Honeysuckle honeysuckle (lat.Lonicera caprifolium), or goat honeysuckle, or fragrant honeysuckle - a type species of the genus Honeysuckle of the Honeysuckle family, which is found in the wild in the Caucasus and southern Europe in well-lit places with moist soil, in forests and along the edges.
In culture, this type of honeysuckle is grown as an ornamental plant. "Caprifole" is translated from Latin as "goat leaf".
Read more about growing honeysuckle honeysuckle below.
Ornamental honeysuckle honeysuckle is a climbing deciduous shrub up to 6 m high, the young shoots of which are light green, sometimes with a purple tint, turn brown with age. The leaves of honeysuckle honeysuckle are broadly elliptic, opposite, from 4 to 10 cm long, dark green on the upper side, gray below. Several pairs of upper leaves can grow together at the bases and form an elliptical plate. Yellowish-white fragrant flowers, often having a reddish tint on the outside, are collected in the axils of the upper leaves in whorls. The orange or red inedible fruits of honeysuckle, honeysuckle, 6-8 cm in diameter, ripen in late July or early August. They are located on such short stalks that it seems as if they were glued to the leaves.
Planting and caring for honeysuckle honeysuckle is no more difficult than growing any other ornamental shrub. The best time to plant honeysuckle honeysuckle in the garden is April or May, although some gardeners advise planting the plant during the fall season. When choosing a place for a plant, remember that abundant flowering can only be in bright sunlight, although honeysuckle can tolerate partial shade. Liana honeysuckle honeysuckle loves moist fertile soil, into which, before planting, it is necessary to add mineral and organic fertilizers for digging: potassium, nitrogen and rotted cow dung. Moreover, you need to dig up the soil with fertilizers at least two weeks before planting.
Dig a hole or trench depending on how you intend to plant the plant. The size of the pit should be approximately 50x50x50 cm, and the trenches should be 50 cm deep and 50 cm wide. If planting is carried out in an area where water stagnation can occur, lay a layer of drainage from broken bricks, ceramic tiles or rubble on the bottom of the pit, and then fill the pit almost to the top with fertile soil. Then a seedling is placed in the pit, its roots are straightened and the remaining space is filled with soil. Planting is carried out taking into account the subsidence of the soil, so the root collar is left 5 cm above ground level. After abundant watering, the ground will settle, and the neck will be flush with the surface. When the water is absorbed, cover the trunk circle with organic material.
In the trench, honeysuckle seedlings are placed at a distance of at least 1 m from each other, and in group plantings they are placed at least 1.5 m.And do not forget to immediately dig in supports for the plant, if you are not going to use the walls of the building or a fence for this purpose ... The honeysuckle support honeysuckle can look like a metal or wooden structure, slats with stretched cords or nets.
In the hot season, you need to ensure that the soil under the honeysuckle bush never dries out. Honeysuckle is watered infrequently, but abundantly: one plant will need 1-2 buckets of water. After watering or rain, the soil around the honeysuckle is loosened and weeded. To prevent rapid evaporation of moisture and reduce the need for loosening and weeding, the soil around the bush is mulched.
In order to stimulate the abundant flowering of honeysuckle, honeysuckle, organic matter or complex mineral fertilizers for flowering plants are introduced into the soil in early spring. During the summer, you can process the honeysuckle with fertilizers or solutions of trace elements on the leaves.
Despite the fact that honeysuckle honeysuckle is almost not affected by diseases and pests, it still has enemies: aphids and cabbage caterpillars can cause trouble from insects, and rust and powdery mildew from fungal infections. Since honeysuckle berries, honeysuckle, are unsuitable for food, feel free to use chemical remedies in the fight against pests and diseases. For example, acaricidal preparations Actellik, Aktara, Biotlin, Akarin or Antitlin will help you get rid of aphids, and insecticides are used for caterpillars. As for fungal diseases, they happen not only due to poor care, but also for reasons beyond your control. The task of the gardener is to take measures to eliminate the infection as soon as possible, and in this you will be helped by fungicidal preparations, which are easily purchased at any garden pavilion or flower shop.
