1. Working worms have made channels in the soil through which air and moisture travel. The roots decay, channels are formed through which air and moisture pass. The soil, like in a forest, is breathable and capacious to a great depth. We destroy the canals with a shovel or pitchfork, and after the first good rain or watering, the soil settles and turns into a "brick". There are no channels, air, oxygen are not supplied, organic matter does not decompose.
2. In the upper soil layer, at a depth of about 10 cm, there are bacteria that need oxygen (aerobes). Bacteria live below, for which oxygen is destructive (anaerobes). Each of these bacteria does their job of increasing soil fertility on their floors. We dug up, killed both of them, made the soil sterile.
To summarize: there are no channels, there are no working bacteria, therefore, there is no harvest.
Our diligence, our hard work has turned into sabotage. Some are engaged in sabotage twice a year: in spring and autumn. The soil can be cultivated to a depth of 2-5 cm, deeper - the life of bacteria, worms and not destroyed channels for the movement of air and moisture.
The shovel is intended for holes, landscaping and one-time digging of virgin lands to the depth of the humus layer. Compost is applied superficially, followed by gentle plowing (loosening) to a depth of 2-5 cm.
Build up a fertile top layer.
Plant siderates annually: white mustard, rye, oats, vetch, etc. It is very cheap and effective. When the siderates have grown, the greens have risen by 15-25 cm, carry out shallow plowing (loosening), cutting the roots to a depth of 2-5 cm. Part of the greenery will go into the soil, some lies on top - everything is good. The roots of the green manure will rot - here are the channels for the movement of air and moisture. Carrots, for example, when plowing five centimeters long, grows long, even and without side shoots. It grows without much resistance along air channels created from old rotten roots.
Constantly enlarge the channels, and the soil will be loose, and this is the main condition for soil fertility. The atmosphere must have constant access to the soil as a direct source of food for the plants.
It is important to learn the basic principle of vegetable growing - first, providing the soil with oxygen, and only then everything else: varieties, preparations, etc. Plant roots, soil bacteria and worms need to breathe.
T. Belavskaya, agronomist
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Man on Earth, at least for the last 100 years, has been a pest, for he destroys our planet with his unreasonable activity.
Polluted the atmosphere and water - the sources of our life, destroyed almost all the fertile lands of the planet - the main source of power, filled the air space with various waves and vibrations from numerous sources - radio, television, mobile communications, the Internet, all kinds of devices emitting waves that rage around us all day and at night.
Sooner or later, if a person does not come to his senses and does not change his attitude to the nature around him, she will simply wipe him off the face of the earth, as has already happened many times. Man imagines himself to be the master of the Earth. Moreover, he appropriated the title of the crown of creation, not suspecting that he was just another and, moreover, a temporary resident on this planet, so to speak, a lodger, who also dirtied his home.
I am afraid that nature will no longer tolerate him, if in the near future he does not realize his very modest place in the Universe and does not finally begin to respect the nature of his native planet.
And you have to start from the ground, it's time to change your attitude towards it. We are used to considering the earth as inanimate matter and treat it accordingly. However, the earth is a complex living organism, and it requires a careful attitude towards itself.
The earth is our nurse, therefore, it is completely unacceptable to treat it thoughtlessly and predatory. The land requires tireless attention, and not at all hard labor, as many believe. Please note: nature does not plow, does not dig, does not apply tons of mineral fertilizers, and the fertility of its soils is constantly increasing (if we do not interfere in this process), it has been growing huge tracts of woody and herbaceous plants on these very soils for thousands of years and at the same time does not fight at all with weeds and pests. She does not divide flora and fauna into hers and foes. For her, everyone is equal in the right to exist. She has only one selection criterion: the strongest survives in the struggle for existence. The question is why? But because nature does not like vain work. As soon as she created the existing species, then she seeks to preserve them. For this it is necessary that these very species leave behind healthy and strong offspring. As the saying goes, children need healthy parents.
And our land is getting scarcer from year to year, harvests are falling. And we seem to be making a lot of fertilizers, and we are constantly fighting all sorts of misfortunes on our pets, endlessly sprinkling them with everything that neighbors, advertising and specialists recommend, and we water our garden almost daily. Work on the land turned into hard labor.
