In his article about new remontant varieties of raspberries with a repeated fruiting cycle on annual shoots, bred by the famous breeder I.V. Kazakov for the conditions of the Central Black Earth, North Caucasian and more southern regions ("Flora Price" No. 1 (72)), I noted that the variety Babe Leto (which was one of the first to be obtained) was also assigned to this group.
However, as my observations during the cultivation of this variety on a summer cottage and the experience of the Pushkin nursery of the SPC "Agrotechnology" show, in the conditions of the North-West region with an insufficiently warm and frost-free autumn period, the zone of remontant fruiting on annual shoots in this variety is noticeably reduced (up to 30% shoot length), the ripening of berries is delayed, which sharply reduces the autumn harvest. And only in the years with a warm, prolonged autumn, which have recently been observed in the Leningrad region (2000, 2003, 2005), about 1 / 4-1 / 3 of the apical part of annual shoots have ripened large, clean, sweet berries.
The fruiting top of the shoot dries up, and on the remaining two-year-old stem the next year a summer harvest is formed, as in ordinary varieties.
In years with warm autumn, on the tops of annual shoots, the crop is formed on such varieties that are partially remontant in the conditions of the North-West, such as Firebird, Crane, Progress, September and some others.
Varieties of this type, and especially the variety Babe Leto, in our conditions should be grown with an orientation towards obtaining two harvests: the main summer and additional autumn on the upper part of the annual shoots. In this case, it is not necessary to cut off the aerial part of the plants of annual shoots for the winter, and in the early spring only the fruiting top should be removed. The remaining two-year-old part of the stem bears fruit in summer.
In the warmer regions of central Russia, from each bush of the Babie Leto variety grown in this way, 2.5-2.8 kg of autumn harvest berries and 2-2.5 kg of summer harvest are obtained. Thus, the total yield can reach 4.5-5 kg per bush.
However, in the North-West region of Russia, an attempt to remove "two skins from one sheep" succeeds only in years with a warm, prolonged autumn and, of course, the indicators of summer and autumn yields are different. In addition, it sometimes happens that the harvest does not have time to ripen in the fall, and the upper part of the shoot freezes up, since due to the formation of the ovary, the shoot is not prepared for overwintering.
Nevertheless, many gardeners grow the Indian Summer variety in order to get at least 1.0-1.5 kg from a bush of large, non-wormy berries in the fall, in September-October, since during this period they are not affected by the raspberry beetle, because the phases of development of the raspberry beetle and the formation of autumn berries do not coincide.
In areas with insufficiently warm autumn for a more complete ripening of the autumn harvest, it is advisable to normalize the ovaries in the upper part of the shoot, where small berries are formed, and parts of the inflorescences even dry out. On this part of the shoot, normalization of the generative organs should be carried out, after pinching the growing branch when the first inflorescence is formed, then, as it appears, you need to break off 5-7 upper weak branches, leaving 8-10 lower, stronger branches for fruiting. Such normalization contributes to the rapid development of the remaining fruit branches, their timely and friendly flowering, accelerates ripening and increases the mass of berries. At the same time, the total yield does not decrease, and practically the berries have time to ripen before the first frost.
In addition, to accelerate the ripening of the autumn harvest, you can use the simplest portable film shelters. Some of the tops of shoots with unripe berries can be cut off and kept in a room in a vessel with water until ripening, or ovaries, buds and flowers can be used as medicinal preparations, after drying them.
For gardeners who want to combine the production of autumn berries of the Babe Leto variety and planting material of this variety, we can recommend the experience of broadband growing of plants with the subsequent use of annual shoots that bear fruit in the fall as planting material.
In this case, the plantation is placed on well-fertilized and weed-free soil. Plants are planted with a two-line tape with a distance of 0.5 m between plants in a row and 0.5-0.7 m between lines.
By the fall of the first year, 1-2 well-developed shoots with a fruiting top are formed from the rhizome of each seedling. After harvesting, the top is cut off, shoots are dug up with a shovel with a small volume of roots and used as sedimentary material.
In the spring of next year, numerous root suckers grow from the roots remaining in the soil, filling the entire strip, 0.7-1.0 m wide.
During the summer, they are rationed, leaving 15-18 of the strongest shoots per 1 m of strips, they will give a harvest in the fall under favorable conditions, after harvesting all the seedlings are dug up and used for planting or sale.
Then the site is cleared of debris, organic and mineral fertilizers are applied superficially, they are embedded in the soil to a depth of 4-5 cm. By the fall of next year, berries and planting material are harvested again. Thus, the plantings can be used for 5-6 years, provided they are well cared for.
