Often in popular magazines there are articles on the construction of various buildings and structures, in which the authors share their "experience", ignoring the elementary requirements of building codes and regulations (SNiP). So, in a magazine popular among gardeners, an article was published about "packaging" - the device for waterproofing the cellar. The author, who recommended a single-layer glued waterproofing, obviously did not know about the existence of building codes and regulations (SNiP), regulating not only the design requirements, but also the technology of its construction.
Based on my experience, I can draw the following conclusions:
I believe that it is enough to choose the correct composition of the concrete mixture so that, as a result of its correct laying into the formwork, you get a cellar with waterproof structures. This is what this article is about. Let's start with the selection of the composition of the concrete mixture (cement: gravel (crushed stone): sand: water). Our goal is to obtain the required strength (grade) and density (porosity) of the concrete stone.
Cement. In terms of the quality and resistance to soil corrosion of concrete, Portland cement of grade 300-400 will be the best.
Water. The strength of concrete also depends on its water content. An increase in the water additive relative to its optimal amount reduces the strength of concrete due to the creation of increased capillary porosity of the hardened cement stone (cement: sand: water) in concrete and, as a rule, worsens the water resistance of concrete. For the preparation of concrete operating in a medium aggressive environment (wet and wet soils), the maximum water-cement ratio (W: C) for dry aggregates should be taken no more than w / c = 0.5, i.e. water will require exactly half of the weight of the cement (for 1 kg of cement - 0.5 liters of water).
Placeholders. Coarse aggregate - crushed stone or gravel from hard igneous or sedimentary rocks. For concretes M-150 and higher, the compressive strength of the aggregate is not less than 600 kg / cm2. The optimum grain size for concretes with fine aggregates is 10-40 mm. The maximum grain size is 70-80 mm, but not more than 1/3 of the thickness of the concrete structure. The best result in terms of cement consumption and workability, i.e. the mobility of concrete is achieved on crushed stone or gravel with a grain size of 5-10, 10-20, 20-40, 40-70 mm.
Fine aggregate - coarse sand, medium size. For fine (not dusty) sand, cement will need 5-7% more. In general, sand for the preparation of concrete will take so much to fill all the voids in the coarse aggregate - crushed stone (gravel), and in order for the concrete mixture to be more mobile, sand should be taken 5-10% more in order to expand the gap between the grains of the coarse aggregate.
Fig. 1. Working joint of wall and bottom
1- painting waterproofing;
2- preparation cement screed;
3- crushed stone preparation.
In order for the concrete mixture to turn into a waterproof, equally strong in any place (section) and truly monolithic structure, it must be properly laid. First of all, you need to remember the main requirement: to ensure the quality of the structure created from concrete, the concreting process must be continuous. The concrete mixture in the bottom slab should be laid in a strip along the entire length (width) of the slab to its entire height (thickness), and concrete is placed in the wall formwork in uniform layers along the entire perimeter of the wall with a thickness of the vibrator's working height. In the case of compacting the concrete mix by hand by bayonetting, the layer thickness should be no more than 300 mm, and the number of punctures during bayonetting should be at least 100 per 1 m2 of layer surface. The gap in time during concreting between adjacent layers should not exceed the time of the beginning of setting (hardening) of the mixture (from 40 minutes to 1.5 hours).
To prevent the concrete mixture from stratifying into fractions during the laying process, the height of the dumping (feeding) of the solution should be minimal. In the wall formwork, the concrete mixture should be laid from two levels: the first at a height of 1 m from the bottom slab, and the second from the floor slab. Working seams and technological breaks in concreting - the first at the junction of the bottom slab with the wall, the second at the junction of the wall with the cellar floor slab. The resumption of concreting after a technological break is possible only after the concrete reaches a strength of at least 15 kg / cm2 (when the edge of the hardened concrete does not crumble under the fingers).
