Peanuts: outdoor cultivation, planting in Ukraine and Russia


Garden plants

Cultivated peanuts (lat.Arachis hypogaea), or underground peanuts, or peanut - a demanded earth crop, which belongs to the genus Peanuts of the legume family. From a botanical point of view, the peanut is not a nut, but a legume. The homeland of the plant is South America, where it already had value in those days when the mainland was not yet discovered by Columbus. Peanuts came to Europe thanks to the Spanish conquistadors, and later the Portuguese brought this crop to Africa, where the nutritional properties of peanuts and their ability to grow on scarce soils were highly appreciated. And after a while, slave traders brought peanuts to North America. In the 30s of the 16th century, Portuguese sailors brought peanuts to Macau and India, and Spanish to the Philippines. Then the culture came to China and was a salvation for the local population from hunger. In the early 19th century, industrial peanut cultivation began in South Carolina, and this crop fed both armies during the North-South War.
Since peanuts were considered the food of the poor, farmers did not seek to cultivate this crop, but in 1903 the American agrochemist George Washington Carver invented more than 300 products from peanuts - drinks, cosmetics, medicines, dyes, printing ink, laundry soap and even an insect killer ... Since the weevil was massively destroying cotton crops in those years, Carver was able to persuade farmers to alternate the cultivation of soil-depleting cotton with the cultivation of peanuts. As a result, peanuts became the main cash crop of the southern states, and in Dothan, Alabama, grateful Americans erected a monument to Carver.
Today, peanuts in Ukraine, Transcaucasia and other regions of the former USSR with a warm climate are grown on an industrial scale.

Planting and caring for peanuts

  • Landing: sowing seeds in open ground - in mid-May.
  • Lighting: bright light.
  • The soil: moist, light, containing humus, calcium and magnesium, sandy loam or black earth neutral reaction.
  • Watering: after the top layer of soil has dried. During flowering - 1-2 times a week in the morning, after flowering watering is moderate, but evening spraying of peanuts with warm water is necessary. In drought, sprinkling or furrow irrigation in the aisles is desirable. In a season with normal rainfall, 4-5 waterings will be required.
  • Top dressing: complete mineral fertilizer: 1st - when the seedlings reach a height of 10 cm; 2nd - at the beginning of fruiting.
  • Reproduction: seed.
  • Pests: thrips, aphids, caterpillars and wireworms.
  • Diseases: affected by powdery mildew, phyllostictosis, alternaria, fusarium wilting and gray rot.

Read more about growing peanuts below.

Peanut plant - description

Cultivated peanut is an annual plant up to 70 cm high with highly branched shoots. Its root is also branched, tap-shaped; the stems are erect, pubescent or glabrous, slightly faceted, with lateral branches recumbent or directed upward. The leaves of peanuts are pubescent, alternate, 3 to 11 cm long, paired, with a grooved petiole and two pairs of pointed elliptical leaves. Peanuts bloom with whitish or yellow-red flowers, collected in 4-7 pieces in short axillary inflorescences. Despite the fact that each peanut flower blooms for only one day, and withers in the evening, the flowering of the whole plant lasts from late June or early July until late autumn.

Peanut fruits are oval, swollen two to four-seeded beans with a length of one and a half to six centimeters with a cobweb pattern. Ripening, they lean to the ground, plunge into it and ripen there. Peanut seeds, oblong, the size of a bean, are covered with dark red, light pink, cream or greyish yellow skin. Peanuts ripen in September-October.

Planting peanuts outdoors

How peanuts grow

Growing peanuts is carried out in open areas with intense lighting without the slightest hint of shadow from buildings or other plants. Peanuts grow at temperatures above 20 ºC - if the temperature drops literally by two degrees, plant growth stops. The easiest way to cultivate peanuts in Ukraine and in other warm regions is by sowing their seeds in the ground at a time when the acacia is blooming. Peanuts in Russia, especially in areas with a cool climate, are best grown in seedlings.