You didn't wonder why? Maybe we don't know much?
We know quite enough, but we only use our knowledge in a foolish way.
It took nature billions of years to create fertile soils. In ancient times, when people began to engage in agriculture, they received this precious gift from nature completely free of charge. And they appreciated him very highly. All pagan peoples worshiped the earth, considered it a living deity, giving life. Thousands of years passed, and people still treated the earth, calling it mother earth, nourishing earth, and engaged in sparing agriculture - loosening, and not at all barbaric digging and turning over layers of earth. And for some 2-3 last centuries, the attitude to the land has changed dramatically. She became simply an object of predatory exploitation. The widespread destruction of the natural fertility of soils, the priceless cover of the Earth, which gives life to the entire supermundane world of plants and animals, began. From an irrepressible thirst for enrichment, an unrestrained technical progress began, which in many areas of its activity harmed mankind, but did not help at all.
I do not deny the great role played by scientific and technological progress in the development of human civilization, but the fact that the thoughtless invention and use of agricultural technology destroyed the richest soils of the planet and is steadily pushing mankind to starvation is a fact. Captivated by the technical boom, agricultural producers naively believed that this fertility could be easily replaced by the application of large amounts of mineral fertilizers. The more the better, the higher the yields. It turned out that this is not at all the case. The most fertile lands in a few years simply ceased to produce crops, no matter what and how much they did not bring. I had to give them a "rest". And how did they rest? Yes, they just stopped plowing, sowing in front of this plants, which were called siderata. And sometimes they were simply left to fend for themselves, and they were immediately populated with weeds. And miracles - after a couple of years, soil fertility was restored without human intervention. And the earth was not idle all this time, it continued to grow and create a large above-ground green mass of plants.
The soil has an amazing ability to restore its fertility, if we do not completely ruin it with the stubbornness of maniacs, continuing to use all the same barbaric agricultural methods, using all the same unusable equipment. Is humanity really so stupid that it cannot master other principles of farming and create appropriate equipment that works with the least harm to the soil and its inhabitants? Maybe, but stubbornly does not want to. Everything is trying to outsmart nature.
The number of inhabitants on the planet is growing steadily, and the need for food is also growing. But instead of moving from disastrous production to a new one that works not contrary to nature, but in accordance with it, this time a person thought of increasing agricultural production using genetic engineering. And he created artificial organisms, replacing some plant fragments in the DNA molecule with completely different ones, taken not only from plants, but also from fish. Everything would be fine, but only distant consequences for humanity with constant consumption of such products are fraught with its complete death (at least experiments on 40 generations of rats have established this: rats have lost the ability to reproduce offspring). Forty generations of rats is only a little over three years of existence. And for a person it will take almost a millennium. Who will be responsible for what they have done in a thousand years? In addition, during this time it is not known what other artificial biological monsters will populate our planet and what they will do with us.
Nature takes cruel revenge on the one who seeks to violate the biological order established by her, and trying to deceive her is a completely hopeless business. A person's consciousness is clearly lagging behind the mechanism of scientific and technological progress launched by him, and he began to create toys that are already out of his control. Isn't it time to stop, think first, what consequences your scientific discoveries and technical achievements can lead to, human! Are we really going to act in accordance with the well-known aphorism “In the fight against common sense, victory will be ours!”?
The fact that man on earth (along with animals and plants) is just a consumer is clear, besides, man, unlike plants and animals, is also a destroyer. But who is the creator? Who created everything on our planet? The answer is known: the underground population of our planet. It was thanks to these multibillion-dollar workaholics that all the inhabitants above it appeared underground. This is an invisible, but very powerful world.
It turns out that the earth under our feet is by no means inanimate matter, as we frivolously used to think, but a complex living organism with its own laws of development and a complex hierarchy of existence. To date, it is still known that there are two types of unicellular organisms in the soil. Some of them do not have a nucleus, and have existed from generation to generation in an unchanged state for about 3.5 billion years. Others have a core. It was they who laid the foundation for the diversity of life on Earth. Despite the primitive structure of each single-celled organism, all together they managed to self-organize into complex and perfectly interacting systems, perfectly adapted for life, resistant to all cataclysms of the complex evolution of the Earth itself, and survived these cataclysms safely.