To increase the water resistance of the working seam, before the end of the concreting of the bottom slab along the entire perimeter of the wall, it is necessary to install a waterproof barrier in the form of a strip 200-300 mm wide in the working seam (see Fig. 1). Before resuming concreting, the surface of the working joint must be prepared: cleaned of debris, remove the film formed during the hardening of the cement stone from the surface of the hardened concrete with metal brushes or scrapers. At the beginning of laying the concrete mixture, cement mortar of grade 150-200 should be laid over the entire surface of the working joint with a layer of 20-30 mm. At an air temperature of 5 ° C, concrete practically ceases to harden and gain strength. The optimum air temperature for curing is 18 ... 20 ° C, high humidity is also desirable. In dry weather, open surfaces of hardening concrete should be covered with damp mats.
Fig. 2. Sectional cellar
The degree of aggressiveness (corrosive activity) in relation to concrete of sandy, clayey, saline soils, depending on humidity, the content of nitrates, organic (humic) substances, varies from low to medium. In rich chernozems, peat soils - up to high. To protect concrete from corrosion and capillary moisture, it is enough to paint its open surfaces with bitumen mastic. Hot bitumen mastic from BN IV bitumen "lays down" very poorly on a cold concrete wall, forming a loose film with caverns. To improve the quality of the coating, at the beginning the concrete surface is primed (painted) with a primer (dissolved in gasoline, molten BN IV bitumen, kerosene and diesel fuel are not suitable), and then painted with hot bitumen mastic created from bitumen of this brand. The film thickness is adjusted to 4 mm in one or two times. A sufficiently strong coating is obtained using cold bitumen mastic and the same primer. For priming the first layer, a 1: 3 composition is prepared, for the second 1: 1, and for the third 3: 1 (bitumen: gasoline by volume). Simultaneously with filling the sinuses around the cellar with ordinary soil, the insulation layer is covered with sand (see 2) to protect the insulation from damage.
Ivan Pavlov, gardener, experienced builder
A cellar is a place where you can store almost any food. The main advantage of this building, when compared with a conventional pantry, is obvious - in it you can keep salted or fresh vegetables and fruits, and a variety of preservation. All year round, the temperature in the cellar does not exceed 7 ° C, which is almost the temperature of the refrigerator.
There are several types of cellars... The simplest is earthen. You can also build a cellar in the garage. There are also such cellars as above ground, with a cellar, a glacier cellar, a blocked cellar, etc.
The arrangement of the cellar must begin with the choice of a place. A dry area, on a hill, would be ideal. Such a place is not susceptible to moisture, and during construction you will not need to additionally waterproof the cellar.
Rainwater will not accumulate near the walls of the cellar, it will simply flow down the slope. The depth of the cellar will also depend on your wishes. Usually it is 3 meters.
You also need to immediately decide which cellar you will build.: under the house or garage, or maybe you want to build the structure as a separate building. But it is worth noting that building a cellar under the house is much better, because a separate structure will take up a lot of space. And the cellar inside the house has a very convenient entrance, especially in winter.
To pour the concrete floor in the basement, you will need the following tools:
When mixing the mortar in a concrete mixer, use the ingredients in the proportions indicated on the cement bag.
The stages of the work are as follows:
First of all, the building level is taken and with its help the bottom of the pit is leveled, which in the future will become the basement floor. The soil must be compacted with any available tools.
Sand is poured onto the bottom of the pit, which must be leveled and laid in an even layer of 10-20 cm. It is also well compacted, while periodically irrigated with water.
Medium-fraction crushed stone is poured onto the sand layer. The crushed stone cushion is also carefully compacted. It turns out a kind of "cake" of sand and gravel, which will become the basis for creating a basement floor.
Then comes the turn of creating a layer of waterproofing floor. In most cases, traditional roofing felt or some modern material in the form of a canvas is used for this. The roofing material should be overlapped with the canvases overlapping each other by about 10 cm.In addition, they should also go by about 25 cm.
Then comes the time of thermal insulation. To make a basement floor, heat insulators are usually used based on stone or basalt wool, fiberglass. Materials of this type will qualitatively absorb the moisture that appears, thereby preventing the basement from flooding. Of course, mineral wool insulation quickly deteriorates, so it is recommended to use modern heat insulators (for example, polyurethane foam).
