In the palm family (Palmae, Arecaceae), the most beautiful type of dates is Robelen's date (Phoenix roebelenii). In nature, this plant is found in the humid forests of Laos, Burma, India and southern China.
This tree is not very tall. So, in height it can reach only 2.5-3 meters. There is a thin (about 14 or 15 centimeters in diameter) slightly curved or straight trunk. There are scars on the surface of the lower part of the trunk, which is why it is very lumpy. These scars are formed in the process of maturation of the palm, they are left by the stumps of the fallen lower old leaves. In the upper part of the trunk, these hemp are preserved, while the surface is covered with them rather densely, which makes it similar to a large cylinder-shaped brush. In the upper part of the trunk there is a bunch of lush openwork leaves, of which there are from 20 to 50 pieces. Cirro-dissected, arcuate-curved, short-petiolate leaves in length can reach from 50 to 100 centimeters. Narrow soft leaf lobes reach 12–20 centimeters in length. The color shade of the foliage directly depends on the illumination. Being in a sunny place, the foliage of the palm is colored greenish-silvery. If the lighting is diffused, then the leaves acquire a dark green color. Young leaves are covered with a mealy whitish bloom.
This species is similar to the others in that it also has flowers, and in their place, fruits. Light yellow tiny flowers are collected in long, weakly branched axillary inflorescences in the shape of a panicle. The black oval-shaped fruits reach only 1 centimeter in length. You can eat them, but they do not differ in high taste.
This date in culture is considered the most spectacular and beautiful, as well as very moody. To grow it indoors, you must follow certain rules.
This plant does not provide special requirements for illumination. So, it grows quite well in partial shade and in a sunny place. However, the room should not be darker than 3000 lux, otherwise the development and growth of the date will be inhibited.
Experienced flower growers recommend choosing the most illuminated place for this plant in the immediate vicinity of the window opening, if this is not possible, then you can use phytolamp illumination. In order for the crown to be spectacular and beautiful, the pot with the plant should be systematically rotated a little around its axis (in different directions to the light source).
In summer, it needs moderate temperatures between 20 and 25 degrees. With the onset of the winter period, the date can be transferred to a cooler place from 15 to 18 degrees. At the same time, do not forget that this species, unlike others, loves heat very much, and cold air can cause irreparable harm to it. Therefore, protect the plant from drafts in winter. But at the same time, one should not forget that it is also impossible to place a palm tree near heating devices in winter.
In the spring-summer period, the plant should be watered regularly and abundantly, but overflow should not be allowed. The fact is that such a palm tree has an extremely weak root system, which is prone to decay. Experts recommend watering only after the substrate dries out about 2 or 3 centimeters deep, which can be easily checked with a finger.
In winter, the plant should be watered a little less, especially in cool wintering.
A species like Robelen's date feels normal only at high humidity. Spraying should be carried out twice a day in the morning and in the evening and boiled lukewarm water should be used for this. In the event that the tips of the leaves begin to dry and with regular moistening, you will have to get a humidifier.
Give your palm a warm shower if possible.
Pruning of such a plant is not needed, but sometimes it may be necessary to cut off a sick or old leaf. While working with such a palm, do not forget about its natural protection, presented in the form of a long and sufficient sharp thorn, which is located at the base of the petiole. In this regard, you need to be very careful when working with such a plant.
The soil mixture can be made by hand. Combine light clay-sod, peat and humus-leaf soil, as well as rotted manure and coarse sand, taken in a ratio of 2: 1: 2: 1: 1. As a last resort, you can purchase ready-made palm mix at a specialty store. However, it is low in nutrients and will have to be changed frequently.
Do not forget to make a good drainage layer at the bottom of the container to prevent liquid stagnation in the substrate. In order for a large plant not to overturn the pot, weights are placed on its bottom during transplantation.
It is necessary to feed the palm tree in the spring-summer period 1 time in 2-3 weeks. For this, a complex liquid fertilizer for palms is used. In winter, fertilizers cannot be applied to the soil.
