Veronica plant: everything you need to know to grow it


There veronica is a plant extremely widespread which owes its success to the large number of existing varieties.

At the moment there are about 500 species of veronica plant and these include herbaceous specimens, ornamental and cultivable in any condition, whether pot, garden or terrace.

Among these must certainly be mentioned:

  • Gentianoides
  • Austrian
  • Incana
  • Longifolia
  • Peduncularis
  • Prostrata or rupestris
  • Repens
  • Spicata

In this article we will see together everything you need to know to grow the veronica plant in a correct and profitable way.

Let's begin!

Veronica plant: what are its characteristics?

The veronica plant is a perennial crop which belongs to the family of Scrophulariaceae and finds its origin in North America, Asia and Europe.

There are more than 500 varieties of veronica plant

Generally, this plant looks like a bush which can reach up to 60 centimeters in height and is formed by various erect stems covered with a spear-shaped leaf with dark green shades.

Its stems generally have gods racemes composed of many small blue or pink flowers.

The flower is composed as follows:

  • Four petals
  • Four sepals
  • Two stamens
  • An ovary that has two carpels (i.e. female organs)

In common parlance, the flowers of this plant are known as Eyes of the Madonna and they have a durable life even once they are cut.

Flowering occurs in summer, in the months that go from June to September.

How is the veronica plant grown?

Cultivating veronica is relatively simple because it is not a plant that requires special care.

Once all the conditions for its proper growth have been met, in fact, it will be very easy to manage and it will give you great satisfaction in terms of decoration and management.

First, what you need to know is that veronica is a plant that, in terms of exposure, needs of sunny and semi-shady environments.

As regards, however, the soil quality, this must be loose, fertile and well draining; beyond the pH, in fact, it is essential that the land that hosts the plant is able to absorb water quickly to avoid the dangers of water stagnation.

Regarding irrigation, the administration of water to the plant must always be regular, but surely not excessive or abundant, especially in the period of vegetative growth.

Finally, his fertilization It must be performed every 20 days and the fertilizer to be used must be specific for flowering and slow-release plants.

NB: you want to know more about the foliar fertilization? Here is an article on the subject.

Other cultural treatments of the veronica plant

In this paragraph we will see together everything you need to know about some crucial aspects of the management of veronics.

In particular:

  • Multiplication
  • Sowing
  • Transplant
  • Topping

How does veronica multiply?

The multiplication of veronica occurs by division of the tufts, a practice that takes place during the autumn.

This simple operation allows to obtain absolutely identical specimens to the original ones and must be performed during the period of vegetative rest or at the time of repotting.

Once the plant is out of the pot, what needs to be done is select the productive heads, isolate them in single pots rich in soil and, once the plant adheres to the ground, water it.

Sowing, transplanting and topping

As for these 3 practices, this is also the case of very simple procedures which can also be done by less experienced green thumbs.

There sowing of veronica, in fact, it is carried out in spring through the use of containers that are placed in places with little sunlight. During this operation, the very small seeds must not be buried, but must be scattered on the ground when it is wet.

Once the seedlings have 6 or 7 leaves, these can be transplanted. Pay attention to the distance between one plant and another: this must be about 20 centimeters.

As regards the topping, on the other hand, veronica is a plant that does not need pruning, but that may need topping the withered branches to stimulate the birth of new flowers.

Pests and uses of veronica

Veronica is a plant that it is rarely attacked by insects or suffering from particularly aggressive diseases.

Given its extreme resistance, the only threat to be watched for are aphids.

Veronica officinalis is used to create infusions

As for, however, its uses, among the various types of veronica there is also that officinalis, used to prepare specific infusions (known as veronica or Swiss tea infusion) with strong analgesic and digestive support properties.

Finally, remember that veronica is a plant actually dangerous and harmful to pets that populate our homes, like cats or dogs; their leaves and stems, when ingested, can cause gastric problems, while rubbing could cause dermatitis to our 4-legged companions.

In short, as you can see, the notions to know to cultivate the veronica plant in a correct and healthy way are few, but they must still be applied to perfection if you want to have strong and beautiful specimens.

Now it's your turn, good job!