The technology of growing remontant varieties with both a two-year (Babe Leto) and a one-season cycle of growth and fruiting has some peculiarities in contrast to the generally accepted technology.
First of all, this concerns the careful choice of a place both in the production area and in the personal plot. A sunny, well-lit place is a prerequisite for success. This greatly affects the timing of the beginning of flowering: in shading, flowering occurs later, and the plants do not show their full potential, sharply reduce the remontant zone, delay the beginning of ripening of berries or do not form a crop at all.
The best soils for remontant varieties are well-fertilized medium and light loams with a neutral or slightly acidic pH 6-7 reaction.
It is advisable to prepare the soil in a pre-planting crop rotation, alternating between clean fallow and busy green manure fallow, i.e. one year the land is not occupied with anything, but organic fertilizer is applied and loosened, destroying weeds. In the second year, crops are sown that help get rid of weeds, but do not reduce soil fertility. In the third year, siderates are sown and embedded in the soil. In all other respects, the soil is prepared as on a regular raspberry plantation.
Low-fertile soils are improved by the annual application of increased doses of organic fertilizers for autumn digging (10-15 kg / m2). Excessively wetted areas are drained by drainage or open ditches.
In the northern part of the Non-Chernozem zone and in the North-West, with a close standing of groundwater and the impossibility of draining them, you can plant raspberries on ridges, planting plants in furrows, the bottom of which should be laid out with various organic materials that give humus (wood chips, chopped brushwood, reeds, reeds, etc. etc.)
Average fertile soils are annually filled with fertilizers per 1 m2: 5-6 kg of organic fertilizers, 25-30 g of superphosphate, 15-20 g of potassium salt.
Considering the increased need of remontant varieties for nutrients and the impossibility of filling the entire area well, it is advisable to apply fertilizers into the trench.
To do this, in the direction of the future row, they dig a trench 0.5-0.6 m deep, at the bottom of which organic and mineral fertilizers are applied per 1 m2 of its length: two buckets of humus or compost and one glass of superphosphate and potassium sulfate. It is better to replace mineral fertilizers with one liter can of ash. Fertilizers are mixed with the top layer of soil and dumped into a trench - this is the first layer. Then the bottom layer of earth is poured, mixed with fertilizers - the second layer. The trench is lightly tamped so that all the soil can fit in it.
A similar method of pre-planting soil filling can be used when planting seedlings in pits, introducing into each of them a half dose of fertilizer recommended for 1 m of the trench.
Plants can be placed during planting in several ways:
- single-row, with a distance between plants of 0.5 m, between rows on a personal plot - at least 1.2 m;
- tape, in 2-3 lines with a distance between plants of 0.5 m, between lines - 0.6-0.9 m, between tapes - 1.5-1.8 m;
- bushy, separate bushes every 0.7 m;
- arbitrary, placing plants in the sunniest and warmest places;
- square-bush, plants are placed on the sides 1-1.5 m, planting 1 plant in each corner.
There are other placement methods used depending on soil and climatic conditions, varietal characteristics, the possibility of using film shelters and other factors.
The formation of plantings is carried out as follows: in the first year after planting, depending on the variety and planting material, 1-3 replacement shoots are formed. With a shoot height of 10-15 cm, the old aerial part of the seedling is cut off and burned. This technique promotes better development of young shoots and reduces the level of fungal infection.
After harvesting the autumn harvest on varieties with a single fruiting, the aerial part of the plants is completely removed. It is better to carry out this work with the onset of persistent late autumn frosts and when the soil freezes, since up to this time there is an active outflow of nutrients from the stem to the root system of plants. Shoots are cut at the very base of the soil, leaving no stumps. From the second year after planting, with the beginning of the growing season, the normalization of root suckers begins, leaving 5-15 strong shoots on each running meter.
In the future, the growing root suckers to be removed are used as planting material, digging them out in the "nettles" phase with a clod of earth and planted in a prepared place.
With the bush growing method, the bush is formed from 3-6 replacement shoots, depending on the degree of branching of the variety.
Varieties with strong branching (Indian Summer) with a two-year fruiting cycle are preferable to plant sparsely and then leave only two replacement shoots in each bush every year (they get an autumn harvest) and two shortened last year's stems that bear fruit in summer.