A specific adult plant does not need shelter for the winter. But varietal, hybrid honeysuckle, as well as just planted cuttings and seedlings, it is better to insulate: close the trunk circle with a thick layer of dry foliage, remove the plant from the support and lay it on a bed of leaves, as you do, for example, with clematis, and cover it on top honeysuckle spunbond, lutrasil or spruce branches.
Curly honeysuckle honeysuckle needs both formative and sanitary pruning. Immediately after planting, the shoots of the plant are cut to one third of the length, and in the second year, 3-4 of the strongest shoots are chosen from the regrown shoots - these shoots will become the skeleton of the bush. The rest of the shoots are cut at the root. During the season, the shoots that grow up to the height of the support are pruned or directed along the support in the right direction. Subsequently, sick, broken, frozen or thickening branches are regularly cut out, otherwise the plant will look untidy. However, the fanaticism of pruning is inappropriate: if you cut off honeysuckle, it will lose its attractiveness.
Take your time to prune honeysuckle in the spring: it may seem to you that some shoots look lifeless, but the peculiarity of this plant is that with the onset of warm days, dormant buds wake up in it, and it suddenly turns green and starts to grow, and those shoots that will remain black and naked, it's never too late to remove.
If you notice that on an adult bush of honeysuckle, honeysuckle becomes less and less flowers every year, carry out a rejuvenating pruning of the plant: cut off all shoots at a height of 10-15 cm from the ground so that young shoots grow from the buds located at the base of the bush, from which you will subsequently form a new crown. Rejuvenation is carried out every 5-6 years, but it is better to do it in two steps: in one year, only half of the shoots are cut off, and the rejuvenating procedure is completed the next year.
Honeysuckle is propagated by seeds, cuttings or layering.
Generative reproduction of honeysuckle is a laborious process, therefore, gardeners usually resort to more reliable and faster vegetative methods. However, in certain cases, seed propagation is preferable to vegetative propagation. How to propagate honeysuckle with honeysuckle seeds? Seeds stratified for two months at a temperature of 0 to 5 ºC are sown in March in a wet mixture of equal parts of sand, peat and humus, sprinkled on top with a thin layer of sand and covered with plastic wrap or glass. The crops are kept in a bright, warm place, removing the film daily for ventilation and, if necessary, to moisten the substrate. The grown seedlings are planted in separate pots on time. They are planted in open ground only next spring, and they will bloom in the third or fourth year. Until then, seedlings need shelter for the winter with peat, spruce branches or lutrasil.
You can sow honeysuckle honeysuckle directly into the ground, and it is better to do this in the fall, so that the seeds undergo natural stratification in the soil during the winter months. In the spring, the seedlings will sprout together. It is simple to care for them: water, loosen the ground around them, remove weeds, feed, and most importantly, plant them in time so that they do not interfere with each other's development.
This is the easiest and most reliable way to breed honeysuckle. In spring, a flexible branch of lianas is laid in a shallow trench, leaving the top above the surface, fixing the shoot in a depression and filling it with fertile soil. All summer, the cuttings are watered and fed, and in the fall they are separated from the bush and transplanted to a permanent place.
Propagation of honeysuckle honeysuckle by cuttings also gives good results. Cuttings with at least two internodes are cut after flowering from the middle of the shoots. When planting, one internode is completely buried in the substrate, after removing the leaf from it, and on the upper part of the cutting, the leaves are only shortened. Rooting takes place in a bright place, protected from direct sunlight, and in a humid environment. It is best to root the cuttings in a greenhouse or greenhouse under a film. The substrate should be light and fertile, such as a mixture of sand and peat in equal parts.
The cuttings are watered, weeded, aired, the soil is loosened around them, and as soon as new leaves begin to form on them, the process of cuttings can be considered successfully completed. The cuttings are planted in a permanent place in a year, and in another year the seedlings will bloom.
Honeysuckle honeysuckle has two decorative forms:
There is still honeysuckle honeysuckle Inga with white, pink, red or yellow fragrant flowers, collected in spike or capitate inflorescences.