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Paulownia: all you need to know

There Paulownia, or paulownia, is a plant commonly known for its beauty and majesty. It is part of the family of Scrophulariaceae and it is also called "princess tree", as its name derives from that of the Russian noblewoman Anna Pavlovna. It makes its appearance in Europe for the first time in 1800 brought by the Dutch East India Company. The plant is characterized by cuneiform leaves and extremely colored flowers that they take on shades of lilac or white.


Growing strawberries: guide to do it correctly

If you want to add a new crop to your garden or want to make room on the balcony for a potted plant capable of giving delicious fruits, growing strawberries is the solution you are looking for.

More experienced farmers know this well: grow strawberries it is not a difficult undertaking. Just know the tricks of the trade and even beginner gardeners can grow their favorite variety in the garden or on the balcony.

Strawberry belongs to the genus of Fragaria and from a botanical point of view it is not a fruit but a false fruit such as apple, pear, watermelon, pomegranate, melon and fig. It is also an aggregate fruit, or etaerio, which unlike a simple fruit comes from the fusion of different separate ovaries in a single flower. The real fruits of strawberries are the achenes, the small seeds that cover the surface of what William Shakespeare called "fairy food".

The strawberry is the symbol of spring, the queen of seasonal fruit in April, a source of vitamin C and flavonoids, and the perfect ingredient for the preparation of simple and tasty smoothies.

Let's find out how grow strawberries to bring to the table the scent and flavor of a delight of nature.

Growing strawberries: the most famous varieties, the uniferae and the remontant varieties

There are numerous varieties of strawberries, over six hundred, and the best known are:

  • Anabelle: medium-rounded fruit with a sweet flavor
  • Belburi: elongated shape
  • Pocahontas: round shape
  • Gorella: heart shape
  • Caress: regular and large conical shape
  • Alba: shiny and early ripening, it has an elongated conical shape
  • Roxana: intense red color for a medium-late ripening strawberry
  • Anais: medium size, bright color and sugary flavor
  • Arosa: rounded shape
  • Darselect: large, sweet flavor and deep red color
  • Sabrosa: elongated conical shape, it is a sweet Spanish variety, born from crosses and bright red in color

Furthermore, strawberries must be divided into two further groups:

  1. unifere: also called short-day or non-repeat flowering, they produce the fruit only once a year from April to May. The taste is sweet and the pulp is juicy. Among the unifere varieties are Alba and Roxana.
  2. remontant: either two-leaved or long-diurnal, they produce fruit several times a year from spring to autumn. Among the remontant varieties are Annabelle and Anais.

There are also photo-indifferent strawberries, called day neutral, which grow at any time of the year as long as the temperature does not drop below 10 ° C. One of the best known varieties is Irma.

Growing strawberries: everything you need to know

Dreams of grow strawberries in your garden or on the balcony of your house? Here is everything you need to know to take care of the plant and enjoy its sweet fruits.

  • Climate: strawberry plants tolerate both winter cold and hot summer temperatures well, however they do not like full sun exposure which could burn the leaves. They prefer cool, partially shaded places.

  • Ground: strawberries need a soft, slightly acidic soil (pH 6), rich in organic substance and well drained, free from water stagnation that cause root rot and kill the plant. The ideal is to prepare the soil before sowing or planting the plants. A dig of about 30 cm and the use of an organic fertilizer such as manure or mature manure will be sufficient. For planting it is necessary to dig holes about ten centimeters deep and 35-40 cm apart, while the distance between one row and the other must be about 90 cm. Once the seedlings have been buried, the soil must be compacted and watered. The summer months are the ideal period for planting, the roots will have the time necessary to expand and the correct growth of the plant will allow the first fruits to appear in the following spring.