When to plant peanuts in the ground

Since peanuts can only be planted in warm soil, they do this after sowing melons, when the ground warms up to 12-14 ºC, which means, not earlier than mid-May. Keep in mind that return frosts in spring are bad for peanuts. You can use peanuts purchased from a store or market as seed, but not fried, candied or salted.

Then you can plant peanuts

When growing peanuts, it is very important to follow the crop rotation. It grows best after crops such as cabbage, cucumbers, tomatoes and potatoes, especially if organic fertilizers have been applied to these crops. But after legumes (beans, peas, beans, lentils), peanuts are not grown, because the plant can develop root rot.

Soil for peanuts

The soil for peanuts should be moist, light and neutral, with a high content of humus, magnesium and calcium - black soil or sandy loam. The culture does not tolerate saline soils, and acidic soils must be limed before planting peanuts.

The site for planting peanuts is prepared in advance: for the autumn digging of the soil to a depth of 25-30 cm, 1 to 3 kg of humus is introduced for each m² of the area. In the spring, the soil is dug up again, but not so deeply, and 50 g of Nitrofoski is added to the soil for each m² of the plot.

How to plant peanuts

How to plant peanuts? Planting peanuts is carried out in holes 10 cm deep, staggered at a distance of 50 cm from one another. The gap between the rows is left within 25-30 cm.You can sow peanuts in the garden in a square-nesting method according to the scheme 60x60 or 70x70 cm.Peanuts can be planted in a wide-row method, observing the row spacing of 60-70 cm and the distance between plants in a row 15- 20 cm. 3 large seeds are placed in each hole, since small seeds may not sprout. After planting the seeds, the bed is watered abundantly with a hose through a shower head under low pressure so as not to erode the soil.

Growing peanuts in the garden

How to grow peanuts

How to grow peanuts in the garden? Caring for peanuts consists in watering the beds during a drought, weeding, loosening the soil and feeding. Young, low seedlings must be protected from weeds. Weeding can be combined with loosening the soil, and vice versa. At the end of flowering, 1.5-2 months after sowing, the growing ovaries will begin to sink to the ground and germinate into the soil, where the peanuts will ripen. As soon as the ovaries begin to bend to the ground, the bushes are covered with moist, loose soil, like potatoes, so that the receptacle can quickly reach the nutrient medium. Instead of hilling, you can sprinkle a layer of mulch from humus, sawdust, sand or peat at least 5 cm thick on the garden bed.On average, 30-50 beans ripen under each bush, each of which contains from 1 to 7 seeds.

Watering peanuts

Ground peanuts love moist but not wet soil. Water it when the topsoil dries up. During flowering, it is watered abundantly, once or twice a week in the morning; after flowering, it does not need watering as much as spraying in the evening every other day or two. If it rains during the ripening period of the peanuts, cover the bed with plastic. And in a drought it is best to sprinkle peanuts, but if this is not possible, then water the peanuts along the furrows in the aisles. In total, 4-5 waterings are carried out per season.

Peanut feeding

For the first time, peanuts are fed with a solution of 20 g of ammonium nitrate, 45 g of potassium salt and 70 g of superphosphate in 10 liters of water, when the seedlings reach 10 cm in height. The second time is at the beginning of fruiting, although this feeding is optional.

Peanuts at home

Choose strong, healthy peanut seeds and soak them overnight in a bowl of water and a drop of Epin. Small white sprouts should appear in the morning. Plant the seeds in loose soil in a wide bowl. Peanuts germinate very quickly, and immediately after flowering, in place of the flowers, hypophores are formed, which, bending, go into the ground, where the peanut beans develop. Did you know that peanuts develop underground?

They contain crops of peanuts away from drafts, on the southern windowsill, but at noon the plant needs shading. Water the peanuts regularly, however, be careful not to let the water stagnate in the roots. On hot days, spray the peanuts to prevent spider mites from settling on them. Two and a half or three months after sprouting, the leaves of the peanuts begin to turn red, and this is a sign for you that the fruits of the peanuts in the soil are ripe.

Pests and diseases of peanuts

Peanuts can be infested with powdery mildew, phyllostictosis, Alternaria blight, Fusarium wilt, and gray mold.