As for such cultures often mentioned in special literature as brown honeysuckle and curly honeysuckle, then, the first plant has nothing to do with honeysuckle: it is a hybrid between rough honeysuckle and evergreen honeysuckle. Hybrid plants also include American honeysuckle and Hecrotta. And curly honeysuckle, or German, is an independent species of the genus, like honeysuckle honeysuckle and honeysuckle gray-ash, yellow, gray-gray, offspring, veil, Ledebour, ordinary, Tatar and others.
Honeysuckle honeysuckle is most often used for vertical gardening: it is used to decorate gazebos, arches, camouflage fences and unattractive buildings. Planted along the fence, it becomes a decorative hedge. The plant is perfectly combined with flowering shrubs (mock orange, action, weigela, climbing roses) and with conifers.
Sections: Garden plants Perennials Flowering Shrubs Lianas Plants for F Honeysuckle
Honeysuckle is a plant that has been cultivated by Russian scientists in just a few decades. Today in garden plots, it is not yet considered a familiar culture. But many summer residents are already seriously interested in planting, leaving, breeding edible honeysuckle.
Honeysuckle is undemanding to the soil. It grows well and bears fruit on sandy loam, loamy and even heavy soils and peat bogs. Tolerates the reaction of the soil solution from acidic (pH 4.5) to slightly alkaline (pH 7.5). A prerequisite is a good cultivation of the soil, a high content of organic matter and elements of mineral nutrition. When growing honeysuckle, one must not forget that this is a moisture-loving plant that grows well and forms large fruits with high soil and air humidity. Unfortunately, in the southern regions, it suffers from drought, can tolerate light shading, but gives a high yield in full light throughout the day. Honeysuckle is a winter-hardy culture. Even during flowering, flowers are not damaged at -8 ° C. At the same time, the winter hardiness of honeysuckle may decrease in the southern region due to unstable winter temperatures, when frosts alternate with thaws. When growing and caring for honeysuckle, keep in mind that the buds can bloom in warm winter and then die from subsequent low temperatures.
The main breeding method for honeysuckle is the vegetative method of green cuttings. The best time for its use is the beginning of ripening of the berries at the time of their staining in blue. In the conditions of the southern region, this technique can be carried out already at the beginning of the second decade of May, and in a hot summer, cuttings begin earlier than in a cold one. Growing annual shoots or parts thereof 8-12 cm long with 2-3 buds are used as green cuttings. The survival of green cuttings is facilitated by harvesting them "with a heel" - a piece of wood from an annual branch. For this, the shoot is not cut off, but broken out at its base. The prerequisites for green cuttings are protected soil and the possibility of watering; rooting is better done in conditions of "artificial fog", under a film, a bottle.
Before propagating honeysuckle, you need to prepare a substrate consisting of a mixture of peat and sand in a 1: 1 ratio. Growing edible honeysuckle at the initial stage requires increased attention - watering or spraying is carried out often, at least 3-5 times a day. Root formation in cuttings begins 10-14 days after planting. The survival rate of cuttings is 80-100%. The cuttings are grown without transplanting, at the place of rooting, within one year. The yield of seedlings is 55-60% of the number of planted green cuttings.
The second way of reproduction of honeysuckle is lignified cuttings.But in this case, the yield of planting material is much less, about 30%. Strong annual shoots with a diameter of 6-10 mm are used for cuttings. They are cut at the end of March and before the beginning of the growing season, stored for planting in the refrigerator. Before planting, the branches are cut into cuttings up to 20 cm long. As soon as the weather permits, in early April they are planted in a nursery, greenhouse or greenhouse. When breeding and caring for honeysuckle, daily watering is necessary. Roots appear in 40-45 days. Rooted cuttings are grown next year. For successful survival, seedlings should have 2-3 branches 20-30 cm long, roots - at least 3-4 pieces 20 cm long.
For vines, you need to choose a well-lit planting site. In partial shade, the plant will also feel good.
Before planting, you need to decide how the honeysuckle will be used:
After the purpose of the plant has been chosen, it is necessary to prepare a place for planting.
Most species need fertile, well-drained soil, so a mixture of soil, mineral fertilizers and humus should be poured into the prepared hole.
As mentioned above, planting and caring for decorative honeysuckle does not require special skills and abilities. Most species and varieties are unpretentious, which allows them to be successfully used in landscape design.