  • Sowing: the cultivation of strawberries starting from the seed is quite complex and involves two phases: germination and transplantation. The first step is to make the seed integument softer by immersing it in a chamomile bath for about ten minutes before transferring it to a seedbed or, alternatively, to small plastic pots. In the soil, light, well drained and wet before sowing, small depressions of about 6 mm should be created, 1.5 cm away from each other, and insert three or four seeds for each hole. Subsequently, the seeds will be covered taking care not to compress the earth too much. At this point it will be necessary to spray the soil with demineralized water and cover the seedbed, or the chosen container, with plastic (such as food film or shopping bags) to maintain humidity. It is important to check the seedbed daily to make sure the soil is always moist. To water it will be enough to lift the plastic film and vaporize the water without exaggerating. The seedbed should be placed in a bright and warm place. When the seedlings begin to touch the plastic veil then the cover can be removed and since the soil will tend to dry out faster it will be necessary to check the degree of humidity every day. When at least five leaves are counted on the seedlings, the time has come to transplant them in the open field or in pots.

  • Multiplication by stolon: the stolon is a branch that originates at the base of the collar (the area between the stem and the root) of a plant and crawls on the ground or just below the ground. From the knots of the stolon, roots and leaves sprout from which new plants are born. The multiplication of the strawberry plant by stolon is possible when the stems reach 30 cm. To proceed it will be necessary to place a pot, filled with soil, next to the mother plant. The stolon should not be cut but placed in the new vase and fixed to the ground with a wire in the shape of a "U" or a stone. During the following month, the plant must be watered regularly to keep the soil moist and allow the correct growth of the root system. After thirty days, with clean and sterilized shears, the stolon can be cut at the base of the mother plant.

  • Potted: strawberries can also be grown on your balcony or terrace, taking care to place the pot in a sunny corner. The pot, with a diameter of 20-25 cm, about 15 cm deep and made of terracotta, must be equipped with a hole in the bottom for drainage and filled with slightly acidic soil with a pH of 5.5 to 6.5. On the bottom, to avoid water stagnation, it will be necessary to arrange some expanded clay mixed with granular stallic. Cyclically the soil will be enriched with fertilizer rich in potassium and phosphorus. After extracting the plant from the pot, the roots must be cleaned of excess soil, separated with your fingers and placed in a bucket full of water for about an hour. This is a necessary step to ensure the root system the moisture it needs. After the hour, planting will be carried out and the pot must be filled with more soil until it reaches the crown of the plant and being careful not to bury this part as it is the one from which the stems develop. Watering must be regular but not excessive to keep the soil moisture constant. Leaves and fruits, on the other hand, must always remain dry or they could rot. During the winter it is advisable to protect the plant with a perforated plastic sheet or non-woven fabric. Finally, for growing in planters, the advice is to use three or four seedlings and space them apart by about 10-20 cm.

  • Vertically: strawberries can also be grown vertically, a practical and decorative solution that gives a touch of originality to balconies and terraces. It is a cultivation that allows to obtain the same results as a classic cultivation but saving space, energy and time. To create vertical cultivation you need a PVC pipe, such as those used in plumbing, which will be drilled with a drill. The holes, with a diameter of 6-7 cm, must be about 15 cm apart and the total number will change according to the length of the chosen tube. Once pierced, the tube will be inserted into a terracotta pot which will be filled with expanded clay and soil and will serve as a base to support the vertical garden. Afterwards, simply fill the cylinder with soil and gently insert the seedlings into the holes each time the soil is added. Watering must start from above and the water must be poured gently and without exceeding to prevent liquid and earth from leaking from the holes.

  • Watering: watering, more frequent in hot and dry periods, must be regular to keep the soil moist but not excessively wet or the plant could rot. It is preferable to water the plants in the morning before the soil warms up and for open field crops the best irrigation system is the drip system.

  • Mulching and fertilizing: mulching is the operation that serves to protect strawberries from the cold and weeds. For strawberries, natural materials such as straw and jute can be used or, in the case of large crops, a plastic or biodegradable film in which to drill holes to ensure the plants have good oxygenation. The soil around the plants must always be clean and any weeds must be uprooted to avoid the risk of them stealing nutrients essential to the growth of the plant. When the first flowers and fruits appear, the ideal is to use phosphorus-based fertilizer to dissolve in the water used for irrigation.