Powdery mildew - the first signs of this disease look like single spots of powdery plaque on both sides of the leaves, which grow with the course of the disease and cover the entire leaf, from which it turns yellow and dries. The disease affects the stems and even the embryos. With a strong infection in the fight against powdery mildew, they resort to processing peanuts with systemic fungicides - Bravo, Quadris, Ridomil, Switch, Skor, Topaz or Horus.

Phylostictosis, or leaf spot, not such a harmful disease, but it is necessary to fight it. The onset of the disease can be recognized by small brown specks growing up to 6 mm in diameter. Gradually, their middle fades, the fabric in it dies off, and the border becomes brown-violet. Phyllostictosis progresses during the period of high air humidity. Effective in combating the disease of treatment of plants with fungicides of a wide spectrum of action.

Alternaria or black leaf spot, manifests itself in years when, at the end of the growing season, humid and warm weather sets in for a long time. Black spots up to 15 cm in diameter are formed at the edges of the leaves, which grow and merge with the development of the disease, which causes the edges of the leaves to die off. On the spots, you can see a dense black coating of the fungus. In order to prevent the development of the disease, it is necessary to observe the agricultural technology of the species, which serves to increase the plant's resistance to the pathogen.

Fusarium wilting manifests itself in the form of root rot, which causes the cessation of growth and development of the plant, yellowing of its ground parts and rapid death. The danger of the disease is that it may subside for a while, but during flowering and laying of fruits it develops with renewed vigor, which leads to the death of plants even before harvesting. Compliance with agricultural techniques and timely harvesting will help prevent fusarium wilting.

Gray rot usually occurs at the end of the flowering of peanuts and is manifested by rusty-brown spots, which pass from the leaves along the petioles to the stems, which is why their upper part withers and dies. Fruits do not form on the affected plants, and those that have already formed are deformed. The active development of the disease is observed at the end of summer in humid and warm weather. It is possible to prevent the appearance of gray rot only by growing peanuts in a high agricultural background.

Sometimes peanuts can also suffer from dwarfism, dry rot, ramulariasis and cercospora.

Of the pests, peanuts can be annoyed by thrips, aphids and caterpillars, which can be eliminated by sprinkling the garden with a mixture of wood ash and tobacco dust, and peanuts are treated with insectoacaricides from thrips. Worst of all, if the wireworms, the larvae of the click beetle living in the ground, begin to eat the peanuts. Their destructive activity is not hindered even by the fact that peanuts are in their shells - they easily gnaw it and feed on peanut seeds.

To destroy wireworms, trap holes are dug in several places, in which pieces of beets, carrots or potatoes are placed. The traps are covered with boards, pieces of slate or metal, and after a while the larvae that have crawled to feed are opened and destroyed.

In order to minimize the risk of pests appearing on the garden bed, observe crop rotation and agricultural techniques of the species, promptly remove weeds from the site.

Cleaning and storage of peanuts

As soon as the peanut leaves turn yellow, scoop up a couple of beans, and if the seeds are easily husked from them, be ready to harvest. Usually peanuts are harvested when the air temperature is consistently within 10 ºC. Do not delay harvesting until the cold weather, because after the soil freezes, the seeds acquire bitterness and become unsuitable for food. Wait for a fine sunny day and start cleaning.

A pitchfork is used to dig up the fruit. Once removed from the ground, the beans are separated from the stems and dried outdoors in the shade. When the shells are dry, transfer the beans to cloth bags and store in a dry, well ventilated area with a temperature not exceeding 10 ºC.

Types and varieties of peanuts

There are more than 70 types of peanuts in the Legumes family. Several species are grown in South America, but only two species are cultivated outside this continent - cultivated peanuts and Pinto peanuts. A huge number of cultivated varieties of peanuts are conventionally divided into four groups:

Spanish group (Spanish varieties)

These small peanuts are grown in South Africa and the southeastern and southwestern United States. The Spanish type of peanut is characterized by a higher oil content than other types of peanuts. Spanish peanuts have medium-sized kernels in a pink-brown shell, which are used mainly for the production of peanut butter, candied and salted nuts. The largest suppliers of Spanish peanuts are Texas and Oklahoma.