You can also perform thermal insulation in the basement of a private house using high density foam. The material should be laid as tightly as possible
All gaps formed must be closed with assembly sealant.
Increased attention should be paid to the gaps that will be formed at the point of contact of the heat-insulating material with the basement walls. Do not use foam in these areas, leaving a special gap.
It is necessary because in case of heaving of the soil without it, the heat-insulating layer and the concrete screed can deform. As a rule, the gap width does not exceed a couple of centimeters.
After all the stages of preparation, we proceed directly to pouring the concrete solution.
If it is planned to install some heavy devices in the basement (for example, workshop machines), then the floor must be additionally reinforced and made thicker (more than 10 cm). In the event that there is no serious load on the floor in your basement, then the thickness of the concrete solution of 5 cm will be enough.In this case, you will not need to reinforce the base.
To create a reinforced belt, a mesh of reinforcement is made. The thickness of the reinforcing rods should be 5 mm. They are tied together with a wire.
Floor concreting should take place in stages, but without interruption. The mortar must be leveled over the entire surface area. Before pouring concrete, it is best to install beacons that will clearly demonstrate the thickness of the concrete layer. The resulting "cake" of sand, gravel and concrete will successfully cope with the loads.
In order for the thickness of concrete to be the same everywhere, a special lighthouse profile is used.
Once the grout is dry, sand the concrete surface. But before this process, expansion joints are necessarily made. With a grinder with a special disc, the surface is cut in such a way that there are several meters between the seams. This simple method helps to prevent further cracking of the concrete floor.
Regardless of what type of construction you have chosen or what materials you are going to use, there are a number of general recommendations that should be followed when building a cellar step by step with your own hands:
To build a really good cellar, you need to carefully study the features of materials and types of structures.
Most often, materials such as bricks or concrete blocks are used in construction. They tolerate high humidity and low temperatures best of all, and are also characterized by durability, reliability and relatively low cost. When building a brick cellar with your own hands, it is worth considering the features of the operational characteristics of each of the varieties of this material:
The ideal material for the construction of cellar walls is red brick.
If you decide to use concrete blocks in the construction, then you will definitely need specialized construction equipment, since they are characterized by a large weight. The cellar of them will last a long time and keep the temperature well.
Also, when building a cellar in a house with your own hands, you can use a brick that has already been in use, if its condition allows it.And in the event that you are just going to sheathe the earthen hole with wooden boards, they must be carefully treated with antiseptics to prevent rotting.
Note! The use of metal-reinforced concrete slabs is also possible. But in this case, it will be quite difficult to maintain the desired temperature, so this material should not be used for the building in which you are going to store food.
Diagram of the device of a semi-buried brick cellar
Floor insulation is another important stage of construction along with waterproofing and thermal insulation of walls. The thermal insulation layer can be created with cement mortar with wood sawdust approximately 4 cm thick.
A high level of thermal insulation is provided by modern polyurethane foam material. The advantage of the material is simplicity during installation; it practically does not increase the weight of the insulated surface. The disadvantage is that the material is expensive.
How to fill the ceiling in a cellar - the answer to the question depends on the type and size of the structure, financial capabilities, individual preferences. The right choice will make the room functional and durable.
There is a small hint to your question in my article: "How I built the cellar": in my magazine: "The gardener's journal Khalilov-f".
Familiar already from the previous comments of Frans Hasanovich, as with exhaustive, all the same I would venture towards evening to express several provisions on the issue under consideration.
The cellar should be located in a dry, preferably elevated place. This is guaranteed to simplify the future "fight" with soil moisture. The base of the cellar should be located above the groundwater level at a height of at least half a meter. Dig a pit, on the bottom of which pour up to 20 cm a layer of rubble or brick broken. And seal it with an impromptu mallet. After this, the prepared layer is impregnated with hot bitumen, on top of which, after the bitumen has "set", a concrete solution is poured. It will be better if, before pouring on the crushed stone, put a road mesh, which will play the role of reinforcement. After a few days, the concrete will harden and the walls can be built. Red brick or monolithic concrete is perfect for them. It is better not to use white silicate brick - it absorbs moisture and is not suitable for underground work. The walls of the cellar must be waterproofed, for example, with two layers of bitumen coating.