It is important for the cultivation of remontant varieties to mulch the soil with a dark film, non-woven materials and other mulching agents, which reduce heat loss in the soil by about 15%, which is very significant for remontant varieties, since they, as a rule, are in short supply in the North-West. heat. You can also use a light film, covering it on top with peat or soil with a layer of 2-3 cm.
The soil between the rows and the free area between the bushes can be sown with grasses, if there is no film there. Grass is sown before planting raspberries, or simultaneously with planting, or after rooting of seedlings. The grass is mowed periodically, leaving the cut in place. Fertilizers are applied over the entire area within the recommended agrotechnical terms.
Raspberry berries of the autumn harvest are distinguished by their purity (non-worm), large mass, high density and stay on the bush for a relatively long time after ripening (do not rot).
Therefore, harvesting can be done in 5-7 days. They finish harvesting berries at the onset of frost -4-6оС.
Growing remontant varieties of raspberries together with summer varieties allows you to extend the consumption of fresh berries up to 5 months, and when used for off-season forcing, the conveyor of fresh berries can operate almost all year round.
The advantage of obtaining an environmentally friendly autumn harvest lies in the fact that the prices for berries in the off-season are higher than in summer.
Meanwhile, some negative aspects are not excluded when growing remontant varieties of raspberries with one-season fruiting. Annual shoots are affected by spider mites, raspberry mites, shoot gall midge, and purple spot. In this case, in order not to risk the harvest, plantings should be laid with healthy planting material.
In addition, the absence of the aboveground part of the plants on the plantation in winter can affect the freezing of the soil, so gardeners should take care of the root system, covering it for good snow retention.
G. Aleksandrova, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences
Yield is influenced by many factors, namely:
In the Leningrad Region, gardeners grow raspberries in their summer cottages. But on an industrial scale, it grows on the territory of the Southern Federal District. In the Leningrad region, it is also possible to grow raspberries on a large scale, which are resistant to cold weather. But this requires year-round greenhouses, which significantly increases the cost of the final product.
This is one of the most exotic varieties of raspberries. Although the bushes grow small, they nevertheless need a garter. The berries ripen on them are medium-sized and neat, yellow in color with a pinkish tinge, they are easily separated from the fruit. The shape of the raspberry is blunt-conical, the taste of the berries is reminiscent of apricot. The plant is practically resistant to diseases and pests. Connoisseurs especially recommend making jam of bright amber color from this raspberry.
In my opinion, remontant raspberries are a must-have on the site. It's such a pleasure to eat this fragrant berry all summer long!
Yes, Nadezhda, I think so too. These raspberries are more productive and do not require as much maintenance as common ones.
I love raspberries and, of course, in order to eat them as much as possible, I have to grow them in my country house. I am still a rather inexperienced gardener, and my raspberry is getting sicker from year to year, there is practically no time to take care of it. We need to think about planting remontant raspberries, maybe this is just what you need!
Olga, this raspberry is for the lazy and busy gardeners. Be sure to start, just do not forget to transplant when the time will be. At least once every 3-4 years. Good luck and good harvests!
Wonderful miracle. And I have several bushes of berries of unknown etiology, which apparently degenerated a long time ago and bring rare small fruits. It is high time to dig it up and replace it, but there are more important things to do.
Nikolay, intrigued. Was this of an incomprehensible etiology raspberry? Repairing varieties are very suitable for busy people, they require a minimum of worries.
The neighbor has such raspberries. I want to ask her for a bush. It’s just a pity to see frozen berries that do not have time to ripen. In the Urals, autumn very quickly turns into winter.
All the same, delicious and beautiful. If you want to quickly, put up a shelter in the form of a small greenhouse before the flowers appear. We shift the flowering this way and get the harvest early.
We have raspberries growing, while I'm not complaining about the harvest, but a repairing beauty. You got me interested in this variety.
This type of raspberry is a very interesting plant. Sometimes you go home through the garden plots, it's already autumn and the harvest is everywhere, and you accidentally see these berries on the bushes and involuntarily smile - summer still lives here!
I don't have my own raspberries yet, but I'm going to plant them. Excellent, helpful information.
We still have ordinary garden raspberries growing, with proper care, they also bear fruit well. But, of course, everything is known in comparison, you will have to buy a stalk if I see it on the market.
Love, believe me, the difference is huge. The usual one requires more careful care, and the yield is still less. Try to plant a remontant bush, you will not regret it.
I have been looking at remontant raspberries for a long time, but they say that our Siberian summer is not suitable for her, so I'm afraid only my strength and time will be spent. Before that, there was only remontant strawberries, the first 2 years the harvest was simply excellent, and then everything began to decline.