Now, when scientists began to be interested in the genetic code of these unicellular organisms, it turned out that both types include a huge number of their varieties, which have not yet been studied at all. They populate the land, as they say, "from top to bottom." Each species of unicellular organisms performs its function and occupies its own niche in the biological cycle of substances.
So, the first population of our planet should be considered unicellular organisms that populated the planet billions of years ago. As a result of their vital activity, a surface layer of soil was gradually created on the planet, into which unicellular organisms with a nucleus began to move. As a result, after a long evolution, during the division of the nucleus of unicellular organisms, their associations arose - multicellular organisms, by the way, are much less adapted for life on the surface of the planet and more vulnerable. Even a small change in temperature led to the extinction of their entire communities. However, the population of the planet slowly, gradually, but steadily developed and expanded. And now we can only marvel at the diversity of life that nature has created for us.
And it all started with the simplest unicellular bacteria. And the most amazing thing is that these very bacteria continue to work hard to create soil fertility. Each of them lives a very short (about half an hour), but intense life, continuously multiplying by simple cell division, and just as non-stop throughout its life processing organic residues, resulting in the formation of humus - humus - the most fertile component of the soil. This multibillion-dollar army is our main helpers in the struggle for the harvest, and not at all mineral fertilizers, manure, agricultural machinery, all kinds of organomineral complexes, means of protection against diseases and pests. It is they, the underground inhabitants of our planet, who work tirelessly, not for a second stopping their work on creating natural soil fertility.
We are simply obliged to carefully preserve and respectfully treat these inhabitants of the planet, not forgetting that it is to them that we owe our life in every sense of the word.
Scientists have calculated that, despite the meager size of each bacterium, the total biomass of underground inhabitants exceeds the total biomass of above-ground inhabitants, including plants, animals and people, several times! And it should be remembered that whole species of above-ground inhabitants, both plant and animal origin, survived their heyday and left the stage, and underground inhabitants safely continue to exist practically unchanged. So who's in charge on this planet? Certainly not you and me.
In the lowest layers of the earth live stone-eating bacteria that process minerals, as well as those unicellular organisms that are able to live in a methane environment.
Closer to the surface, approximately at a depth of 20–40 cm, there are anaerobic bacteria, which require carbon dioxide. In the upper layer, at a depth of about 5–20 cm, the soil is inhabited by micro-fungi and aerobic bacteria, that is, those lower organisms that need oxygen for their existence. In addition, earthworms have chosen this layer. When digging to the depth of a shovel bayonet, turning the layer over, we swap these layers, and each type of microorganism finds itself in an unfavorable environment for itself. Most of them die in this case. It takes at least 2-5 years to restore the broken hierarchy.
Imagine a huge apartment building, densely populated with residents of different professions, each living and working in their own area. And suddenly we appear with our shovel and suddenly completely destroy this house, like an earthquake or a multi-ton bomb. Well, what is it like for the residents of this house? They almost completely perish, and those who survive, not very soon, after many generations, will be able to rebuild and repopulate their homes.
The soil, devoid of microorganisms, becomes dead, loses fertility, since this very fertility of the soil is created and maintained by microorganisms and earthworms inhabiting the earth. And no amount of fertilization will help here until the population on each floor is restored. In addition, the soil, losing its inhabitants, loses its structure along with them, and therefore collapses.
This soil is washed away by the rains and carried away by the winds.During the rains, it turns into a viscous substance, reminiscent of plasticine, in which the feet get stuck.
In a dry period, such soil turns into concrete, which is not only loosened, but has to be broken with a pickaxe.
The land without its inhabitants is dead, it will not give birth to anything. It is a well-known fact: the invaders took the wonderful Ukrainian fertile black earth land to their place in Germany. However, after a couple of years, they stopped doing this, since for some reason the harvests on the brought land were very small and did not pay off the costs of its transportation. Why would that? And all the same - the soil has lost its creators.