Transplant dates should only be done if absolutely necessary, for example, when the roots will no longer fit in the container. This procedure must be performed with extreme caution, because the root system of such a plant is weak and rather fragile, and its damage harms the palm itself. Ideally, when transplanting, the earthen lump should remain unharmed.
Experienced growers advise changing the top layer of the substrate once a year. To do this, carefully remove the top layer of soil (as deep as possible), and then pour fresh earth mixture into the pot.
In no case should young plants be transplanted in the autumn, as this can cause their death.
It is possible to grow from a seed, but at the same time a sufficiently large specimen will be obtained only after a few years, because this palm tree is distinguished by its slow growth.
Spider mites, mealybugs, scale insects or aphids can settle on the plant. After the pests are found, treatment with special insecticides of the appropriate action will be required.
A date can get sick due to violations of the rules of care. Often, the tips of the leaves begin to dry out due to the low humidity of the air.
It is very often recommended to plant several specimens of Robelen dates in one pot, while placing them very close relative to each other. It happens that the trunks are closely intertwined with each other, and because of this it may seem that the date is branching. In this regard, there are sources in which there is information that this plant can be multi-stemmed, but this is not the case.
There are many varieties of palms, but the date remains the most popular in home gardening. The date palm or date (Phoenix) is a tropical tall plant belonging to the Palm family (aka Arecaceae), which grows naturally in Africa and Eurasia. But the date can live not only in the tropics - the plant is successfully used for the decoration of living quarters and offices, landscaping greenhouses and conservatories.
In spring and summer, the optimum temperature for a date palm is 20-25 degrees. Higher temperatures are acceptable when the room humidity is high. In winter, it is recommended to lower the temperature of the content to 15-18 degrees. However, it is best not to allow a drop below 14 degrees.
It is important to keep the roots of the plant warm.
The Canary date is the most cold-resistant. It can winter at a temperature of 8-10 degrees, and an adult plant can tolerate short-term drops in temperature up to 5 degrees.
Date Robelena loves warmth more. For him, even in winter, the temperature should not drop below 16 degrees.
Date palm root system is very sensitive to cold... Therefore, the pot should be kept warm, especially during the winter. It is not recommended to place it on a cold windowsill or marble floor.
In the warm season, when the average daily temperature rises above 12 degrees, the plant can be taken out into the open air. The date will be comfortable on a balcony, loggia or in a garden protected by trees. It is important to choose a place without drafts and scorching sun.
The Robelena date and the Canary date are considered especially popular types of indoor plants that are readily planted at home.
The low-growing plant reaches a height of 2 m. The tree can have 2 or 3 trunks up to 60 cm long. The palm tree produces fruits that are not suitable for human consumption. Sometimes the leaves are covered with a white bloom. Optimum wintering conditions are 16-18 ° C.
A decorative tree that is planted in the house. In nature, the Canarian date reaches a height of 20 m, and the house tree usually does not exceed 3 m. The tree has narrow, stiff leaves and a straight, strong trunk. The plant is capable of growing at a temperature of 8-10 ° C. The fruits are good for consumption.
Canary date fruits can be eaten
Location: It is a thermophilic plant that tolerates constant direct sunlight. Often it is not even shaded in the summer at lunchtime. At home, the best place is the southwest, or south side of the windows.
In the hot period, for uniform growth, the pot is regularly turned around its axis, otherwise the palm tree will grow one-sided. It is also necessary to gradually accustom to direct sunlight, in order to avoid burns. As soon as the ambient temperature is more than 20 degrees, regularly ventilate the room, but beware of drafts.
In winter, daylight is not enough, often artificially prolonged with fluorescent lamps. Lack of light leads to stretching of the leaves.
Whenever possible, from mid-spring, take the plant out to the balcony or garden.
Temperature: Starting in spring, the optimum temperature for growth is 22-25 degrees. But at high humidity, the date tolerates well and 28 degrees. Starting in mid-autumn and throughout the winter, a period of rest begins. The temperature is kept at 15-18 degrees, but not lower than 14. Some species are able to winter at low rates of 8-10 degrees.