Planting time for decorative honeysuckle: spring or early days of September. It is preferable to choose an area well lit by the sun, protected from drafts and the presence of nearby groundwater. Can be accurately positioned on the south side.
The soil is required loose, with the presence of lime in the composition. In order for pollination to take place, and the plants bloom magnificently, it is recommended to plant several types of plants at once.
It is also required to add fertilizers from minerals. Young plants are placed at a distance of half a meter.
For long flowering and the life of the plant itself, the following conditions for planting decorative honeysuckle are required:
Sand (ordinary river) and compost, a little lime and the same amount of mineral dressing are introduced into the hole. Everything needs to be mixed very well with the soil in the garden.
The soil in the planting hole for decorative honeysuckle is sufficiently moisturized. When the water is absorbed, more soil is added to the center, thus forming a mound. A seedling is placed in it, carefully spreading the roots.
Add soil again, tamp it a little, water it.
The area next to the roots is covered with mulch. As a mulch, tree bark, peat are suitable. This will ensure that moisture is retained within the soil. When the weather is sunny, hot, the seedling is covered from bright sunlight.
Caring for honeysuckle bushes is practically the same as caring for other berry plants. Planting will need periodic watering, weeding and loosening of the soil, as well as fertilization. In addition, the shoots of the bush are systematically pruned and the honeysuckle is regularly checked for the presence of pests. The yield of plantings, as well as their appearance, directly depends on their grooming.
Within 3 years after planting a honeysuckle bush in the ground, it will need high hilling (it is carried out in the spring) and watering. After them, the soil in the area of the hole is loosened, removing all weeds. To reduce the number of waterings, this area can be mulched. During this period, the bushes do not need pruning.
Watering honeysuckle is carried out not too often, trying to be guided by the weather. During periods of drought, as well as at the very end of spring, it is necessary to water the bushes more abundantly. A significant lack of moisture at this time will greatly affect the taste of future berries: they will have a more pronounced bitterness. In hot and dry summers, the berries become sweeter and less sour. In rainy weather, they accumulate more vitamin C, which makes the berries sour, but healthier.
If it rains regularly, watering is carried out up to 4 times during the period of active growth. Watering rate: a bucket of water per bush. After them, as well as after precipitation, it is necessary to slightly loosen the soil surface at a depth of no more than 7 cm directly through the mulch layer (if any). The roots of the honeysuckle are shallow and can be damaged by this procedure.
The first couple of years after planting a honeysuckle bush in the ground, you do not need to feed it: the plant has enough nutrients introduced into the hole during planting. After this period, large fertilizing is carried out at intervals of a year, in the autumn. To do this, use organic matter with the addition of mineral fertilizers. At the very end of autumn, in the soil for 1 sq. m, wood ash (about 100 g), double superphosphate (about 40 g) and compost (5 kg) should be added.
Spring feeding is carried out annually. Before the buds open, the plantings are fertilized with ammonium nitrate. With dry application per 1 sq. m territory will require about 15 g. Instead, you can use a solution of urea (1 tbsp. spoon per 10 liters of water).
After harvesting the fruits, the bushes are fed again. Ammophoska or nitrophoska is added under them (25-30 g per 1 bucket of water). Alternatively, you can dilute the slurry in a bucket of water in a 1: 4 ratio. In autumn, you can also mulch the near-trunk area and the area near the bushes with a layer of peat up to 5 cm thick. It will serve as both shelter and fertilizer.
If an adult honeysuckle bush needs a transplant, it will take a lot of effort. Having determined the boundaries of the root system, the plant must be dug up and pulled out of the ground. The root system of the bush is quite compact. The procedure is carried out in the summer, after picking the berries. The transplanted honeysuckle takes root well in a new place. For better rooting, the transferred bush will require more frequent watering.
Honeysuckle begins to bear fruit earlier than other garden shrubs: in the first half of summer. In most varieties, ripe berries begin to fall off the bushes, so you should not delay picking them. Harvesting is carried out as soon as the fruits acquire a rich blue color. When growing a non-dropping variety, you can wait about a week after that.