Nastya remontant strawberry and raspberry require more frequent transplantation. We had the same. Maybe this is better, you don't have to suffer weeding. After 3 years, I pulled it out, divided it into a new place. I heard that remontant raspberries are grown in Siberia. We also do not have time to harvest the entire crop, if at the beginning of summer we do not arrange for her a shelter made of non-woven material. There is a lot of ripening.
We have raspberries growing, almost like a weed. There are old bushes that came from their former owners. The berry is small there, but there is no strength to cut it out and it is a pity to take the time. And so it grows. They planted a new one in another place, but again taking care of it last. There is not enough time for everything, but we have a large plot.
Svetlana, as I understand it, you have ordinary raspberries? She tends to crawl all over the site. It requires a lot of maintenance, so we once put a repair room and abandoned the rest. The yield of the crop with this kind of care is much less in the usual one. Our plot is not small either, we don't have enough hands for everything.
My repairing raspberries are growing, but the second crop does not have time to ripen. I will use the advice to prune raspberries under a tree stump in the spring to get one, but bountiful harvest.
Galina, try it. Then decide which method you like best. We covered the plants with spongbond for an earlier harvest in May-June. Filmed at the beginning of flowering.
We planted this not so long ago, the first harvest will be soon
I wish it big and tasty!
I really like remontant varieties of raspberries, I grow them on my personal plot. Thanks for all the subtleties and helpful tips.
Please, Galina. I also love these berries. And even more their undemandingness.
Thanks for the advice and some of the nuances of planting, live for a hundred years, study for a hundred years. I really didn't know much.
Please, Ekaterina. The main thing is that the experience described in the article is beneficial.
She used to grow remontant raspberries. Now there are several June bushes. The main one will give birth to August, September, since the climate allows it. The autumn harvest of raspberries is very profitable, they are already clean, without living creatures.
What a beautiful and fragrant berry! We had such, or almost such, but, unfortunately, something, probably, was ill. It was not possible to save.
On our site there is a raspberry bush planted by the previous owners. The berries grow in heaps and are large. I do not know what kind of variety it is, but it hangs on a bush almost to the snow. Of course, their taste is almost empty. It is unclear whether you need to take care of it somehow differently or feed it with something, so that they are richer. According to the description, it is suitable for a remontant grade. And the photo is very similar. Probably it is.
Andrei, it looks like a remontant. Until the snow, only she holds the berries. Due to the low temperatures, they do not have the usual taste. There is only one way out - to shift fruiting for a warm summer. For this, since spring, we cover it with sponbond and open it completely when it blooms. Its berries are good to use in blanks, and to feast on real raspberries and the first ripe remontant varieties.
There is no longer a summer residence, so you have to buy on the market, an amazing thing is a remontant berry.
The end of September, and the raspberries are still ripe. I really like the repair grade. The berry is always large and tasty. I have red and yellow.
I think that for all the advantages of remontant raspberries, the main disadvantage is its taste.
Of course, it "falls short of" the usual taste. But in early summer and autumn, when the summer does not bear fruit, it goes with a bang. It is also good in blanks.
Despite the high resistance to diseases and pests, diseases also occur in remontant raspberries in unfavorable years. You need to know in advance where to expect trouble in order to repel the attacks of diseases and garden parasites in time. What is the problem with remontant raspberries:
1. Most often these are fungal lesions of the raspberry tree - purple spot, anthracnose, septoria, verticillosis, etc. Fight against the fungus is necessary with fungicidal drugs such as Topaz, Fundazol, Fitosporin, Bordeaux liquid and Amistar.
2. Bacterial lesions also occur. It is only necessary to deal with them radically. Seeing the first signs of the disease, remove the plant by the root. These diseases include root cancer. With good plant care, this is extremely rare.
3. Viral diseases such as infectious chlorosis, mosaic, curl, unfortunately, are also not cured. The measures here are also only preventive - to remove the diseased plant with the rhizome and burn it so that the disease does not spread to other plants.
Among parasites-pests for remontant raspberries are especially undesirable:
1. Raspberry bugs, spider and raspberry mites, aphids and caterpillars.
2. It is possible and necessary to deal with them only by natural means, otherwise the crop will be unsuitable for human consumption. These are infusions of onion peels and garlic and solutions of laundry soap with wood ash.
3. Before flowering, it is permissible to fight with insecticides - Bitoxibacillin, Aktofit or Lepidocide.
Repaired raspberries are well worth the work of planting and caring for them. She will thank you with delicious large fragrant and healthy fruits. And who will be engaged in its cultivation on an industrial scale, will never be left at a loss.
