White flower (Leucojum) is a bulbous flowering plant from the Amaryllis family. The genus unites many plant species, differing in color, structure, leaf shape and peduncles. These bulbous flowers are common in the Mediterranean countries, Iran, Turkey and northern regions of Africa. Translated from the ancient Greek language, the generic name means "white violet".
The origin of the white flower has its own history. Legend has it that a long time ago God fell in love with an ordinary girl, but without receiving reciprocity, he tried to deceive a woman's heart. He decided to offer the girl all the riches of the world and acted very cunningly. When night fell, God stole a shepherdess's cow and hid the animal in the wilderness. With the onset of morning, the girl rushed to look for a cow.
God deliberately was there and hurried to help find the loss. Having put the shepherdess on a cloud, he raised her to heaven so that she could see where the cow had run away. Struck by the beauty that opened from above, the girl completely forgot about her problems and wanted to become a god too, to rule heaven and earth. Having stolen the divine boxes, where there was snow, fog and rain, she began to scatter them on the ground. God did not expect this from his beloved. Winter has passed, therefore, as soon as the snow touched the ground, it turned into snow-white flowers, which were called "white flowers". From this time on, with the arrival of spring, those same primroses begin to bloom. The cultivated species include only two names of the flower.
White flower is a bulbous plant with belt-like even leaves. White scales, like membranes, cover the surface of the bulbs and die off simultaneously with the root nest. For spring varieties, the appearance of leaves together with flowers is characteristic, and in later species, leaf blades begin to appear only after the opening of the buds. Each year, the flower can form 2 or 3 scales. Behind the next layer, new leaves grow, having both a closed and an open base. The development of the flower arrow occurs from the sinuses, a bud ripens nearby, which releases new shoots.
The peduncle looks a little flattened, with rounded tops. When the fruits begin to ripen, the heads go down. The arrows at the ends are overgrown with green wings, like membranes. Pedicel stems emerge from the base of the sinuses. Soon, umbrella-shaped flowers are formed on them, located singly or in groups. The color of the flowers is white or pink. The perianth shape is a wide bell with open petals, the top of which is colored yellow or green. The white flower bears fruit in juicy seed pods filled with dark ovoid grains.
White flower bulbs are planted in mid-summer or early autumn. By this time, the plant will have faded, and the bulbs will no longer develop so actively. If the autumn season is warmer than usual, it is allowed to postpone the planting of a white flower for a month or a month and a half.
When buying a white flower for planting in open ground, you should carefully choose the bulbs. The skin should be firm, with no signs of damage or disease. The integrity of the shell and scales further affects the development and growth of plants. It is better to purchase bulbs without stems with an underdeveloped root system. White flower bulbs with overgrown roots and arrows need to be immediately planted in the ground. Planting material with traces of mold, dents or a broken bottom is set aside - such bulbs will not bring the desired result. Store the material in boxes or bags along with sawdust.
The location of the future flower bed is organized in partial shade next to water sources or shrubs. Poor and dry soil will inhibit flower growth, so a well-drained area enriched with organic matter is selected. Digging up the ground before planting a white flower, sand and gravel are added, and a meager substrate is mixed with rotted manure or withered foliage. Peat and lime are perfect. Such additives will increase the acidity of the soil, which will have a beneficial effect on the development of bulbs.
The location and depth of planting of white flower bulbs practically does not differ from other plants of this type. In order for the root system to take root faster, the size of the hole should be at least 5-7 cm. The deeper the planting of the white flower, the larger the bulb will grow. If you plant the material close to the surface, the number of children will only increase every year. At the end of planting activities, the flower bed is watered.
Caring for a white flower in the garden is not difficult even for a beginner, but it is important to follow certain rules. When growing a white flower, regular supervision of the flower is necessary, as for other bulbous inhabitants of the garden, for example, muscari, hyacinths or tulips. To achieve a beautiful and sustainable flowering, it is important to observe the watering regime, loosen the soil, remove weeds and periodically feed the plantings.
In the spring, watering does not make sense. The plant has enough moisture coming to the roots from melt water. In regions where winters pass without snow and little rainfall comes in spring, you will have to tinker with watering. They take warm and settled water. Only the roots of the plant are watered. Drops on leaves and flowers cause burns. The need for moisture is associated with the growth of bushes. If you do not pay enough attention to watering, shoot growth slows down.
Plantings of white flowers are fed with complex mineral fertilizers containing little nitrogen, otherwise you can provoke a rapid build-up of greenery, but drown out the flowering. Dampness and stagnant moisture are the cause of fungal diseases, so it is better not to overdo it with watering. Phosphate fertilizers activate the formation of flowers, and potassium fertilizers strengthen the walls of the bulbs. As a result, they survive the wintering painlessly and do not freeze in the soil.