  • Hydroculture: hydroponic cultivation, from ancient Greek hýdor, water, e pónos, work, is a soilless cultivation technique known as "the art of growing plants in water". It is perfect for those who do not have a garden or a balcony because the plants can also be grown indoors. Here is what you need: strawberry seedlings, a mixture of specific nutrients for the hydroponic cultivation of strawberries, plastic pots with a capacity of about 20 liters and equipped with a hole in the bottom, a large bucket, vermiculite. The first thing to do is to wash and dry the pierced jars very well, fill them 2/3 full with vermiculite and wet it thoroughly to hydrate it. The pots must be placed in a well-lit place with a temperature between 14 ° and 20 ° C. In a closed environment, the ideal is to use lamps for indoor cultivation that ensure the plants the right amount of light. After removing the seedling from the container, shake it gently to remove the excess and immerse it for ten minutes in a bucket filled with cold water. Next, take the plant out of the bucket, gently wash the roots under cold water to remove any traces of soil and remove dead, dry and damaged leaves. Insert the seedling into the pot and carefully arrange the roots on the vermiculite. Add more vermiculite to cover the roots taking care not to cover the collar. Carefully following the instructions on the package, mix the nutrients with the water and irrigate the seedlings. It is essential to check the water level of the hydroponic system daily and add it when necessary to keep the roots always moist. Another type of hydroponic strawberry cultivation is the Nutrient Film Technique (NTF), used mainly by industries.

  • Collected: when the strawberries have an intense red color and a sweet scent, it means that they are ripe and you can proceed with the harvest. Strawberries must be detached from the plant with the stalk to keep them better and longer.

Growing strawberries: how to get the seeds from the fruit

The seeds for grow strawberries you can buy them from nurseries, in online stores, or you can take them directly from the fruit. Let's see what are the steps of the three most used techniques:

  1. Blend: blend 5-7 ripe strawberries on low speed and slide the mash into a colander. Then, pass the strainer under running water to eliminate the remains of the pulp and recover the seeds that will settle on the bottom. Arrange the seeds on a paper towel and let them air dry.
  2. Dry: another technique involves drying the fruit. Simply cut a few strawberries into strips, arrange them on a napkin and dry them in a cool, dry place without exposing them to direct sunlight. When they are dehydrated, just rub each strip gently to remove the seeds.
  3. To freeze: Place 5-7 ripe strawberries in a container and store it in the freezer overnight. The next day, using a sharp kitchen knife, scrape the surface of the fruit and arrange the seeds on a napkin to dry.

Growing strawberries: the calendar from winter to summer

Let's see what the steps are required for grow strawberries and take care of the crop throughout the year:

  • from December and January: clean the soil and cover the plants to protect them from the cold
  • from January-February: for those who choose cultivation with seeds, this is the right time to devote themselves to the seedbed
  • from March-May: care of the soil, planting of remontant strawberry seedlings and operations necessary for multiplication by stolon. It is important to watch out for late spring frosts and birds
  • from June to August: mulching and strawberry harvesting. More frequent watering may be needed to counteract hot temperatures.
  • from September to October: fertilize the soil, cut the old or damaged parts of the plants and collect the last fruits
  • from October to November: non-remontant varieties can be grown and transplanted also in pots on balconies.

Growing strawberries: diseases and pests

Here are the main diseases and parasites to watch out for when deciding to grow strawberries:

  • Pitting: caused by the fungus Mycosphaerella fragariae, it is the disease responsible for the formation of dark red spots on the upper page of the leaves that dry and fall.
  • Yellow mite: the Eotetranychus hornbeam it is a mite that affects the underside of the leaves which turn green-gray.
  • Red spider: the Tetranychus urticae it is one of the most dangerous pests for plants and reproduces quickly. Attacks leaves that turn yellow and in severe cases can cause crop death.
  • Angular spotting: caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas fragarieae, it is a disease that affects the leaves on which dark red spots form which quickly turn black.
  • Oziorrinco: L'Otiorhynchus sulcatus it is a parasite that attacks the roots and the collar of plants.
  • Powdery mildew: also called white sickness, fog or albugine, it is a disease caused by fungi Ascomycota. It is recognized by the presence of whitish spots with a dusty consistency that cover the underside of the leaves. The fruits, on the other hand, are covered with a whitish patina.
  • Botrytis: it is a gray mold that affects both flowers and fruits.
  • Anthracnose: it is a disease caused by the fungus Colletotrichum fragariae which causes the formation of dark spots on fruits and leaves and causes lesions on petioles and stolons.
  • Antonomo: L'Anthonomus rubi, also called the antonym of the strawberry or the antonym of the raspberry, is a beetle of the family of the gods Weevils which attacks flowers and leaves of plants. Two other beetles to watch out for are the Rhynchites germanicus, responsible for strawberry rhinitis, and theOtiorrhynchus rugosustriatus, which attacks the rhizome and roots.