The overlap of the cellar is made of thick planks (two inches), although lightweight concrete slabs can also be placed. Please note that when performing a wooden floor, the ends of the boards resting on the walls are coated with bitumen. The thermal insulation of the floor can be done, in the old-fashioned way, from a clay-straw layer, or in a modern way - put sheets of cellular, or better extruded polystyrene foam. Don't be intimidated by these technically correct terms. They are understood as the material that is popularly called foam. To make a decent look inside the cellar, perform internal plaster (cement-sand mortar at the rate of 1: 3). With the same solution, you can also make a screed on the floor, about 5 cm thick.
A fundamental condition for the long-term preservation of vegetables and fruits is to provide the desired microclimate. This is largely achieved by high-quality ventilation of the cellar. For this, ventilation pipes are installed in the cellar - exhaust and supply. For proper air exchange, the lower cuts of these pipes are placed inside the cellar at different levels. The air outlet is at the very top, and the inlet is at the bottom, not far from the floor. In severe frosts, the ventilation pipes are covered with burlap.
I do not quite agree with Oleg on the ceiling overlap issues. Better than oak or deciduous logs, with a diameter of 15-18 cm, material cannot be found. These rocks do not rot for a long time, and two-inch boards (5 cm), firstly, are weak for a half-meter earthen embankment above them, and secondly, such an overlap for a maximum of 10 years. Concrete plates. It will drip from them all the time due to the temperature difference in the cellar and outside. It is cool in the cellar in summer, but outside the temperature is 20-30 degrees (vice versa in winter). The concrete ceiling is usually crying. Moreover, the ends of the ceiling should not rest against the walls, but passing above the walls, overlap the walls from each end (and from the sides) by at least half a meter. Good luck to the builder!
It is convenient to use the cellar under the floor of a residential building, especially in winter. It is made under the kitchen or under the hallway. Depth - 170-190 cm, which allows you to move freely at full height. The area of the subfloor is from 6 to 10 m2.
Another option for the location of the cellar on the site of the house, on the slope of a hill or at the highest place, dig a pit 190-200 cm, with an area of 10-15 sq.
The overlap over the cellar is made of logs or slabs. It is also covered with a waterproofing layer. The staircase and entrance to the cellar are made of monolithic concrete.
In our country, suburban housing has personal plots, which are usually used for gardens and orchards. A spacious and dry cellar in the house is necessary to preserve the harvested crop. A service room for this purpose can be arranged in a basement under a residential building, garage or shed. It is also possible to build a separate building. The final decision on the location of the cellar should be made based on the results of the study of the house and the land plot.
The study of the site is carried out in the course of engineering and geotechnical surveys
, for which specialists from design organizations are involved. In order to save money, you can do it on your own and carry out studies of soils and hydrogeological conditions of the area on your own. A good result is given by interviewing neighbors and inspecting their cellars or basements.
In the course of studying the conditions of the site, you should pay attention to the following points:
These data will be necessary in the process of choosing the type of cellar that is most optimal for the given conditions and the method of its construction. Experts use the obtained data in the process of carrying out design, calculation and estimate work. The best option for a homeowner is, without a doubt, an under-house cellar with internal access. It is better to lay such a structure even at the construction stage. An option is also possible with the construction of a buried structure during the reconstruction process, but it is quite troublesome and time consuming.
A country house with a basement equipped for storing supplies is being built taking into account the requirements of SNiP 31-02-2001 and SNiP 2.08.01-89, as well as RSN 70-88. The regulatory documents define the geometrical dimensions of residential and office premises. When equipping cellars, special attention is paid to the issue of waterproofing the walls and floors of buried storage facilities, as well as the necessary air exchange.
The main task that is being solved during the construction of this room is to ensure a relative constant temperature at the level of 8-12 ° C with low air humidity.
During the design work, it is necessary to provide for a ventilation system. In most cases, a vertical duct with an external chimney is sufficient. This method of air exchange does not require complex equipment and any operating costs.
