Ornamental cabbage: varieties, agricultural technology, pests

Features of growing ornamental cabbage

In late autumn, after the first frosts, when there are no more greenery in the garden and the last flowers have bloomed, it looks like a real miracle on the bare, dull ground ornamental cabbage.

This amazing plant is one of the few that frost does not destroy, but only decorates. Under the influence of cold, the leaves of ornamental cabbage begin to turn into all sorts of colors: from dazzling white to cherry red, from pale cream to burgundy purple.

At the same time, ornamental cabbage is not only an excellent decoration for a garden plot, but also quite suitable for eating. Its young, delicate leaves are rich in valuable organic acids, minerals, and biologically active substances.

Seedlings are grown in heated greenhouses or under a synthetic film, where the temperature should be 18 ... 20 ° C degrees. Sow cabbage in the last decade of March on a layer of earth 10-12 cm (two parts of sod land and a part of humus or equal parts of sod, humus and peat) in rows at a distance of 6 cm and to a depth of 1-1.5 cm. Before sowing, in order to prevent diseases, soil in boxes is spilled 1 % solution of potassium permanganate, which simultaneously serves as a necessary trace element in the process of plant nutrition. After sowing, water is rarely watered, but abundantly.

In Russia, seedlings of garden crops have long been planted on a strictly defined day - on Arina-nursery, according to the calendar, it falls on May 18 according to the new style. Although the climate has changed slightly since then, it is still mid-late May - it's time to plant seedlings in the beds. Plant seedlings with a lump of earth, immersing the plants in the soil up to the cotyledonous leaves, but so as not to cover the growing point with earth.

The distance between plants in a row is about 30 cm, between rows 50-70 cm. Ornamental cabbage is unpretentious in care, but it is better to plant it on good garden soil, fertilized with humus. And despite the fact that ornamental cabbage loves frost, it prefers to grow in the sunniest place.

It is very important to protect cabbage from pests, the main of which are cabbage white and cruciferous flea... Cabbage White - a cute butterfly with white wings is not dangerous in itself, but its caterpillars, which feed on the pulp of cabbage leaves, are dangerous. Butterflies fly out in May, are active during the day, mainly in sunny weather. Females lay clusters of bright yellow eggs on the underside of plant leaves.

After 8-12 days, caterpillars emerge from them, which gnaw out the flesh from the underside of the leaf. Caterpillar 45 mm long, gray-green, with black spots and yellowish stripes along the body, pupates after 15-20 days. If you have only a few plants growing, then you can deal with whitewash manually, collecting eggs and caterpillars, or by chemical treatment of cabbage.

Another equally common and dangerous pest of all cabbage crops is the cruciferous flea - black, blue or green beetles with a metallic sheen measuring only 2-3 mm. In early spring, they get out of the upper layer of the earth to the surface and move to cabbage shoots, in which they eat up small holes, which can cause weak plants to die.

Cruciferous fleas lay eggs in the soil, from which larvae emerge, damaging the plant roots. The second generation of beetles appears from the larvae in the middle of summer. You can protect plantings from fleas, first of all, by feeding them to enhance the growth and development of young plants, you can also pollinate cabbage every morning wood ash before it gets stronger.

In addition, if you have small plantings of cabbage, you can collect the beetles either in a matchbox, which you then burn, or in a bucket of water with a thin layer of kerosene.

In autumn, in late October - early November, several healthy ornamental cabbage plants can be dug up by the roots, transplanted into pots and grown at home, using fresh herbs to decorate the table in winter. But you can not dig cabbage from the garden, but only cover it when the temperature drops to -10 degrees. Certain varieties of ornamental cabbage have exceptional cold resistance, withstanding -20 ° C.

There are now many varieties of ornamental cabbage. They differ in the shape of the plant, the color of the leaves (green, yellow, white, pink, red and purple); the form of a leaf outlet. Leaves can be round, flat, curly, lyre-pinnate, sparsely cut, with varying degrees of corrugation.

Decorative varieties: Sparkle, Colors of the East, Robin, Autumn waltz, Palmyra, Relay. Japanese cabbage Little Mermaid. Leaf hybrids - Redbor and Reflex. The Mosbakhskaya variety of ornamental cabbage with curly leaves painted in a juicy light green color looks very beautiful.

Breeders of Japan have achieved the greatest success in breeding new varieties of ornamental cabbage. It is from there that most of the usual varieties of cabbage and the latest novelties come from. Japanese varieties of ornamental cabbage: Maruba Shirousagi, Maruba Aka, Maruba Akausagi.

Ornamental cabbage is multifaceted and interesting, the variety of its varieties will allow you to decorate any garden plot, and until the very frosts you can admire the lacy dress of unusual cabbage.

