variety is susceptible to disease with spheroteka (powdery mildew). However, it is still one of the most popular varieties, because it is high-yielding, and its fragrant fruits are distinguished by their high taste. The green fruits have a purple-crimson blush.

There are also varieties:

  • with sweet fruits - Eaglet, Hinnomaki Gelb, Northern Captain, Spring, African, Kolobok;
  • with sweet and sour fruits - Malachite, Plum, Russian, Donetsk large-fruited;
  • with fragrant fruits - White Triumph, Protector, Flamingo, Hinnomaki Stryn, African;
  • without thorns - Eaglet, Gentle, Serenade, Pax;
  • with a large number of thorns - Defender, Yubileiny, Malachite, Donetsk large-fruited;
  • with rare thorns - Chernomor, Kolobok, Captivator;
  • with thorns growing on the lower part of the stems - Date, Russian, Smena;
  • late-ripening and middle-late - Malachite, Sadko, Smena, Serenada, Chernomor;
  • early maturing - Eaglet, Yarovoy, Salut, Spring;
  • mid-early - Flamingo, Plum, Affectionate;
  • mid-season - Kolobok, Pax, Krasnoslavyansky, Prunes.

Also, a hybrid of yoshta, created by crossing black currants and gooseberries, is gaining more and more popularity among the gardener.

Red and green gooseberry varieties, fruiting in 2015


Bonewood: growing and care in the open field

Author: Natalya Category: Garden Plants Published: February 12, 2019 Last edited: November 04, 2020

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Bone sap (lat.Eupatorium) - a genus of perennials of the family Astrovye, or Asteraceae, originating from North America and spreading in Asia, Europe and tropical regions of Africa. The genus includes more than 120 described species, but even more than 200 species of the stethoscope have an undefined status.
The Russian name of the plant, most likely, comes from the word "poskon", as the male cannabis plant is called, with which the sapwood has some external similarity, and the genus received the scientific name in honor of Mithridates Eupator, the Pontic king, who used some of the plant species antidotes.


Variety characteristic

Domestic breeders have endowed the Grushenka variety with unique qualities, thanks to which this gooseberry can be grown in a variety of climatic conditions.

  1. Gooseberry Grushenka belongs to the mid-late varieties. Technical ripeness begins at the beginning of August, but the berries begin to pick at the end of July. The fruiting period is not too long. Ripe fruits are not afraid of cracking and are firmly attached to the branches, so they can expect harvesting without loss. The yield is not bad at all. A gardener can pick up to 6 kg of berries from one bush.
  2. The advantage of the variety is its frost resistance. Even shrubs that are not prepared for wintering are able to survive frosts down to -30 0 C. The variety can also stoically endure hot and dry periods.
  3. Grushenka belongs to early-growing plants. If you plant a two-year-old seedling, then next spring it will certainly be covered with berries. Of course, the harvest will be small, but after a year or two, the variety will certainly reach optimal performance.
  4. Another great advantage of the variety is its excellent immunity. He is not afraid of diseases that most often affect gooseberries. Among them are powdery mildew, septoria, viral infections.
  5. Grushenka fruits tolerate transportation very well.

The listed abilities only emphasize the versatility of this variety.

Gooseberry Grushenka amazes with an abundance of harvest - the branches are generously, like beads, decorated with berries

Table: advantages and disadvantages

Dignity disadvantages
Stable yield The variety does not like waterlogged soils.
Dampness increases the possibility
fungal infections
Ability to withstand frost and heat
Excellent disease resistance
(powdery mildew and septoria are not terrible).
The absence of thorns on the shoots, which makes it easier
harvesting
Long period of plant life - 20 years
Simple agricultural technology

Harvesting and storage

The berry ripens in the second half of summer: depending on the variety, the fruiting phase can occur in different summer months. The gooseberry is distinguished by its amicable ripening of fruits. However, harvesting can be carried out throughout the month because of its interesting developmental features - the fruits are not prone to shedding even after the onset of biological ripeness.

The tasty fruits of the berry bush are not suitable for long-term fresh storage, but they make excellent jam and jam. If the grower wants to preserve the gooseberry flavor without added sugar, then you can use the freezer or dry the fruit.

Attention! Whole berries that have just reached biological ripeness are used for freezing and drying.

Thus, having carried out a competent planting and observing simple rules for care, the gardener will provide himself with stable, high-quality gooseberry harvests for many years.


Watch the video: GOOSEBERRIES, Everything You Need To Know!


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