Cellar ventilation device diagram
The cellar in a private house is designed taking into account the overall size of the building. When making calculations, the following points should be taken into account:
The central location of the cellar minimizes the influence of temperature fluctuations due to the cooling of the soil masses and their freezing during the onset of cold weather. It is good if the entrance to the office premises is directly from the house - this will significantly reduce heat loss. For the convenience of residents, it is recommended to install a fixed staircase with a march slope of no more than 45 ° and a step width of at least 200-250 mm.
Drawing and scheme for the construction of the simplest cellar under the house
Cellars are classified, first of all, according to the degree of their burial, which, in turn, depends on the level of fluctuation of groundwater:
The choice of a certain type of cellar should be based on objective data and the results of long-term observations.
Cellars can be made in different designs
At the stage of laying the foundation, it is necessary to mark the pit and dig it out. Earthworks are carried out in compliance with the rules and safety measures. The total depth of the pit should be about 2.7-3 m, and the diameter should be at least 2.5 m. The round shape for a buried structure is optimal and ensures its maximum strength. On the other hand, rounding a wall requires a sufficiently high skill from a bricklayer.
Another option is the construction of monolithic walls made of concrete, reinforced with steel or composite rods. This technology is able to provide the maximum resistance of an underground structure to external mechanical loads. To make the cellar in the house correctly, you should evaluate your financial capabilities and practical skills in performing construction operations.
The choice of a specific technology for the construction of an underground structure will make it possible to assess the required amount of building materials. For the construction of load-bearing walls, we need a red brick. The amount of material is calculated based on the minimum wall thickness, as they say in the professional environment of bricklayers, one and a half bricks. When choosing a brick, you should pay special attention to its quality.
In this video you can see how to build the walls of the cellar with your own hands from bricks
For underground structures, it is unacceptable to use bricks of heterogeneous composition, having deep cracks or inclusions. The building material must be stored in proper conditions. Long-term exposure of bricks in high humidity conditions can lead to a deterioration in its qualities and properties. When purchasing materials, you should ask the seller for certificates of conformity.
The walls of a buried storage facility must be built on a solid foundation. Usually, the role of the base is played by a reinforced concrete belt in the lower part of the structure. It is quite possible to build a cellar in a house with your own hands, especially if the technology for carrying out construction work is strictly observed.
Buried structures need high-quality protection against moisture penetration through building structures. The most likely pathways for water to enter a cellar or basement are:
Usually waterproofing of walls, floors and ceilings is done using roofing material. It is recommended to lay this roll material in two layers. The overlap of sheets between themselves should be at least 10-12 cm, and each subsequent row is laid perpendicular to the previous one. A gravel-sand cushion with a thickness of at least 100-150 mm must be poured under the waterproofing.
Cellar waterproofing scheme
It is possible to correctly build a cellar under the house with high-quality waterproofing of the walls during the process of laying the foundation.
In this case, other structures and building elements will not interfere with the work. In the process of erecting walls, bituminous mastic is applied to their outer surface, on which, in turn, roofing material is glued. When performing this operation, the sheets are arranged vertically with an overlap of 8-10 cm.
Pouring of floors in the cellar is carried out with obligatory reinforcement with a two-layer steel coarse mesh. The screed is filled with a cement-sand composition with the addition of a fine fraction of crushed stone as a filler. The mixture is prepared on site by hand or using a concrete mixer. It is possible to order concrete at a specialized enterprise with delivery to the place of work by a car with the appropriate equipment.
The scheme of the correct filling of the floor in the cellar
As soon as the supporting structures of the walls and floor are ready, you can start building a ceiling above the cellar. Taking into account the fact that the structure is of a buried type, a reinforced concrete slab will be the best material for overlapping. The calculation of the required number of them is carried out taking into account the length and width of the structure. When laying floor slabs, heavy construction equipment is used - a crane on a truck chassis.
Cellar overlap arrangement
Another method allows you to do without lifting mechanisms. The construction of a cellar in a house with this technology involves casting the floor slab directly on the spot. Wooden formwork for these purposes is made from a board with a thickness of at least 40-50 mm. It is strengthened by horizontal beams and vertical posts that rest on the floor.