Maria Vorobyova

The best varieties of cabbage - names, descriptions, photos

Cabbage is the most common vegetable in the everyday human diet, and it is also healthy. It has been cultivated since ancient times. The varietal variety of cabbage allows you to choose the type in accordance with taste preferences and local growing conditions. Healthy, tasty and incredibly varied - all this can be said about cabbage. To choose the right option for growing, you need to consider in detail the existing varieties of cabbage with names and photos.

The cabbage family has 38 plant species. It comes from the Mediterranean region, but is valued and cultivated all over the world. The State Register of the Russian Federation lists 13 types of this vegetable, each includes dozens of subspecies. An exception is the forage cabbage, presented in a single copy.

  1. White-headed
  2. Color
  3. Savoy
  4. Redhead
  5. Brussels
  6. Broccoli
  7. Kohlrabi
  8. Beijing
  9. Sheet
  10. Chinese - Pak-choi
  11. Japanese
  12. Decorative
  13. Stern

Popular varieties

Ornamental cabbage varieties are divided into:

  • Tall. There can be 2 types:
    • Plants with a stem length of 50-120 cm. Large leaves of the most varied colors with double edges hang on long stems. Plants resemble exotic trees. These varieties are used to decorate terraces, gazebos, mixborders.
    • They have a stem up to 70-80 cm long and a loose head of small size. The shape and color of the leaves can be very different. The outline is reminiscent of small palms.
  • Rosette... They have a short stem. The leaves form a loose large rosette (up to 80 cm), shaped like a rose, peony, chrysanthemum. Leaves can be of different colors. Can be used in vertical compositions.

    Table of the main characteristics of the most common varieties of ornamental cabbage

    Modern varieties of ornamental cabbage are divided into two large groups.

    1. Varieties and hybrids that do not form a head of cabbage

    These are plants with a height of 0.4 to 1-1.2 m. Leaves grow along the entire length of the trunk, and outwardly they resemble brightly colored mini-trees.

    Varieties of ornamental cabbage that do not form a head of cabbage:

    Mosbakhskaya - low grade, up to 0.5 m with light green leaves, strongly corrugated and elongated

    Red high - up to 1.2 m high, with large purple-red, heavily cut and corrugated leaves

    Lark tongue - similar to the previous one, only with dark green leaves

    F1 Kai and Gerda - undersized up to 0.5 m in height, which is a mixture of purple-leaved and green-leaved plants.

    Crane F1 Feather King - 0.6-0.9 m high with strongly cut white-green leaves.

    2. Rosette varieties and hybrids form a loose head of cabbage

    The varieties of the second group have beautiful loose heads of cabbage. Varieties from this group appeared in the second half of the last century in Japan.

    ornamental rosette cabbage

    Interesting varieties and hybrids of rosette varieties of ornamental cabbage

    F1 Tokyo series - Plants of this variety series are distinguished by rounded leaves forming a dense rosette 25–30 cm high. The leaf edge is smooth, the outer leaves are from light green to dark green with a purple tint. The color of the inner leaves depends on the variety: Tokyo white she is white, u Tokyo Pink - pink, y Tokyo red - dark pink, almost red.

    F1 Osaka series - Plants are similar to the previous series, but their leaves are slightly corrugated and wavy at the edges. Osaka white - with white leaves, Osaka pink - with pink, Osaka red - with dark pink leaves in the center of the rosette.

    F1 Nagoya series - plants with leaves strongly corrugated at the edges. Have Nagoya white they are white, Nagoya pink - pink, Nagoya red - dark pink.

    F1 Victoria - 0.3 m high, forms dense rosettes of white and light pink leaves, along the edge of green ones. It looks very much like a huge rose.

    Lace frill - undersized, up to 0.5 m tall with strongly corrugated leaves.

    The use of ornamental cabbage in landscape design

    The plant is suitable as spectacular and original ornamental-deciduous plants in mixed plantings, undersized varieties of ornamental cabbage - in borders and ridges.

    By choosing plants of different shades, you can create all kinds of ornaments. The Relay variety is good for decorating flower arrangements and borders as part of flower beds, ridges or mixborders.

    The foliage of ornamental cabbage is edible and tastes good. Young leaves can be eaten as a salad and preserved for the winter. Young shoots of ornamental cabbage can be stewed with potatoes.

    To remove the bitterness, they must be frozen and then thawed before use.

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    Ornamental cabbage: growing from seeds

    Ornamental cabbage is a biennial plant, reaching a height of 60-80 cm (and above). Depending on the variety, the color of its leaves can vary from gray-green, emerald green to pale pink, peach and deep purple. Plants enter the stage of full development by about the end of summer.