These bulbous relatives of the Amaryllis are frost-resistant and do without shelter. With snowless winters, you need to think about a shelter. The flowerbed with plantings is covered with spruce branches. Such a protective layer will protect her during cold weather.
The white flower reproduces by dividing the root bottom between June and September. It is at this time that the flower goes into a state of rest and slows down the life processes. The bushes are transplanted to a new place after 5-7 years. Longer cultivation of the white flower will lead to a build-up of children who will lack nutrients due to soil depletion. As a result, the perennial will wither away.
The nests dug from the hole are carefully removed from the soil and divided into bulbs. The material is carefully sorted out, removing diseased and frail roots and cutting off the scales with a broken shell, and sent for drying in a dark place. Then the children of the white flower are planted in a flower bed, adhering to the scheme described earlier.
The seed propagation method of the white flower is also used by gardeners. Sowing is carried out immediately after ripening and harvesting the fruits, otherwise the seeds will lose their germination. The fallen seeds stratify themselves during the winter, which in the future will affect the growth and development of seedlings.
The seeds are sown in wooden boxes, covered with a film on top, which will protect against the appearance of weeds. It is important not to allow the top layer of the substrate to dry out. Plants planted in this way are expected to bloom after seven or eight years. If you do not pay attention to the planting of a white flower, you will have to face uncontrolled self-seeding. As a result, perennial seeds will be scattered by insects in the garden area.
With improper care, the white flower is exposed to a number of diseases. We are talking about diseases that all primroses face, including snowdrops.
Slugs, nematodes, caterpillars, mice and moles cause harm to the shoots, leaves and flowers of the plant. They eat the bulbs or damage the skin, which leads to the death of the bush. The caterpillars are harvested by hand before the pupae appear. Another effective way is the treatment of seedlings with insecticidal preparations.
Bulbous nematodes are called small worms, which cause the formation of yellow abscesses on the surface of the leaf blades. Nematodes must be promptly destroyed. The affected bushes are dug up, and the bulbs are soaked in warm water to completely disinfect. It is not recommended to plant a white flower in an area where traces of nematodes were found within five years after tillage.
Slugs that live in dense loam or too fertile soil also pose a threat to white flowers. Before lowering the bulb into the hole, coarse sand is poured onto the bottom.
Mice nibble on bulbs or hide them in burrows. Areas of the peel damaged by rodents begin to gradually rot. The characteristic signs that the structure of the underground part of the plant is disturbed is the suppression of the stems and peduncles. To stop the decay process, the bulbs are dug up and the decayed scales are cut off, and the wounded areas are sprinkled with ash. When the ash layer dries up, they are re-planted in the soil.
Rodents climb into warm grassy sods or a cluster of branching shoots. For this reason, it is recommended to organize a flower bed with a flower planting at some distance. Mice are afraid to wander far from the location of the burrow. In the fight against mice and moles, poisonous baits help, which are laid out near cultural plantings.
Viral infections also infect the white flower from time to time. It is very difficult to cope with this kind of disease. Symptoms of the virus are expressed as yellowish or pale green spots on the leaf blades and tubercles. As a result, the leaves curl and dry out. Sick specimens are immediately collected and burned so that the infection does not spread to other plants in the vicinity.
Gray mold and rust are called bluish bloom and black spots on leaves and stems, which quickly spread to healthy parts of the plant. If the bushes become infected with a fungal disease, they are cut out and burned. It will not be possible to save the landings later. The area where the white flower grew is treated with a fungicidal solution.
Breeders are engaged in breeding only two species of white flowers. We are talking about spring white flower and summer white flower. Let's consider in more detail the distinctive features and structure of each type separately.
The spring white flower is found in the zones of European beech forests and on the territory of Transcarpathia. The perennial is capable of reaching a length of up to 20 cm, has elongated oval bulbs no more than 2 cm in size. In spring varieties, broad-lanceolate leaves and tall peduncles predominate. White-colored flowers are arranged singly or in pairs. The lowered heads of the buds exude a long-lasting pleasant aroma. The upper part of the petals is spotty, yellow and green colors prevail. Opening of the buds begins in mid-spring and lasts about 3-4 weeks. Then a spherical seed capsule is formed, divided into nests. As a cultural representative of the Amaryllis, the plant became known as early as 1420. The most popular variety of the spring white flower is the Carpathicum - a large tall primrose with spotted flowers.