To the best varieties of Spanish type peanuts include Dixie Spanish, Spantex, Argentinian, Spanet, Natal ordinary, Star, Comet, Spanhoma, Florispan, Spankromm, Tamspan 90, O'Lean, Spenco, Wilco, White Core, Shafers Spanish and others.

Valencia Group

Represents varieties mostly with large kernels. These are tall plants, reaching a height of 125 cm, with three-seeded smooth fruits. The seeds are oval, in a bright red shell, for which they are often called redskins (redskin). This group is a Spanish subgroup.

Runner Group

The varieties of this group are superior in taste to the varieties of the Spanish type, in addition, the Runner is better roasted and gives higher yields. The kernels of the Runner varieties are large and oblong. They are used for the production of peanut butter and salted nuts for beer. The best varieties of the Runner group are Dixie Runner, Early Runner, Virginia Bunch 67, Bradford Runner, Egyptian Giant, North Carolina Runner 56-15, Georgia Green, Fragrant Runner 458, Southeast Runner 56-15 and others.

Virginia Group

These select, large peanuts are fried in their shells and used for confectionery. The best varieties of the Virginia group are Shulamite, Hull, Wilson, Gregory, Virginia 98R, Perry, Virginia 92R, North Carolina 7, North Carolina 9 and others.

Peanut properties - harm and benefit

Useful properties of peanuts

What are the benefits of peanuts? To understand the benefits of peanuts, you need to study its composition. Peanuts contain linoleic, pantothenic and folic acids, vegetable fats, glutenins, easily digestible proteins, starch, sugars, vitamins A, E, D, PP, B1 and B2, iron, macronutrients magnesium, phosphorus and potassium.Its fruit contains antioxidants, and this makes peanuts, along with strawberries, pomegranates, blackberries and red wine, one of the most effective means of preventing cardiovascular diseases.

Peanut proteins have an optimal ratio of amino acids, and this is the reason for their excellent absorption by the human body. The fats contained in peanuts have a mild choleretic effect, which is useful for gastritis and gastric ulcer. Folic acid promotes cell renewal in the body, and a large amount of antioxidants protects cells from free radicals and serves as the prevention of vascular ischemia, heart disease, early aging, atherosclerosis and the formation of cancer cells.

Peanuts have a calming effect on people with increased excitability, helps to recuperate faster, improves memory, increases potency, enhances sexual desire, eliminates insomnia.

Due to their high protein content, peanuts increase the feeling of fullness, which is why nutritionists often use them as the basis of weight loss diets. But what peanuts do not contain is cholesterol.

Peanuts - contraindications

Any, even the most useful product, if used in exorbitant quantities, can be harmful, therefore, in the use of peanuts, one must observe the measure, especially for those who suffer from excess weight. The harm of peanuts can affect people prone to allergies, especially if they are consumed together with peanuts containing strong allergens.

Arthritis and arthrosis are also contraindications to the use of peanuts. We recommend that you monitor the quality of the product, as moldy or rancid peanuts can lead to poisoning.

Literature

  1. Read the topic on Wikipedia
  2. Features and other plants of the Legumes family
  3. List of all species on The Plant List
  4. More information on World Flora Online

Sections: Garden plants Plants on A Legumes (Moths) Nuts


Arctotis

The flowering plant Arctotis is a member of the Astro family. This genus unites about 70 species. Some of these species are considered endemic to the Cape region, about 30 are found in Africa south of Angola and Zimbabwe, and another part grows in South America. The name of this plant is translated from Greek as "bear's ear", this is due to the fact that the bush has a very dense pubescence. Arctotis has been cultivated for over a century.


Types and varieties of peanuts

Conventionally, all cultivated varieties of peanuts can be divided into 4 groups.

Spanish group - small peanuts with a high oil content. The kernels are in a pink-brown sheath. This type is used for the production of peanut butter, salted and candied nuts.