Let us, dear friends, change our attitude towards both nature and land use. Let's learn to live and work on earth in harmony with nature, respect its laws, and not try to reshape them at our discretion, contrary to common sense.
This is, first of all, the natural habitat of a huge, yet unknown world of underground inhabitants - soil microorganisms: bacteria, fungi, small animals. We are quite familiar with some, for example, with earthworms, and we know about others by hearsay, for example, about nematodes or fungi that cause diseases such as gray rot of strawberries or keel of cabbage.
We know that the soil can have a different structure (clay, loam, sandy loam, sand), have different acidity from strongly acidic (pH4.5 and below) to neutral (pH5.5-6.5) or alkaline (pH7 and above). We know that everything grows much better on fertile soil, because it contains a lot of humus. We know that earthworms are useful because they create this very humus. We know, of course, something else. But this is clearly not enough to organize business in such a way that nature begins to work for us on our hundred square meters. To do this, it is necessary to switch to reasonable farming that maintains the natural fertility of the soil.
First of all, do not destroy our main helpers inhabiting the Earth. And for this all you need is - don't dig!
Let's see why digging is harmful.
There are at least five reasons.
The first reason is as follows. We are used to thinking of the earth as inorganic matter, that is, inanimate, and we treat it accordingly. And the soil is a very complex living organism with its own hierarchical structure, its own laws of community, densely populated with microorganisms and lower animal organisms, such as, for example, earthworms. When digging to the depth of a shovel bayonet, turning the layer over, we change the places of the soil layers, and each type of microorganism finds itself in an unfavorable environment for itself. Most of them die at the same time, and the soil, devoid of microorganisms, loses its fertility. And at the same time, it is completely useless to apply any fertilizers until its population recovers. Losing its inhabitants, the soil, along with them, loses its structure. This soil is washed away by the rains and carried away by the winds. The soil cannot be strongly compacted, and this happens when using heavy equipment, since excessive compaction of the soil layers also leads to the death of soil microorganisms.
You probably have your own experience on this issue. Remember, when you pour in a large pile of earth, for example, removed from the place where you are going to build a house, and then want to use it for the beds, you suddenly find that the soil for some reason has become barren, although you have piled in this pile mostly sod. Thanks to the use of modern agricultural machinery, today we have almost completely ruined the most fertile lands on the entire planet and an inexorable decline in soil fertility, respectively - a drop in yield from each square meter of cultivated area.
You and I cannot enlighten all mankind, but we ourselves are quite capable of halting destructive agriculture and restoring the lost (more precisely, never existed on our sites) natural soil fertility on our own sites.
First, stop digging, and twice a year! In recent years, more and more serious and not very serious works have appeared in the literature in defense of this call: to stop digging deeply and plowing the soil with overturning the layer of earth. If we talk about a garden plot, then the main commandment should be the slogan “Don't dig!”.
The second reason why you should not dig and plow and turn over the earth is as follows. When digging the soil, we break all the microchannels through which moisture and air penetrate into the arable layer. As a result, moisture and air do not enter the zone of sucking roots, and normal plant nutrition is disrupted. The roots literally suffocate, the plant weakens. What a harvest there. Plants "have no time for fat, I would live."
How are these microchannels formed in the soil?
The fact is that the root system of plants is huge. It not only can go down to 2-5 m (in beets, for example, the central root can penetrate up to 3-4 m, and in cucumber - up to 1 m), but it also branches in all directions, and each of these roots is covered hundreds of thousands of sucking hairs, the total length of which can reach 5-10 km! As a result, every inch of the earth is literally riddled with these hairs.
When the aerial part of the plant dies off, soil microorganisms begin to eat the remnants of the roots. As a result, microscopic channels are formed, through which moisture penetrates, and after it is absorbed by the soil, air rushes into the soil through the channels. In addition, the worms make passages in the soil, which also serve as channels for water and air, only larger ones. Through all these passages, the roots of the next generation of plants can easily penetrate into the depths of the soil.