These varieties in central Russia, in the south of Siberia begin to ripen in late July and early August. The yield from one bush is 2-3 kg, and with good care in the conditions of personal plots up to 6 kg. This is five to ten times higher than the yield of common raspberries. The best varieties of remontant raspberries have the weight of one berry 5-8 g, and larger ones 12-15g, in size they can be compared to a large plum. The berries are dense, transportable, and vary in color from light yellow to ruby red. Berries of golden yellow and bright orange color are especially attractive. In recent years, it has been possible to identify varieties of remontant raspberries with a very good berry taste.
Today, more than 20 Russian varieties of remontant raspberries have been registered. Among them there are varieties with an extra early ripening period. Penguin... There are those who amaze with their large-fruited and yield Bryansk Divo, Monomakh's hat... Variety Firebird It is considered the best variety among remontant varieties to taste, especially since it has a friendly return of the harvest. Even in the global assortment, there are no analogues to the variety Orange miracle... And varieties such as Atlant, Eurasia and others, thanks to dense transportable berries and not lodging, under high yields, shoots are suitable for machine harvesting. For stable yields of remontant raspberries, gardeners appreciate varieties such as Reliable, Elegant.
In Russia, work continues on the creation of new remontant varieties of raspberries and breeders promise to please us with interesting varieties.
Cultivation of remontant varieties allows you to significantly extend the period of consumption of fresh berries, and the last berries ripen when there are no other berries with a dessert flavor in the gardens. This is because the raspberry ovary is resistant to light frost. After a short-term drop in temperature to -3 C, -5 C, the ovary does not die, and with the onset of relatively warm weather, it begins to develop and a high-quality berry is formed from it.
Harvest on remontant raspberries begins to form in late summer or early autumn, at a time more favorable for the development of berries. This is especially important in the southern regions, since in the first half of summer, due to the low humidity of the soil and air, it is difficult to get a good harvest of common raspberries. The repaired varieties helped to significantly promote the raspberry culture to the southern regions of Russia.
Remontant raspberries can hang on the bushes for a long time and not rot. This quality is especially valuable for those lovers of raspberry cultivation who can visit their summer cottages once a week. Repaired raspberries of highly productive varieties give few offspring and replacement shoots, on the one hand, this somewhat complicates its reproduction, on the other hand, it does not creep over the site, bringing a lot of inconvenience.
Features of the
For those who are going to grow remontant varieties of raspberries, you should know its main features. It is a more demanding crop than common raspberry varieties. Why is this happening?
It takes two years for ordinary varieties to form a crop, and one year for remontant ones. Therefore, remontant raspberries require more nutrients, moisture, sun, and heat. For her, the warmest and lightest place is chosen on the garden plot, except for the southern regions. There, on the contrary, she may suffer from drought, the scorching sun, here partial shade is more suitable for her.
Any raspberry, including remontant, does not like close occurrences of groundwater, no higher than 1m from the surface. In damp areas, it is better to plant raspberries on high ridges. Raspberries grow on any soil, but the most favorable for it: loose, fertile. Two buckets of compost or peat, and 1 glass of complex mineral fertilizers are introduced for planting for 1 sq. M. If you do not use mineral fertilizers, you should increase the organic matter by 1.5-2 times.
The peculiarity of the roots of remontant raspberries is that they are less fibrous and go deeper into the ground than ordinary raspberries. Therefore, the digging under the remontant raspberries is needed deep.
No more than 3-5 plants must be planted per 1 square meter, otherwise the berries will not receive enough light. As a rule, raspberries are planted in rows with a distance of 70-90 cm and between rows 1.5-2 m. The best time for planting is September-October.
Care is simple: regular watering is not abundant, weeding, shallow loosening, fertilizing with fertilizers. By the middle of summer, a garter of shoots to the trellis.
In autumn, after fruiting, the entire aerial part is cut off and burned. The rhizome of raspberries can withstand up to -25 C, and there are no ground shoots, therefore there is nothing to freeze. And also the problem with diseases and pests has been solved, since pests hibernate on the shoots, and we do not have them, and there are no diseases either.
Repaired raspberries are also grown as an ornamental crop, until the very frost its shoots are hung with bright red, orange berries, just a sight for sore eyes. It can be grown in containers on the balcony and is beautiful and tasty.
I hope I convinced you to choose the best varieties of remontant raspberries and plant on your site and you are guaranteed a harvest.
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