Valencia Group - varieties with large kernels. Plants are tall with smooth fruits, 3 seeds each.

Runner Group - the varieties of this group are superior to the Spanish varieties in taste, and also give high yields. This peanut is used for the production of peanut butter, salted nuts for beer.

Virginia group - large, selected peanuts that are used for confectionery.


Harvesting and storage, drying of fruits

Cleaning starts from mid to late September. It is necessary to have time to remove it before the daytime temperatures drop below + 8 ... + 10 ° С. Then the quality of the crop will not decrease. For cleaning, you need to dig in the root part with a pitchfork. This article will tell you about the processing of tomato seeds before planting seedlings.

You need to dig a bush on both sides of the garden. Gently shaking it off, take it out and place it on the garden cart. They are taken to the site, under a canopy, where you can separate the beans from the stems.

Drying of the beans is required. Household dryers are used, in which the temperature is maintained no more than + 45 ... + 48 ° С. For large volumes of cultivated peanuts, heliofruit dryers are used. Enterprises where the area under this crop is tens of hectares use industrial belt dryers.


It is easy to care for the beans - they need to be watered, loosened, hilled, fed and weeds removed in time.

Bean feeding

If the soil was properly prepared - organic and mineral fertilizers were applied, then there is no special need for fertilizing. If some moments were missed during the preparation of the soil, the plant with its appearance will indicate a problem - it may need feeding.

Features of feeding beans:

  • During the emergence of seedlings, the culture is fed with urea and mullein, 20 g and 0.5 liters per 1 sq. m respectively. The components are dissolved in 10 liters of water and watered with the resulting solution of the beds - 0.5 liters per bush.
  • For 1 sq. m, 10 g of superphosphate, 5 g of potassium salt and ammonium nitrate are injected.

If the beans have slowed down in growth, they are fed with potassium-nitrogen fertilizer - 10-15 g are applied per square meter.

Watering features

Beans love moisture, and regular moisture is an important factor in the agricultural technology of this crop. Watering is recommended during flowering and fruit setting. But it is important not to overdo it with watering - if moisture stagnation begins, the roots of the plant can rot. Another lack of excess moisture is the active growth of greenery to the detriment of yield.

If there is no rain, then the beans are watered with a frequency of 2 times a week. For 1 sq. m pour about a bucket of water.

Weeding, loosening

Since the plant has a powerful root system, it suppresses the growth of "aliens". Weeds that do grow must be removed so as not to hinder the growth and development of the culture. This is especially important at the initial stage, when the plant grows up, suppresses competitors, and the need for weeding will disappear.

When the height of the plants reaches 50 cm, they are huddled up. During the season, 2 hilling is carried out. By scooping up the soil to the stem, the plant is better able to withstand the wind.

Pinching the tops

Pluck the tops when flowers appear. Young greens are clinging to aphids, and they drink juices. Tearing off about 10-15 cm of the tops, the gardener deprives the parasites of the "food base". At the same time, the fruits develop and ripen evenly.

Tying, creating support for shoots

There are varieties of beans that reach a height of 1 m or more. Such plants can break under the influence of the wind - the stems of the beans are quite fragile. Tall varieties must be tied up.

The following types of supports are used for tying:

  • Wooden supports - they are driven into the ground near the bush. The plant is tied to a support with a soft twine. The height of the stakes is 1 m.
  • Tapestries. To build them, racks are driven in along the edges of the beds. Between them is a soft cord to which the stems are tied.

How to deal with pests?

In order not to lose the harvest, plantings with dangerous insects are treated with special compounds.

Bean pests and control:

Pest Harm Treatment
Black bean aphid Attacks young shoots, the stems become crooked. Tearing off the tops during active growth - up to 15 cm long. They are treated with Karbofos.
Bean weevil The butterfly lays eggs in young ovaries. The larvae, having penetrated into the seed, eat it up. Soaking the seeds in a salt solution.
Sprout fly The fly larvae feed on the roots of the beans. Regular loosening of the soil and removal of weeds.

Fight disease

Beans rarely get sick, this crop is disease resistant. But preventive measures will not interfere, any disease can lead to the loss of the crop - in whole or in part.