At any temperature, the required supply of fresh air. In winter, this is quite problematic to do, due to the high probability of drafts. Additional fresh air blowers are often installed during the cold season.
Humidity: Since a crop normally grows in rainforests, it requires a constantly humid climate. Especially in the hot season, the date palm needs additional spraying. At home, this procedure is carried out all year round.
Water is used settled, or soft. Also, a pot with a palm tree is placed on a pallet with moistened moss, or pebbles. But the pot cannot be placed directly into the water, the root system will begin to absorb water and rot. 1-2 times a month, the leaves are washed off with warm water or a mild soapy solution.
Soil: Soil is used either purchased or made independently. The components are selected in such a way that the overall composition is either neutral or slightly acidic.
There are no special requirements for the soil. So, for example: turf, humus, sand and compost in equal proportions. For 3 liters. finished mixture, add 1 tbsp. l. superphosphate.
From purchased, use a substrate for palm trees.
For large palms, add more turf land. A large and deep pot is selected, and the expanded clay drainage is first laid on the bottom. The date palm is capable of growing hydroponically.
Watering: The plant needs to be watered abundantly 3 times a week, but as soon as the top layer of the earth dries up. For 2 hours, the remaining water is left in the pan and then drained. The fact is that the root system will take as much moisture as needed for this time.
With the onset of cold weather, watering is reduced by 2-3 times. The substrate should be constantly slightly moistened. Too dry earthen lump leads to drying out of the tips of the leaves, which do not come to life, waterlogged contributes to rotting of the root system. Water is used soft, room temperature, slightly above room temperature.
Transplant: Through fragile and delicate roots, the palm is rarely transplanted. Young plants are transplanted almost every year, adults no more than 1 time in 4 years. As a rule, they do not transplant, but transshipment, through damage to the main root.
Each year, the topsoil is removed and replaced with new, nutrient-rich soil.
Transplanting in the fall is strictly prohibited, the palm tree may die, or lose most of the leaves.
Top dressing: The date palm needs top dressing only in the summer months, once every 10 days. Use commercially available organic fertilizers for indoor ornamental palms. You can alternate with potassium nitrate, which is diluted with 10 grams of water in a bucket of water.
In winter, under some conditions and visual deterioration of the leaves, you can feed 1 time 1 month.
The date is propagated by seeds, like other similar plants with fruits. Growing a palm tree from seeds is quite simple and easy. Under certain conditions, a decorative tree takes root well. Pits from edible fully ripe fruits are used. But it is necessary to use fresh fruit seeds.
The bone is preliminarily placed in warm water (30 degrees) for 3 days. Then they are planted in the ground. Composition of peat and sand in equal proportions. Water in moderation and keep the temperature at 20 degrees. Expanded clay drainage must be placed on the bottom.
Also, the composition of the earth can be laid in layers. Starting from the bottom drainage, then a layer of turf, sand and moss on the remainder. The seeds are planted in a pre-moistened substrate. If planted in sand and peat soil, to preserve moisture, cover with a layer of moss on top.
The sprout appears before a month of time. Be sure to keep constant watering.
After germination, the young sprout is transplanted into a larger pot. Provide plenty of light and heat, along with watering and high humidity, but keep out of direct sunlight until the palm gets used to it.
Pests and diseases: The main pests are considered to be scale insects, mealybugs, spider mites. But the date is considered a very resistant plant to diseases and pests.
Difficulties in care: Sudden changes in temperature often negatively affect the palm tree, it gets sick for a long time and loses its leaves. For example, if you buy in the cold season and immediately bring it into a warm room. Get used to the warmth gradually, or buy in the summer.
A dry earthen clod, or lack of light, leads to the drooping of the leaves, the plant loses its luster.
Low humidity leads to yellowing and death of the tips of the leaves.
Drafts have a detrimental effect, the date begins to wither, the leaves fall and darken.
Medicinal properties: In folk medicine, palm juice is widely used for burns, skin and infectious diseases, mastopathy.