We are strongly advised to do the autumn digging of the soil in order to destroy the pests that have settled down to winter in the surface layer of the soil, as well as so that moisture penetrates between the clods, freezes and expands the passages for spring water and air, which will rush into the soil layer through these cracks. Yes, of course, some of the pests will die, but we will completely disrupt the system of water and air exchange, replacing it with several large cracks. In the spring, when we re-dig, we will finally destroy the channels created by roots and bacteria. With such a double digging, this entire complex system is destroyed, and the soil cakes in dry times so much that it literally has to be gouged.
The third reason not to dig and plow is very simple. During the autumn digging, we bring all the seeds of weeds from the surface into the soil, where they remain until spring. And with repeated digging in the spring, we bring back overwintered weed seeds to the surface, which immediately begin to germinate.
The fourth reason why the soil should not be dug is that usually after digging we leave the surface of the soil "bare", and this leads to drying out and destruction of its uppermost layer. In addition, "a holy place is never empty," and weeds will immediately begin to take their place under the sun. The soil must not be left bare. It should not be dug up, but covered from above with any mulching material. The easiest way to do this is the way nature does it, that is, it covers the earth with organic remains. In autumn - fallen leaves and aerial parts of dead annuals. In spring - young green shoots.
Why is she doing this? In autumn - to return the organic matter consumed by plants to the soil and to cover the superficial root system from frost (where there is frost). In spring - to cover the surface from direct sunlight, to protect the top layer from drying out and destruction.
The fifth reason is that when digging, the upper, most fertile part of the soil, containing humus, turns out to be scattered throughout the thickness of the dug layer. Humus, as it were, is washed out or smeared, and since there is so little of it in poor soils, the fertility of the upper layer decreases. Humus always "floats" to the top layer. But when will that happen! Humus should be protected and appreciated, and not destroyed by digging.
Like what! Of course, to grow, groom, cherish the inhabitants of the soil, and for this they need to be well fed, throwing green organic matter at them and loosened, only to loosen the soil so as not to harm them!
Instead of a shovel, you must use a Fokin flat cutter. It has a pointed end, so it is with them that you will make grooves first along and then across, deepening it into the soil by about 5 cm.Then, with the flat part of the plane cutter, slightly dig up this layer, cutting and immediately throwing the ground off the plane cutter. If necessary, then disassemble with a rake. By the way, the rake can also be used to loosen the topsoil. For such surface cultivation, a hand-held cultivator is best suited, which, in addition to loosening the soil, also has a cutting plate. You can do this work with a sharpened hoe, "Strizh" weeder and other devices. There are now quite a few of them on sale. The only requirement for such tools is that they must be very well sharpened. And don't believe in self-sharpening. The tool must be sharpened before each use, then the work will go easily.
These tools should not be buried below 5 cm in the soil, and they should not stir the seams. You can also dig with an ordinary shovel, but only superficially. Do not worry about the roots, they will find their way in deeper layers, penetrating into the microchannels left over from the root system of previous residents (if you did not destroy them by digging). So the roots do not need deep digging.
So, do not dig, but loosen! Get rid of the most time consuming job on earth - digging the earth.
The second laborious work on the ground is weeding. If you think a little, you can get rid of it. Just make a decision: do not weed!
How so? Everything will grow! To the very chest!
Do not weed - does not mean at all not to fight weeds. It is imperative to fight with them, otherwise these native children of nature will simply displace the stepchildren of nature from the site - our cultivated plants. Nature has rewarded its children with extraordinary vitality, so weeds will certainly win in the struggle for a place in the sun.
So what do you do? Like what? Cut perennial weeds systematically at the root. Systematically - that's what matters! And it is necessary to cut the weeds at the age when it is easiest to do it, that is, when the weeds are no more than 5–15 cm high. You can use the Fokin flat cutter or the Strizh weeder or any other device. And shave the weeds off the face of the earth. The best result is a small burial of 2–3 cm into the soil. You simply cut the weeds and immediately leave them on the soil. What does it do?