If the berries are already beginning to fall off, you can speed up the collection process by spreading a cloth or film under the bush. The fruits are shaken directly onto it, trying to be careful not to damage the berries.
Due to their delicate skin and juicy pulp, they should be stored in small containers only in a couple of layers. Fresh, such a crop is stored for a very short time, so it is immediately put into processing: they freeze it, make jam, or grind it and sprinkle it with sugar. In the latter case, the storage characteristics depend on the proportions. If berries and sugar are mixed in equal parts, the mixture is stored in the refrigerator. If 1 part of the berries had 1.25 parts of sugar, you can keep the dessert indoors. This mixture allows you to preserve all the valuable qualities of berries, rich in vitamins. It can be used to treat colds, especially when combined with other berries such as raspberries or strawberries. You can also make homemade wines based on honeysuckle. For any processing, varieties with sour or slightly bitter berries are best suited. Dessert varieties with sweet fruits are usually eaten fresh.
The article will tell you about such a variety of decorative honeysuckle as "Caprifol" and the peculiarities of caring for the plant.
Unlike edible honeysuckle, decorative (such as the variety "Caprifol") serves only to decorate the land.
It is planted mainly in order to plant hedges, walls, fences (in other words, "vertical areas"). The plant is climbing and it is not so difficult to grow it.
Careful care and proper feeding of honeysuckle will allow you to achieve excellent results.
INTERESTING: Few people know that there are a lot of varieties of this ornamental plant - about 200 items.
Popular decorative types:
"Caprifol" will invariably decorate your site, will give it not only an eye-pleasing color, brightness, an abundance of colors, but also attract an abundance of butterflies to your garden with its sweet aroma. If you want to multiply Caprifol, you can do it in several common ways:
IMPORTANT: If you want to grow honeysuckle from seed, you should be aware that only fresh (second year) seed is suitable.
How to collect seeds:
If you want to make a transplant by cuttings, you should know that you need to harvest the "material" at the end of summer (last season). Cut several cuttings from the vine, which will have at least 3 internodes.
The cuttings should be slightly scratched and smeared with a root-stimulating solution (purchase from a professional store). Then place in water and keep until the first roots appear. Place the cuttings in a special soil: a mixture of sand and peat. When they take root well, transfer to the ground.
Rooting cuttings is the easiest way to propagate Caprifoli. It is not difficult to do this if there is already an "adult" plant on your site.
The technology is simple:
IMPORTANT: Take into account the fact that Caprifol has a negative attitude to multiple transfers. If you change the location of the plant frequently, it may die.
For the plant to take root:
Reproduction and transplantation of Caprifoli is best done in spring (April and May are the best times). You expect that the vine will rise by no more than 2 meters in a year.
The first "years of life" of plants are "sensitive" to temperature changes and therefore try to cover them for the winter with nets and synthetic bags (so as not to freeze).
While the vine is in a period of active growth, do not forget to dive, prune and shape it - this will enhance growth and make the hedge beautiful.
"Caprifol" is good because it does not require excessive care. The most important thing is to build a support for her on which she can grow. If there is no support, then a fence, mesh or even a wall will also work. With its weaving, liana can reach up to 5 meters (approximately at 5-6 years of age).
IMPORTANT: After you plant the plant in the ground (in any way), be sure to add top dressing to the soil (it will ensure lush flowering and good growth).
Other care features:
"Caprifol" is a fairly frost-resistant vine. However, if the plant is young (up to 2-3 years), it may freeze if the winter is cold (-30, -40 degrees). In other cases, frozen shoots (most often young) can be simply cut off in early spring.
IMPORTANT: You can "wrap up" the liana from frost with the help of synthetic bags or bags, which should be attached with a stapler to the fence during low temperatures.
"Caprifol" will certainly decorate your land plot. To choose a plant variety and find the desired way to decorate your backyard, it is useful to look at photographs of landscape design with honeysuckle.
Around the window
On the fence
"Live" support of the yard
The decorative liana "Caprifol" is not suitable for eating. In the fall, no larger round carrot-colored berries ripen from the flowers, but do not try to eat them, because this can provoke you not only an allergic reaction, but also poisoning (nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, hives).