Cerapadus - a hybrid of cherry and bird cherry


What are cerapaduses?

Cerapadus - these are previously unknown plants - hybrids between cherry and bird cherry, which at one time were received by I.V. In order to increase the winter hardiness of cherries, he decided to introduce the bird cherry winter hardiness gene into their heredity.

The names of these new hybrids form the first syllables of the Latin name for cherry - cerasus - and bird cherry - padus, which is the word cerapadus, i.e. a plant obtained from pollination of cherry flowers with bird cherry pollen; if, on the contrary, cherry blossoms were pollinated by bird cherry flowers, then the hybrids were called padoceruses.

In Cerapadus, the fruit clusters resemble bird cherry, and the size of the fruit resembles a cherry. In the original hybrids - cerapadus obtained I.V. Michurin, in the clusters there were from 3 to 6 fruits weighing 1-1.5 g each, and the taste of the fruits varied from indigestible to relatively edible. Cerapadus trees are highly winter-hardy, have a powerful root system and are highly resistant to diseases, therefore I.V. Michurin predicted a great future for this plant and recommended working with it in order to obtain winter-hardy rootstocks for cherries and fruitful varieties of cherries with clusters of fruits like bird cherry.

At the end of the 60s of the last century, as a result of many years of work of the breeder A.F. Kolesnikova created cerapadus, which became the first winter-hardy rootstocks for cherries, and the first forms of cerapadus, which have completely edible fruits. Subsequently, with repeated crosses with cherries, already popular varieties of cerapadus were obtained: Long-awaited, Novella, Meeting with fruits of the size and taste of cherry and 3-4 fruits per cluster.

At the Crimean OSS VNIIR, using Michurin cerapadus, clonal rootstocks for sweet cherries were obtained.

An interesting big work with cerapadus was carried out by the breeder O.V. Zhukov at the All-Russian Research Institute of Genetics and Breeding of Fruit Plants in Michurinsk, who bred the bird cherry-cherry hybrid Padocerus-M. This hybrid served as the initial form for obtaining the Almaz cherry variety, which later became the ancestor of a wonderful cherry variety named by O.V. Zhukov Kharitonovskaya.

At present, O.V. Zhukov's followers identified varieties Firebird, Crown, Axamit.

Galina Alexandrova,
candidate of agricultural sciences


Far Eastern collection of bird cherry and its relatives

The world's only collection of bird cherry and its relatives was collected near Vladivostok, at the Far East Experimental Station VNIIR. Doctor of Biological Sciences Vera Petrovna Tsarenko and her daughter - Associate Professor of the Botany Department of the Academy of Ecology, Marine Biology and Biotechnology of the Far Eastern State University, Leading Researcher of the Botanical Garden - Institute of the Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences - Natalya Albertovna Tsarenko are directly related to the collection of wild fruit crops. Through their efforts, an open-air museum was practically created, where you can see with your own eyes what little remains in nature.

Selected varieties of bird cherry with spectacular decorative properties (with red leaves).
A variety of bird cherry "Purple Candle" with a beautiful crown and leaves that change color from green to purple has been created. The author is the breeder Simagin from Novosibirsk.

The collection of the Far Eastern station VNIIR collected 120 samples of bird cherry with different periods of flowering and fruit ripening. Here, continuous breeding work is carried out to create new hybrids and select the best samples for the taste of fruits.

The late North American bird cherry has maroon fruits when ripe. Another species from America is similar to it - the virgin bird cherry.

Natalya Tsarenko brought an amazing view from Sakhalin - Siori (Ainu) bird cherry with inflorescences directed upwards, with a very long brush up to 30 cm.

Bird cherry Maaka combines the characteristics of bird cherry and cherry, easily crosses with some types of cherry. And this is one of the most frost-resistant species among bird cherries.
By crossing the Maaka bird cherry with the Western cherry, you can get interesting hybrids while preserving the taste of the cherry as much as possible.
In addition, the Maak bird cherry is resistant to various diseases of cherry and sweet cherry.
Bird cherry Maak is used in the landscape design of the south of Primorye. The hybrids of this bird cherry appeared at Primorsky gardeners, who began to grow them successfully.

Bird cherry species reproduce by shoots and seeds. They are extremely unpretentious, but they are afraid of areas with constant stagnation of moisture and do not like shading. Although trees will grow, their harvest will be minimal or even absent.

Under natural conditions, due to constant logging and fires, the bird cherry population has sharply decreased. The anthropogenic influence has also increased.

The collection of bird cherry species collected at the Far East Experimental Station of VNIIR is of tremendous importance in preserving the bird cherry population, in conducting scientific work, in creating new highly productive hybrids capable of moving cherries and cherries to the north.