Summer white flower grows in the wild along the coast of Western Europe, in the wetlands of the Crimea, the Caucasus and Asia Minor. The height of the perennial does not exceed 40 cm. The leaves and peduncles look much longer than those of the previous species. The snow-white flower heads open at the end of May and are collected in several pieces in umbrellas. Duration of flowering, depending on weather conditions, ranges from 3-4 weeks. The variety Gravy Gynt became famous, which English scientists managed to bring out. The length of the peduncles is about 60 cm. 6 flowers with yellow-green spotted petals appear on each peduncle.
Primroses such as white hair, long-leaved and Tingitan are considered no less attractive. Recently they began to be attributed to the acis genus. In European countries, gardeners prefer to grow late varieties and types of white flowers, for example, pink and autumn. These are low-growing perennial flowers with white-green spotted buds.
The genus Belotsvetnik includes about a dozen species of similar bulbous plants with different flowering periods. Of these, some species bloom in spring (for example, spring white flower Leucojum vernum - from late April to mid-May).
Spring white flower in Russia is best known in the wild, growing on the edges of beech forests. In floriculture, it is used for the spring decoration of lawns, flower beds and rock gardens located in shady and semi-shady parts of the garden.
There are species of white flowers blooming in summer (for example, summer white flower Leucojum aestivum blooms from late May to mid June). The summer white flower has been in the culture of different countries for a long time, since the end of the 16th century. In Russia, the first bulbs of this species were collected in the Novorossiysk region in the middle of the last century for the Moscow Botanical Garden.
Summer white flower blooms in early summer; it prefers to grow near a garden pond.
White flower pink (Leucojum roseum) and autumn white flower (Leucojum autumnale) bloom in September. But these two species of white flowers blooming in autumn are still little known in Russia; they are cultivated in the gardens of Western Europe.
Autumnal and pink white flowers grow in the wild in arid areas with sandy or rocky soil. They are more capricious, do not tolerate moisture during dormancy - at this time they need to be protected from precipitation. In addition, these types of white flowers are not cold-resistant enough. Therefore, in Russia they are not widespread, but are widely cultivated in the countries of Western Europe.
White flowers generally grow singly or in pairs. Simultaneously with the inflorescence, they have two or four leaves of a linear shape, 25-30 cm long. The flowers are placed on rather high peduncles (from 20 to 40 cm long). In shape, the white flower is very similar to a lily of the valley - the same drooping bell-shaped, but larger. There are interesting white flowers with voluminous inflorescences of 3-10 flowers, collected in the form of an umbrella.
The pollinated flowers of the white flower form a fleshy spherical box, divided into three nests. In these nests, seeds ripen, oblong or round, black or brown.
The beginning of autumn is exactly the time when, as Karel Czapek put it, “it's time to put in the ground what spring should find in it”. This primarily concerns the planting of bulbous plants.
It is better to plant bulbs in September - early October.
With a long and warm autumn, planting is permissible before the beginning of November, but not later. We plant croplands a little earlier - in late August - early September. Then, in mid-September, they will open their soft lilac flowers.
Before planting bulbs, carefully dig up the soil, adding compost. Ideal soils for them are medium-heavy, but well-drained. Then we compact the soil at the landing site, usually trampling it down with our feet. If this is not done, the soil will sink from precipitation and damage the delicate roots of the bulb.
Bulbous plants do not tolerate excess moisture! In such conditions, the bulbs become sick and begin to rot.
To avoid this, we fill each planting hole with a drainage layer 4-5 cm thick from coarse sand, crushed stone or gravel.
There is a general rule of thumb regarding planting depth. We plant the bulb to a depth of 3 times its height.
For large bulbs, the planting depth is 15 to 20 cm, and for very large ones, even up to 25 cm. For small ones, approximately 5-10 cm.
We plant large bulbs (tulips, imperial hazel grouses) in the holes strictly bottom down at a distance of 10-12 cm from each other. Small onions (snowdrops, muscari, chionodox, pushkinia or crocuses) can be sown.
The number of planted bulbs per 1 sq. m depends on what effect we want to achieve. To obtain a natural, "natural" picture, we plant the bulbs at different distances from each other. And a few bulbs can be purposely planted a little further away from the rest! If we are trying to create the impression of a solid floral carpet, then we plant the bulbs more densely and at the same distance. For 1 sq. m of soil can accommodate up to 50 pieces of tulips and daffodils and up to 400 small-bulbous plants!
If the weather is warm, dry during planting, water the bulbs immediately. This will speed up root growth and the plants will winter better. In the first winter, we must cover the plants planted in autumn with fallen leaves or peat-humus. This is especially necessary if planting was late or during frost-free periods. In subsequent years, we do not cover the bulbous with anything, with the exception of the peat mulching layer.
Planting is carried out at a depth of 2-3 bulb sizes. Then a large onion forms. If you plant it shallow, you get more babies, and the mother plant will be smaller.