Common Bean Diseases and Symptoms:

Disease Symptoms Treatment
Anthracnose Brown spots appear on the leaves and stems. Bean valves - in dark ulcerations, fruit formation is disturbed. Spraying plants with 1% Bordeaux liquid.
Rust A fungal disease causes a change in plant tissues - the stems and leaves turn white and soften. It develops in a damp climate. Agrotechnical methods are used - fertilizing and seed dressing.
Powdery mildew Symptoms appear during the flowering period. On all ground parts of the plant there is a white bloom. The entire growing season lasts. Processing with 1% gray colloidal (0.50 g per 1 sq. M). Dust with powdered sulfur (3 g per 1 sq. M).

  • Application of potash and phosphorus fertilizers.
  • Destruction of plant residues after harvest.
  • Warming up the seeds before planting in +50 ° C water.


Peanut benefits

It is important to remember that there are 551 kcal per 100 g of peanuts. This means that 300 g is already the daily calorie intake. Therefore, if you are struggling with excess weight, take into account the high calorie content of nuts and be sure to consult your doctor!

It is better to eat it, of course, raw, because when heated, most of the nutrients are destroyed. Peanuts contain amino acids, therefore, their constant use is the prevention of cancer.

It also improves hearing and memory. Peanuts are also indispensable to enhance potency.

But there are also contraindications. These are gastrointestinal diseases and peanut allergies. And everything is fine in moderation: no more than 15-20 beans a day.


Drying fruits

After harvesting, peanuts need a long (about a week) drying in a warm place - in the sun or on the floor at home, or even better - on a mesh base under a fan. Dried fruits will rattle when shaken. And only then can the peanut beans be removed from the shells. After drying, they take on their usual deep pink or hot pink color.


In the pan and fry!

It is from your own harvest that you can select the best seeds for planting next year. And then it will already be possible to grow the strongest and most hardy plants, which in the summer on your site will turn into a real green peanut carpet.


Green bedspread

And in the fall, they will surely delight you with unusually tasty and healthy nuts.

Good luck with your experiments and a nutty mood!

People, it would be better to germinate them first, and then put them in a pot. I have sprouted quickly in wet discs

Thanks Igor! This year I conducted an experiment on growing a nut, of course there were mistakes, but still there is a result. I planted seedlings on April 18, harvested on October 1.
there were a lot of flowers

harvest

the size is smaller than what was planted

Oh, really! Everyone is already running, planting a walnut in a race with a three-story house in the country - it's too much for him to feel sorry for free space. Growing figs and apricots in northern conditions - to eat them, it's obvious. Plus satisfaction from their own result A person sits at home drinking vodka - they don't like it, a person spends energy in the country, has grown peanuts - and this is not so, my God, and there is something different, not that, you know, you need to plant, but only what is on the list Yes is, there is already all this: both "perfectly growing apples, pears, cherries and plums", and "a lot of other useful and much more delicious crops." I would never have thought that it was a woman who would offer not to waste energy on something new, to close herself in one beautiful box and not see anything else. It is necessary to conduct a survey among other women
This is how we will agree to the point that why then have a dacha at all, because "the world has long lived with the division of labor, and this is an objective reality." I went to the store and bought it, and on the Internet I looked at what was growing.

In addition, the phrase "a tailor who can sew a bunch of clothes, having the appropriate conditions, instead suddenly decides to sew shoes, boots and sandals without the appropriate conditions - on a sewing machine" well somehow does not fit at all for comparison. Since the appropriate conditions are created by the "tailor" with care and attention (AND TO MAKE IT FULLY REAL, as we can see), for this purpose similar articles are written for INTERESTED people.

expressions in quotation marks "." are quotes from katenafnaf's comment above.

This is why apricots are grown in northern conditions.

For this

And for this


Watch the video: EUROPEAN UNION EU vs RUSSIA 2021 - Who Would Win? ArmyMilitary Comparison


Previous Article

Fires: Fire prevention

Next Article

How to protect your garden and vegetable garden from pests in winter