A visit to the cellar located under the house can be organized in two ways: through a hatch in the ceiling of the cellar or along a normal staircase. Calculation of a straight march with a step length of 20 cm and a height of 250-300 mm shows that its horizontal length with an inclination of 45 ° will be equal to the height. In one of the walls, a doorway is equipped, in front of which a rectangular platform is arranged.
Simple wooden staircase
A flight of stairs is installed along the outer surface of this wall, resting on one side on it, and on the other on an additional wall. The steps of the stairs can be cast from concrete and reinforced with a mesh of rolled steel or made from a metal profile. The use of wood is undesirable due to the high probability of damage by fungi or other pests.
Blueprint of a complex concrete staircase leading to the cellar
A door leaf with a door leaf opening outward due to the relatively small size of the cellar is installed in the wall opening. Doors should be sealed to prevent heat loss and temperature fluctuations. The process of making a ladder and installing it is quite complicated.
To organize high-quality air exchange, it is necessary to install two vertical pipes. One of them serves as a hood, and the other is necessary for the flow of fresh air. The air is taken from the ceiling, and the air is supplied closer to the floor. In order to create maximum draft, the duct should be installed above the roof ridge.Natural ventilation of the cellar is made with minimal cost and investment.
The air ducts in the upper part are covered with metal fungi to exclude the ingress of precipitation. As air ducts, you can use a steel or asbestos-cement pipe with an inner diameter of over 150 mm. Deflectors are made of galvanized steel sheet, 0.55 mm thick, and are fixed to the end of the pipe using a clamp and support legs.
youtube.com/embed/OqH6xE2J7Xo ">The inside of the cellar must be plastered and treated with a special antibacterial primer. Instead, ordinary slaked lime can be used, which provides the necessary protection against the formation of colonies of pathogenic fungi on the walls. Experts do not recommend sheathing basement walls with clapboard or wood-based composite materials. In the gap between the wall and the cladding panels, air stagnates with the formation of condensation. Back to the table of contents
The arrangement of the cellar consists in the installation of shelves for glass jars of different capacities. It is desirable to make the shelves of metal. With insufficient ventilation, wood can be affected by colonies of pathogenic microorganisms. For storing vegetables: potatoes, carrots and cabbage - wooden boxes are installed on supports for free air passage.
The main task of the buried storage is to save the harvest from the personal plot. In the service room, it is necessary to create a certain temperature and humidity regime. In the cellars, the balance is maintained at the expense of the heat of the earth, which is, in fact, a huge accumulator of heat. The energy accumulated over a warm period of time is sufficient to smooth out temperature fluctuations throughout the winter.
It is possible to equip a reliable subfloor in the house on your own, without the involvement of specialists. The best option is to provide for the construction of a house immediately with a cellar. The entrance to the storage can be organized both from the premises and outside from the street. In this case, it is necessary to install double insulated doors with seals to prevent cold air from entering the room.
Like any other type of such structures, a concrete cellar has its own strengths and weaknesses. You need to find out about them before starting construction.
Compared to the advantages, the disadvantages of a concrete cellar are much less, but they still exist:
The cellar is designed to store various food supplies for a long time. Among the products there can be both fresh vegetables and fruits, and various preserves stored for the winter. The cellar is characterized by the fact that it is able to maintain constant humidity and temperature inside the room throughout the year and regardless of external factors.
It can be located both in the house in the basement, and separately. As for the location of free-standing cellars, a number of conditions are put forward to their location, for example, it should not be located next to a barn or other premises where pets are kept. You also need to keep the distance between the cellar and the toilet and the compost pit, which is 10 m.
Free-standing cellars are divided into three types: above-ground, semi-buried and underground (completely buried). The choice of the type depends on the relief of the site, as well as the type of soil, the level of occurrence of groundwater. The most popular cellars are semi-buried. Their design assumes both aboveground and underground parts, and the height of the underground part ranges from 1 to 2 m.