The Myrtle plant

The myrtle plant, scientifically called Myrtus Communis , exists in multiple varieties.

It is therefore typical of the Mediterranean area mainly loves warm places, but it does not necessarily mean that it cannot adapt well to other climatic situations: you just need to have the foresight to protect it a little more.

It belongs to the Mirtaceae family and it has deep green leaves that give off pleasant smells.

The flowers, simple and white, are solitary and very elegant, made up of five delicates petals that make them graceful.

You will be able to start seeing them towards the end of the hot period of summer.


Wild calla: everything you need to know to grow it

There wild calla is a flower that belongs to the category of Araceae. The wild calla is a rhizomatous plant, that is, it is also composed of an underground stem called rhizome, which forms roots and stems. The calla includes a great variety of species, of which 4-5 naturally arise also in Italy.

It is also referred to as Arum Italicum, recalling the wide spread that this plant has in the Italian peninsula. Other common names are: Snake cake, Giaro, Gigaro clear, Grass snake. The term Arum comes from the Greek "aron”Which means heat and is linked to the fact that the plant has the particularity of emitting heat during flowering.

His natural environment are the woods and wetlands near rivers. Legend has it that this flower has magical powers: it wards off evil spirits, gives love and protects newborns. There wild calla it is a perennial plant, which arises spontaneously in particular in environments where the light is almost absent or, at least, in semi-shade. THE flowers of the wild calla they are white, tending to yellowish. They closely resemble those of the domestic calla. They pop up in spring and are beautiful and elegant. After about a month the first fruits appear which gradually ripen, turning red-orange.

The leaves they stand rigid and long, but never exceed 40 cm in height. The central column, called spadix, is the one destined to host the flower on the top, therefore surrounded by a series of leaves with an intense green tone with white and shiny veins on the surface. THE fruits they are essentially berries, which are produced in clusters collected in panicles, which immediately catch the eye given the lively color: initially they are ivory-white and then ripen they become yellow, orange and red.

Where and how to plant the wild calla

Even though this plant, as its name implies, is wild, that doesn't mean it doesn't have any preferences when it comes to it the habitat. There wild calla in fact it prefers the woods, in particular if there are areas crossed by rivers. Light is not a relevant condition for this plant, consequently it grows serene and spontaneous even if it is absent or if a semi-shade. So let's choose an area as similar to this in our garden: then we make a hole about 10 cm deep and put the plant there.

Once the plant has been placed upright, cover the tuber well with soil, pressing so that it is well compacted. Water quickly. During the winter there is no need to cover the plant, in fact it can withstand even low temperatures without problems. But remember to water it well in spring summer, not often, but sufficiently to maintain the land humid. The ideal soil type for wild calla lily is humus-rich, well-drained, soft land. Fertilization is necessary.

Cultivation of wild calla

The cultivation of this flower is simple, consequently if you wish to host it in your garden it is easily possible without major difficulties. Even if the wild calla usually arises spontaneously, it is therefore possible to grow it in the garden, choosing the appropriate area in which to plant it: an area in the shade, with fresh soil rich in organic substances. This flower is also resistant to low temperatures, making it possible to grow it even in our country and, moreover, without having to worry too much about covering it during the winter.

In spring and summer it does not even need constant watering, since the soil moisture is sufficient for it. In winter, irrigation can even be suspended, since it is able to provide for its water needs by itself, independently. The plant reproduces by i seeds, which are found in berries, during the autumn or even for division of tubers when it's summer. Thanks to the evergreen leaves, this plant is perfect for having a green garden all year round.