History of the Cerapadus and Padocerei

Cerapaduses and Padoceruses did not immediately enter the family of fruit crops. The first hybrids only partially combined maternal and paternal properties: they acquired a powerful root system, high frost resistance, increased resistance to coccomycosis, gum flow, a number of other diseases, the shape of an inflorescence (from 1-2 flowers to a brush with 4-6 fruits). However, the fruits of cerapadus # 1 were unpleasant in taste. Their taste was sometimes bitter cinchona or bitter almonds with the smell of hydrocyanic acid. Many fruits of cerapadus were formed, but small. The new varietal hybrids obtained good rooting rate of cuttings during vegetative propagation. In breeding work, they began to be used as an excellent stock material for cherries, sweet cherries, and plums.


Cerapadus Padocerus

Family Rosaceae.

Both cerapadus and padocerus are intergeneric hybrids between cherry and bird cherry (the Latin name for cherry is segavsh, and bird cherry is raoyiv), with the only difference that cerapadus was obtained by pollination of cherry flowers with bird cherry pollen, and padocerus - on the contrary, from pollination of bird cherry flowers cherry pollen. In practice, these hybrids can sometimes be distinguished only by the breeders themselves, who know what was pollinated with what.

Nevertheless, cerapaduses turned out to be more successful and became more widespread, therefore this name is often used to designate both varieties of hybrids of this type. More complex hybrids of the original species - the second or third generations - are also called cerapadus.

The first variants of these hybrids were mainly used as rootstocks for cherries and cherries, improving their resistance to cold and disease, but after re-hybridization, forms and varieties with good quality fruit appeared that deserve to be considered Cerapadus as an independent fruit crop.

Biological features
In terms of the structure of the tree and inflorescences, cerapadus is a tree with a powerful root system, which in appearance resembles bird cherry more than cherry, while its fruits themselves are more like medium-sized cherries, but collected in a bunch of 3-6 pieces. The taste of these fruits depends quite strongly on the variety, they can be both tart almost to the point of inedible, and quite pleasant, sweet and sour.

From bird cherry, cerapaduses inherited high winter hardiness and resistance to many diseases, including coccomycosis.

The value of culture
The improved-tasting cerapadus varieties can be used in exactly the same way as regular cherries, to which they are chemically close.

The use of cerapadus as a rootstock for varietal cherries makes it possible to grow the latter in regions with harsh winters and thereby move the culture northward.

Varieties
Cerapadus and Padocerus varieties with good fruit taste are most often referred to as common cherry varieties, such as Long-awaited and Novella (cerapadus) or Almaz, Firebird, Corona and Oksamit (padocereuses).
Cerapadus varieties VP-1, OVP-2, OVPg3 and Rubin are used as rootstocks for cherries, and VTs-13 and LC-51 for cherries.

Agrotechnics
It practically coincides with that for cherries, however, cerapaduses are less demanding on growing conditions and do not need additional measures to protect against fungal diseases.


How did the breeding work go?

So, in the crosses of cherry varieties with bird cherry from bird cherry, Japanese bird cherry (Maaka) was used. It crosses quite easily with common cherry varieties. However, in comparison with other widespread species of bird cherry - common and virgin - it is inferior to them in terms of winter hardiness, brush size, taste of fruits. The Japanese bird cherry fruits are small and bitter (inedible). Bitterness is passed on to offspring. To get rid of it, you need to have seedlings of at least second or third generation. Numerous attempts by breeders to cross cherries with common or Virginia bird cherry have not yielded a positive result.

Scientists naturally have a question, why only this species of bird cherry (Maak) is crossed with ordinary cherry? Researchers of this phenomenon G. Eremin and V. Simagin came to the conclusion that Japanese bird cherry (Maaka) should be more correctly classified as cherry, not bird cherry, and called Maak cherry.

As for the agricultural technology for growing cherries, created with the participation of bird cherry, it is common, that is, the same as for cherries.


The best varieties of bird cherry

Our ancestors also planted bird cherry near the house. And not only because it blooms beautifully and exudes a wonderful aroma. During flowering, the tree releases phytoncides into the air, which have a detrimental effect on pathogenic bacteria.... It was believed that if you stand in the shade of a tree, you can scare off the disease. Let's take a closer look at the varieties of common bird cherry and its areas of application.


What can be made from a hybrid of bird cherry and cherry

Many varieties of the culture give fruits sweet, juicy, aromatic, they are eaten fresh. No matter how delicious the berries are, they combine both cherries and bird cherry; not everyone likes their exotic taste. There are varieties of hybrids that give fruits that are tart, with bitterness, their flavoring shades disappear after heat treatment. Therefore, the berries are recommended to be processed into juice, jam, preserves, compote. You can make homemade wine or herbal liqueur. Regardless of what the berry will be processed for, a stone is first removed from it, which contains hydrocyanic acid.


Watch the video: Bird cherry or Hackberry Prunus padus, may be toxic


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