First, weeds are suppressed. During the growing season, no plant can do without an aerial part for a long time. Roots that do not receive their share of the chlorophyll in green leaves are doomed to die. Of course, from the buds of renewal on the roots, new stems will immediately go. And you again - at the root. Do not let them only grow taller than 5–10 cm, otherwise the roots will have time to regain consciousness. So, having made 3-4 cuts in a row per season, you practically get rid of perennial weeds. Why shouldn't cut weeds be composted and left in place? Yes, because you mulch the soil with them, and its top layer does not dry out and does not collapse.
Secondly, this layer of weeds, gradually rotting, restores fertility to the soil.
Thirdly, you get rid of the extra work of carrying weeds into the compost, and in the fall from posting the compost that has rotted over the past year over the area. If you don’t annually bring non-rotted organic residues directly to the beds, the soil microorganisms will have nothing to “eat”, their number will decrease, and the soil will gradually become scarce, because the plants will destroy and use the humus in the upper layer.
Fourthly, the roots of the weeds, left without the aerial part, will die and, rotting, will provide additional nutrition for the roots of cultivated plantings. That is, you will additionally enrich the soil with humus exactly as it happens in nature.
You can, of course, not cut, but simply mow the weeds, but again, the main thing is that this must be done systematically, not allowing them to grow too tall. An ordinary scythe or sickle is suitable for this work, but, believe me, it is much less laborious to use a trimmer with an electric motor at the top, so you can also mow on wet grass. The use of this simple, relatively inexpensive and light technique makes it possible to significantly facilitate the work on the site. And save energy and precious time. I assure you that after processing with a trimer, the site takes on a very, very well-groomed, and even sleek look. If you missed the mowing time, and the grasses had time to clump (and you cannot put ears in the compost), mow only the tops. They are in the fire, and everything else should be mowed and laid out right on the beds among the plantings. Alternatively, you can mow the top half, and then the bottom, and leave the mowing right in place. Buy a trimmer that has an electric motor at the top and does not come into contact with the soil, so you can mow even in dew.
Why shouldn't we weed after all? After all, if you systematically weed, then there will be no weeds either. But the difference is that by cutting the growth point below the ground or mowing the above ground part, you induce re-growth of the same stem. One. And as soon as you dig up or pluck the weed, then on all the scraps of the root system remaining in the soil, the buds of renewal will immediately wake up, and this will provoke the growth of a whole horde of weeds instead of one. It's very easy to check. Dig up one dandelion plant in the spring and harvest another dandelion plant next to it. After a couple of weeks, look and see that one plant appeared again in the place of the cut plant, and many in the place of the torn one. This is another survival device that Mother Nature has bestowed on her children. They renew themselves from the smallest part of the root or rhizome left in the ground.
Well, well, we have learned how to deal with perennial rhizome weeds. Well, what about weed seeds in vegetable beds? There is no way to do without weeding! But no. It turns out that they can be strongly squeezed in the beds. In any case, you can do without the tedious many hours of weeding. For this, we just need to grow weeds in the beds in advance. In the spring, as soon as you arrive at your site, it is better even before the last snow melts, scatter ash or peat on the beds right over the snow to slightly blacken their surface. Then cover the beds with the remnants of the old film, lay it on top of the pole so that the wind does not pick up or carry the film. In the spring, the sun is hot, and under the layer of film the blackened snow in the beds will quickly melt, the surface layer of the soil will warm up, and weeds will quickly sprout from it. This will happen in about 10-12 days.
When you visit your site after two weeks, you will see that the weeds have sprouted. Remove the film, loosen the topsoil and leave the beds open for a day. Young shoots of weeds will die. Weeds are most vulnerable when they have only 2 cotyledonous leaves. At this point, they have only a faint hair of the central root. If at this moment they are simply loosened up, they will die. But if they have real leaves, then the struggle with them will become tiresome. Firstly, they have already formed lateral root branches, which means that as soon as you weed the beds and remove the weeds, new ones will immediately crawl out of all the scraps of roots. Secondly, if you leave the weeded plants in the garden, at the first rain within the next 2-3 days the weeds will take root and continue to grow as if nothing had happened.That is why weeds in the beds should be destroyed as early as possible.