The flowers

The flowers of the wild calla are many and small sessile, close to each other. The spadix that houses the central inflorescence is long and yellow, wrapped in a pale green convoluted spathe, reddened at the edges, twice as long as the inflorescence, to protect the flowers. The upper part of the spadix is ​​basically a sort of large yellow club that tapers at the base. The female flowers are at the bottom (with a basal glomerulus), while the male flowers are at the top (with a sterile glomerulus).

Between the two there are usually a series of sterile flowers. Between these sexual sections there are bristle-like protrusions, which develop only after the flowers and which serve to retain insects and promote pollination. The plant is unisexual, that is, the male and female flowers are separate but on the same plant, and of the sepaloid type, that is, the flowers are a-petaloid, there is no clear separation between the calyx and the corolla.

Curiosity

The wild calla has often been used since ancient times also in medicine for its effective ability to eliminate intestinal parasites. It is still present today in various herbal products or products used for homeopathic medicine and is used for the same purpose. There wild calla it must be treated carefully however, it indeed is poisonous. If its berries are ingested, there is a risk of intoxication, while if it is touched (flowers and leaves) in some particularly sensitive subjects, it can give rise to annoying irritations and dermatitis.


Our 5 favorite aromatic plants

There are hundreds of types of aromatic herbs in the world, and presenting them all would be impossible. Here are our 5 favorites:

  1. Rosemary: it is one of the finest among the aromatic plants, it is perfect for all the typical dishes of the Mediterranean diet, roast and baked potatoes in the first place. Rosemary grows in warm periods, from May to October. It loves the sun and warm weather, so better place it in a sunny spot and protect it carefully in winter.
  2. Parsley: a plant particularly suitable for growing in pots on the balcony, which, in temperate climate conditions, generates leaves all year round. It prefers the twilight and cannot bear sudden changes in temperature. Parsley is also one of the typical ingredients of the Mediterranean diet and can be used practically everywhere (it is no coincidence that there is the saying "you are like parsley"!).
  3. Watercress: probably the least known among aromatic plants, watercress is a seedling that can revive different dishes and that has incredible beneficial properties: in addition to strengthening the immune system, it is a perfect antioxidant. It looks like a weed and is very easy to grow.
  4. Basil: there is no tomato sauce that is not seasoned with basil leaves. Basil needs no introduction: it is a plant that grows in favorable sunny conditions, especially from May to October. For balcony cultivation it is perfect, as long as it is well exposed to the sun.
  5. thyme: this aromatic herb is known to most people because it is the basis of many herbal teas, as it has beneficial properties for the throat and stomach. However, thyme can be the perfect seasoning for meat dishes as well. Thyme needs a lot of light but fears the direct sun, so it should be placed in a well-lit but sheltered place.

If you decide to grow these aromatic plants in pots in your home, your every dish will be enlivened by these blends of aromas, giving a pleasure for all the senses. Inoltre, darai un tocco personale agli spazi esterni, rendendo il balcone e il giardino più caldi e accoglienti. Le piante aromatiche sono un dettaglio che non passa mai inosservato!


Gladiolo: tutto ciò che devi sapere sul fiore da balcone più scenografico

Il gladiolo è un fiore dai colori brillanti e dal portamento elegante, coltivato in vaso sul balcone o utilizzato per decorare giardini e creare bordure miste. È una pianta ornamentale molto diffusa e i fiori, una volta recisi, durano fino a due settimane.

Il Gladiolus, nome botanico del gladiolo, è un genere di piante appartenente alla famiglia delle Iradaceae di cui fanno parte, tra gli altri, anche l’Iris e la Freesia.

Originario dell’Asia e dell’Eurasia, il gladiolo è una pianta bulbosa e rizomatosa che non nasce da un vero e proprio bulbo ma da un bulbo-tubero detto cormo.

L’altezza delle piante varia dai 20 cm a 1 metro in base alle specie e le foglie, di colore verde scuro, sono piatte, allungate e appuntite all’estremità.

Il robusto fusto, alto e carnoso, porta un’infiorescenza apicale a spiga con fiori grandi, a forma di trombetta e dai diversi colori: dall’arancione al rosso, dal bianco al rosa pallido, dal giallo al violetto. Spesso presentano macchie o striature al centro. La fioritura va da giugno a settembre e i fiori una volta recisi durano circa due settimane.