    Being particularly resistant to frost, adult specimens are able to withstand temperatures as low as -12 ° C, seedlings - down to -4 ° C.

    Ornamental seed cabbage is grown as follows. For seedlings, seeds are planted in March-April in greenhouses, 2-3 pcs. into the hole at a distance of 5 cm from each other. In the future, it will be possible not to pick seedlings, but simply remove weaker shoots by ordinary thinning.

    In order to avoid diseases in seedlings, it is necessary to control the frequency and intensity of watering. First, before sowing seeds, the prepared soil is watered abundantly (it is better to take the soil purchased, not from the beds), and 5-6 days before the emergence of shoots, they only slightly moisten the surface of the earth, as it dries.

    So that young sprouts do not stretch upward at an intense pace, it is recommended to place greenhouses with them in a cool and bright room with an air temperature of 12-16 ° C. After 35-40 days, the seedlings hardened in this way can be planted for permanent residence - usually this moment falls on the end of April - beginning of May.

    In addition to the seedling method, the cultivation of ornamental cabbage from seeds can be carried out by direct sowing of seeds in open ground. Taking into account the fact that this culture develops and grows faster than, for example, white cabbage, its seeds can be sown in the beds from the second decade of May to mid-June. When 3-4 leaves are formed on the seedlings, the plants should be thinned out, leaving healthier and stronger specimens in the garden. The rest of the plants can be transplanted to another place or distributed to neighbors in the country.

    Planting and caring for ornamental cabbage

    When choosing a suitable place for growing ornamental cabbage from seeds, they are guided by the layout of the summer cottage and the characteristics of the soil. It should be remembered that this culture prefers loams and sandy loam soils rich in humus. In addition, she is very fond of light, but she takes root well in semi-shady places (although in this case her color turns out to be pale and not so impressive).

    Seedlings are usually planted according to the 35x35 cm scheme (depending on the variety and future plant sizes). Previously, you will need to apply a universal planting fertilizer to each hole (1 tsp each). Plants are planted in cloudy weather or at sunset, when the sun is no longer so active.

    When planting, each sprout is buried in the soil at the level of the cotyledon leaves, carefully compacting the soil around the stem and roots. After planting, young bushes are recommended to be shaded for 2-3 days for better adaptation.

    Caring for ornamental cabbage is simple and provides for regular watering, weeding, feeding and loosening the soil if necessary.10-14 days after planting the seedlings in a permanent place, it is recommended to feed young plants with urea or diluted mullein (in proportion: a liter can of mullein per bucket of water) for more intensive leaf formation.

    It is advisable to feed the second time a couple of weeks after the first: at this stage, a complex mineral fertilizer is applied, observing the same dosage that is recommended for a normal planting. When 9-10 true leaves are formed on each bush, the ground around the plantings should be carefully loosened.

    The use of mineral and organic fertilizers stimulates the growth and development of seedlings, however, it is not necessary to abuse additional fertilizing in relation to adult plants, since they may lose their attractiveness from an excess of organic nitrogen.

    Protection of plantations from pests

    This culture, as well as white cabbage, red cabbage (and even such an exotic variety as pak choy cabbage), often becomes a tasty prey for pests. Cabbage flies are especially dangerous for young plants, from which the plantings can be protected with a special paper collar.

    To make it, a circle with a diameter of about 10 cm is cut out of paper, and cut from edge to center in a straight line. A stem is threaded into the incision and wrapped tightly. You can remove such protection after 2-3 weeks, when the seedlings gain strength.

    This amazing representative of the world of garden plants blooms approximately in June-July - and at the same time, the entire garden plot takes on a truly fabulous look. Moreover, picking up certain varieties of ornamental cabbage ahead of time, and planting them according to a certain pattern, you can create patterned flower beds of incredible beauty on your summer cottage.

    How to get ornamental cabbage seeds?

    In autumn, the plants are dug up together with a lump of earth on the roots, the leaves are cut from the bottom to the middle from each specimen, leaving only the upper ones, and they are dropped into the sand until spring. You need to store the plantings in a well-ventilated, dry place, making sure that their roots do not dry out. In the spring, ornamental cabbage seedlings are returned to the garden bed, trying to do this as early as possible. By the way, do not forget that for full pollination it is necessary to plant several plants next to each other.

    This culture grows well (and hibernates) in an apartment environment, without requiring special attention. Here, the most common question should be answered: is it possible to eat ornamental cabbage leaves? Oddly enough, but this culture is quite edible. According to experts, even an ordinary boiled potato becomes much tastier if, in the process of cooking, a piece of a bright leaf of this amazing plant is placed on it.

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