After you have loosened the first shoots of weeds, in a day again cover the beds with foil and you can safely leave for another 1-2 weeks. Arriving at the site for the second time, you will again see the shoots of weeds under the film. These are the seeds that sprout from deeper layers of the soil. Repeat the same operation again. After a day, you can sow seeds in beds that are free from weeds. But at the same time, you must understand that such a bed should not be dug before sowing! Otherwise, you will again carry the weed seeds from the lower layers to the upper layer, and they will sprout safely. There are weed seeds throughout the soil. They are stored in a deep layer, like in a jar. But as soon as they get into the top layer, they immediately begin to germinate. The trick is that the length of the hypocotal knee (the distance from the root collar to the cotyledons) does not exceed 7 cm, so they do not emerge from a lower soil layer, but simply lie there and wait for years for their chance.
It is not difficult to pre-grow weeds in the garden, it just needs to be done on time. At least instead of doing the difficult and completely pointless watering of the garden with boiling water in the early spring in the garden. But this simple event for the preliminary cultivation of weeds in the garden bed will save you from laborious weeding of the beds throughout the season.
In the fall, as soon as the crop is harvested, immediately cover the beds with opaque material. Black spunbond or lutrasil is best suited, since such a material does not transmit light, but it does water and air.
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Supporters of autumn digging do not break clods so that the soil is frozen as deep as possible and pests and bacteria die. This is the main advantage of the method. But at the same time, we must not forget that the beneficial microflora also perishes with harmful microorganisms, and what is even more important, the nutrient layer dries up. Therefore, I advise you to dig up the garden in the spring. At the same time, turn over the layers and break up clods. Then, even if the winter was dry, warm and without snow, like this year), the soil will not dry out, and the harmful microorganisms that were on
Microorganisms that need oxygen live in the soil at a depth of up to 15 cm of the soil surface, after digging they will find themselves at the depth of a shovel bayonet and die without oxygen.
Garden success for summer residents and summer residents
Grandfather planted a turnip. The turnip has grown big, very large.
Wow! Where is this grandfather? How did you plant it? How did you grow it ?!
This book is about outwitting everything that makes a vegetable garden a problem.
Let's face it, we're too busy and too tired to have a model garden. Such as the neighbor's. Good for him - he does not get out of the dacha. And we have a lot of work and other problems! Let's admit that the garden has become a curse for most of us (especially for a husband, there is nothing to say about children.). We recognize that for all our love for the earth, we would gladly spend most of our time on something more enjoyable than digging, biting and carrying buckets of water. We admit: deep down, I want everything to grow beautifully on its own, without our participation. If you can admit it, I will say that this is your wisest desire.
In fact, a good harvest is rare. Most summer residents, spending quite a lot of energy, still lose their harvest. Many are disappointed and give up - in other partnerships, a third of the sites are abandoned. I figured out why this is happening. Not because of bad agricultural policy, and in no case because the owners are lazy and irresponsible. The reason is that the traditional gardening system requires too much, absurdly much work - several times more than a normal working city dweller can and should afford, but why is there just a normal person.
Now I will make a categorical statement. According to my observations, our traditional gardening practice is as follows:
10% - actions are aimed at results,
30% - specifically against the result and
60% - to fight these thirty.
It's not about us: this is essentially the culture of arable farming. If you, dear reader, regularly grow a rich crop, then you are unique, a genius of diligence and accuracy. There are only a few of them. The earth loves work, yes, but more mental than physical.
The way out is not in hard work - we are already too hardworking. It is enough just to exclude ineffectual actions. Stop creating problems for yourself, which you then have to deal with. And add some productive actions.
And the picture will change beyond recognition. Getting a harvest at the cost of huge, constant labor is not yet a success in gardening. Improving life in general by getting a harvest is the success of the gardener. This is what the book is about. Yet, as you can see, it is about success.
Greetings to everyone who has read Smart Garden! This was my experience, confirmed by the experience of old gardeners. I described what I do myself.