Gladiolo: le specie più conosciute e diffuse nel mondo

Il genere Gladiolus conta più di 250 specie e numerosi ibridi che si distinguono gli uni dagli altri per la provenienza e il colore dei fiori. Tra le cultivar più diffuse troviamo:

  • G. gandavensis: ha circa dieci fiori che si sviluppano intorno al cormo principale
  • G. lemoinei: i fiori sono caratterizzati da una macchia scura sui tepali inferiori
  • G. nanceyanus: la pianta produce fiori di grandi dimensioni con una macchia sui tepali inferiori
  • G. childsii: ha steli forti e fiori molto grandi
  • G. primulinus: ha un fusto esile e fiori dai colori vari e delicati
  • G. colvillei: è una varietà sempre meno coltivata con steli esili e fiori piccoli.
  • G. tristis: il colore dei fiori è bianco-crema con una macchia rossastra e gli steli sono sottili ma robusti
  • G. communis: ampiamente diffusa in Spagna, la pianta si trova anche in Medio Oriente, Africa settentrionale e sulle isole del Mediterraneo orientale. I fiori sono grandi circa 5 cm e di un intenso colore rosa-violetto.
  • G. byzantinus: originario del Mediterraneo occidentale e meridionale, produce 8-10 fiori di un intenso colore rosso-porpora
    G. antakienisis: cresce nelle zone della Turchia e del Libano e i fiori sono rosa-lilla o rosa-rossi.
    G. atroviolaceus: si trova sopratto in Grecia, Turchia, Iraq e Iran e i fiori sono porpora o viola scuro.
    G. halophilus: anche questa varietà cresce soprattutto in Turchia, Iraq e Iran e i fiori hanno un bel colore rosso brillante o di una sfumatura rosso-porpora.
  • G. kotschyanus: è un’altra varietà originaria della Turchia, dell’Iraq, dell’Iran e del Caucaso e il colore dei fiori è rosa-viola.
  • G. illyricus: caratterizzata da fiori rosso scarlatto, è una pianta originaria dell’Europa occidentale e dell’Africa settentrionale.
  • G. imbricatus: pianta tipica della Turchia e dell’Europa meridionale, centrale e orientale, produce fiori a spiga unilaterale fitta, dai 4 ai 12, di colore rosso o porpora-viola con striature porpora scuro o bianco.
  • G. inarimensis: è una pianta endemica dell’isola di Inarime, nome antico dell’isola di Ischia. Ha fiori di colore rosa-rosso.
  • G. palustris: originaria dell’Europa occidentale e settentrionale e della zona dei Balcani, è una pianta che cresce anche sui massicci calcarei della Lombardia tra la provincia di Como e quella di Brescia. In Italia è una varietà protetta dalla Legge Regionale 10/2008 che ne vieta la raccolta. Ha fiori rosso-porpora.

  • G. persicus: nasce in Iran è ha fiori di colore violetto scuro
  • G. cardinalis: è originario della zona occidentale della provincia del Capo e i fiori sono di colore rosso cardinale spesso screziati di bianco
  • G. carinatus: altra varietà originaria della provincia del Capo ma della zona sudovest. I fiori, bilobati e profumati, sono di colore blu-mauve, gialli o rosa.
  • G. carneus: nasce nel sudovest della penisola del Capo dove viene chiamato Painted Lady. Produce fiori di diverso colore: dal bianco al rosa e fino al porpora.
  • G. cruentus: nasce in Sudafrica dove viene chiamato Red Gladiolus per i fiori scarlatti.
  • G. dalenii: è una pianta ampiamente diffusa in Etiopia e fino a alla Provincia del Capo. Il colore dei fiori è giallo, arancio, rosso o porpora e spesso presentano macchie gialle sui tepali inferiori.
  • G. oppositiflorus: è una pianta tipica delle zone ad est della Provincia del Capo con numerosi fiori per spiga di colore bianco o rosa chiaro e con striature marroni sui tepali inferiori.
  • G. papilio: anche questa varietà, robusta e originaria del Lesotho e dello Swaziland, produce numerosi fiori per spiga di colore giallo e verde con bordi porpora.
  • G. tristis: originario delle zone occidentali del Sudafrica ha fiori giallo-verdi o giallo chiaro.
  • G. alatus: produce bellissimi e profumati fiori di colore arancione-rosa salmone, giallo e verde ed è una pianta originaria del sudovest della Provincia del Capo.
  • G. cunonius: altra varietà originaria della Provincia del Capo, è una pianta che produce spighe lunghe e incurvate con fiori rosa-arancione e tepali di colore giallo o verde.
  • G. emiliae: la pianta nasce nell’ovest della penisola del Capo e i fiori sono giallastri o marrone chiaro con macchie marroni o porpora.
  • G. liliaceus: diffuso nelle zone dell’est del Sudafrica ha fiori, circa sei per spiga, di colore scuro con striature marroni o rosso scuro.
  • G. rudis: alta tra I 20 e i 50 cm, è un’altra pianta originaria della Provincia del Capo con fiori color crema o rosa chiaro.
  • G. splendens: fiori rosso brillante e spighe ricurve sono le caratteristiche principali della pianta tipica dell’ovest del Sudafrica
  • G. variegatus: ancora una pianta originaria della penisola del Capo dai fiori, quattro per spiga, bianchi con una macchia rosso scuro sui tepali inferiori.