After planting, the white flower is watered properly.
• after seed ripening or in autumn
• seedlings bloom for 5-6 years
cold stratification during winter
leaves up to 20 cm, peduncles - up to 30 cm
April, within 20-30 days
• flower up to 3 cm long
• the tips of the petals are yellow or green
broadly bell-shaped flowers, single or paired
broadly lanceolate, up to 25 cm long, 1.2 cm wide
ovoid bulb, up to 2 cm in diameter
Nobody has created threads yet
Do you believe in garden fairies? Someone, after reading, will smile, and some will think and mentally plunge into the world of childhood and fantasy. And I .
A multi-tiered vegetation plant "Fitopyramida" has been created, a kind of vertical hydroponic farm for growing.
Forcing plants is a way to bring them out of dormancy and thereby, awakening them to flowering in a period unusual for them. Of the entire Amaryllis family, only the above three flowers can undergo this procedure. So, everyone knows that Snowdrops and Daffodils bloom even in winter.
Daffodils are among those plants that are less demanding in preparation for forcing. So, for their flowering by May 1, the bulbs are dug up in June and stored at a temperature of 17 degrees before planting for distillation. In order for the forcing of Narcissus to be successful, choose bulbs with a diameter of 4-5 cm. They are planted in pots with a nutrient mixture so that their tops are 1-2 cm above the soil.
In November, the pots are transferred to greenhouses with a temperature of 5-9 degrees and an air humidity of 85-90%. This is the optimal setting for rooting the bulbs. After 16-18 days, the bulbs take root. When the height of the sprouts is 5-7 cm, the pots are transferred to greenhouses, the temperature in which is 16-18 degrees, the air humidity is 85-90%. These are the most favorable conditions for distilling Daffodils. After 12-20 days, Narcissus bloom, during this period they need abundant watering and high humidity in the room.
Distillation of Narcissus can also be carried out in glass vessels: in order to distill the Narcissus for the new year, in October the vessel is filled with rain or snow water, on the bottom of which pieces of charcoal are placed, sprinkled with sand so that they do not float. The vessel is covered with a thin wooden circle, in the center of which a hole is cut out equal to the diameter of the onion.
The bulb is placed in the hole so that its bottom, without touching the water, is 2-3 mm above the surface of the water in the vessel. A vessel with an onion is transferred for 1.5-2 months to a cool, dark room, in which the temperature is 9 degrees. This time is enough for good rooting of the bulbs, forcing Daffodils at home in this way is also done. If necessary, you can add water to the vessel, carefully lifting the circle so as not to damage the formed roots of the plant. Instead of water, you can also use a solution of the following composition:
When the plants reach 5-7 cm, they are placed in forcing rooms. Cut the forcing daffodils when the buds are colored. After the end of flowering and cutting the buds, watering is gradually stopped and until the aerial part of the plants dries up, they are kept at a temperature of 8-10 degrees.
Then the bulbs are removed from the pots, dried in a well-ventilated room at a temperature of 17 degrees and stored in storage at a temperature of 9 degrees until the optimum time for planting them in open ground. It has been noticed that after forcing the daffodil bulbs are very well preserved. This is apparently due to the fact that the storage scales of the Narcissus bulbs live up to four years.
Most popular daffodil distillation by March 8 and other holidays is made from the following varieties:
Golden Harvest, Carlton, Dutch Master - yellow flowers
Beersheba - white flowers Barrett Browning,
Flower Record - white flowers with an orange crown
Cragford, Mercato - white flowers with a yellow crown
Mount Hood - White flowers with a creamy tube.
The most common for forcing is the Common Snowdrop. To do this, its bulbs are dug out of the ridges in July, dried and stored in storage at a temperature of 5-9 degrees. In September, the bulbs are planted in 11 cm pots of 10-15 pieces each, sprinkled with fine peat crumbs on top and placed in greenhouses.
In December (after the rooting of the bulbs), they are set for distillation. They are transferred to greenhouses, where the temperature is 16-18 degrees, the air humidity is 85-90%. After 25-32 days, Snowdrops bloom and bloom within 10-12 days. During this period, they need abundant watering and maintaining high humidity.
After flowering, watering gradually stops and after drying of the aboveground part of the plants, the bulbs are dug up and stored in storage. In spring, snowdrop bulbs are planted in open ground. It is not recommended to reuse these bulbs for forcing. The distillation of Sternbergia is carried out in a similar way.
In the section "Ornamental-growing plants" you can also familiarize yourself with other plant families that are used for landscaping, that is, they are planted in parks and garden plots, betraying a fertile atmosphere during flowering.