"Smart vegetable garden" is rather the experience of gardeners in Russia, Europe and the United States - both old and modern. Not everything that I am talking about here, I have experienced myself - you cannot grasp the immensity. But I considered it my duty to tell everything that I know about this, and provide you with the development of the technical subtleties. I think in a couple of years we will be able to discuss the subtle details of reasonable truck farming.
Many thanks to everyone who read the "Smart Garden" and responded - you encouraged me to new "feats". And for those who don't know me yet, let me introduce myself.
I am Nikolai Ivanovich Kurdyumov. For friends - Nick (but Nick is not an abbreviation, but rather a generalization, for ease of communication.). I am already 38. In 1982 I graduated from the faculty of fruits and vegetables TSKHA. He did not let his wife, Tatyana Mikhailovna, finish the fruit department - he took her to Komsomolsk-on-Amur. We have been living in the Kuban for ten years. Three children - Ivan, finishing school, Julia and Anastasia, approaching the same milestone. We live in harmony, and the teenage age of children did not become hooligan. Tanya is a musician by vocation and by first profession, but she loves plants very much, grows flowers and is engaged in the formation of young gardens. My career guidance test gave all the averages. I love tourism, photography, music, art songs, pedagogy (6 years of teaching experience, which is nice to remember). Now I am looking for and developing productive technologies in relation to the maintenance of a small private garden. I am interested in shaped gardening and garden design. I am convinced that each of us can turn our five hundred square meters into a source of beauty, harvest and pleasure. To do this, you need, firstly, to understand that, in fact, pleasure is the purpose of giving, and secondly, to learn more from nature than from books. I see how dacha difficulties become problems in the life of dacha residents, and I try to solve them as a whole. I'm trying to become gardener - Earlier this was the name of the masters who know how to grow absolutely everything. I like to talk about all the good things. I try to write simply and clearly. It is important that the text of the book is completely clear to you and that you and I speak the same language. Therefore:
1. Read it in the garden, in the garden. Touch and consider everything you read about. Even if it is in a single copy or quite a bit.
Make at least a micro-volume, at one meter, what you need to see, and watch. By reading a book only in an armchair, you can understand everything or have fun, but you will not be able to apply what you read.
2. If you suddenly lost the thread of reasoning and do not quite understand what it is about, it means that you missed (did not understand or misinterpreted) one word. It is located where it was as if everything was clear to you. Go back there, find a word that you cannot clearly imagine, and clarify it in our context. All disagreements come from different interpretations of words! To avoid misunderstanding, I marked all the "suspicious" words with a "" and put them in the explanatory dictionary. Look there often, and we will have a common language: you will understand exactly what I wanted to say.
You know, there is no fear in nature. There is no worry. Only a person has such concepts as “sinful”, “must”, “obliged”, “guilty” and “nobody needs me”. Plants just live - prosper or not. They do not understand that it is possible to grow a vegetable garden, "so that like everyone else," out of obsessive concern about children or out of the belief that "it is necessary." Observing the summer residents, I see a general "garden need". I very rarely meet those who maintain the dacha for yourself, for his pleasure - as a friend. This is where the main reason for the poor harvest and abandonment of our gardens is buried! We try to treat the vegetable garden as a piece of land on which food grows. And this is a mistake.
Autumn tillage is started immediately after harvesting. It is carried out primarily to remove weeds and fertilize the soil. If the weather is dry, then the dried tops of vegetables and weed roots can be burned, and the ash can be used here when digging. Of course, when burning the tops of tomatoes and cucumbers from the greenhouse, all disease-causing principles will also die.
But it is still more useful to lay the bulk of weeds, leaves, tops of vegetables and root crops in compost heaps, if possible, treat this mass with the preparation "Baikal EM1", or lay in shallow trenches for arranging warm beds. And only then begins the most difficult of the garden work - the autumn tillage.
Everyone agrees that it is necessary to loosen the soil in the garden and remove perennial weeds, especially if these are heavy loamy and clayey soils, the structure of which is imperfect. As the roots of plants breathe underground, they consume oxygen in the pores of the soil and release carbon dioxide. This means that too dense clay soils greatly interfere with breathing. At the same time, the root system of plants suffers from a lack of oxygen.