Alcune specie sono spontanee nell’area mediterranea europea, nell’Europa centro-orientale, in alcune isole tropicali africane e nell’Africa australe.

In Italia, soprattutto nell’Isola d’Elba, in Liguria e in Toscana, la più diffusa è la Gladiolus italcus, detto anche Gladiolo dei campi, con fiori di colore rosa-rosso simili alle ali di una farfalla. Si trova nei campi coltivati, negli oliveti, e sui pendii rocciosi fino a 700 metri.

Gladiolo: tutto quello che devi sapere per coltivarlo

Utilizzati come piante ornamentali per abbellire giardini e terrazzi, i gladioli sono tra i fiori da balcone più amati perché facili da coltivare in vaso.

Ecco tutto quello che dovete sapere per prendervi cura della vostra pianta:

  • terreno e clima: il gladiolo è uno dei fiori estivi che ama le zone soleggiate al riparo da correnti d’aria e i terreni leggeri, ben lavorati, ricchi di sostanza organica e drenanti. Se coltivato in vaso il consiglio è scegliere un contenitore largo e basso e aggiungere sul fondo uno strato di argilla espansa che favorisce il drenaggio ed evita il rischio di marciume radicale. Si tratta di una pianta che non tollera il freddo e le temperature rigide quindi in inverno è meglio coprire il terreno con foglie secche per proteggere i bulbi dai cambi di temperatura e dal vento. Quando piantare i bulbi di gladiolo? I bulbi devono essere interrati da metà aprile a metà maggio a una distanza di circa 10-15 cm l’uno dall’altro e a 5-10 cm di profondità con l’apice rivolto verso l’alto. Nel periodo della fioritura, la pianta va concimata ogni quindici giorni con un concime liquido per piante da fiore. Il rinvaso si effettua in primavera ogni quattro o cinque anni.
  • irrigazioni e potatura: la pianta deve essere regolarmente annaffiata fino alla fioritura e durante la stagione più calda facendo attenzione a non creare ristagni d’acqua ed evitando di bagnare foglie e fiori. Le irrigazioni vanno sospese quando le foglie sono completamente appassite. Prima dell’arrivo delle gelate, i bulbi possono essere dissotterrati, puliti, asciugati e conservati in una zona buia, fresca e al riparo dal vento per essere nuovamente interrati la primavera successiva. Le operazioni di potatura prevedono l’eliminazione delle foglie secche e ingiallite e dei fiori appassiti.
  • malattie e parassiti: i nemici principali dei gladioli sono il marciume radicale, la ruggine e la mosca dei bulbi.

Gladiolo: 3 curiosità sulla pianta

Nel linguaggio dei fiori, il gladiolo è simbolo di forza e fierezza ma significa anche “mi trapassi il cuore” secondo il dizionario dei fiori scritto da Vanessa Diffenbaug.

Ecco altre tre curiosità sul fiore:

  1. nome: Gladiolus deriva dal latino e significa “piccola spada” con riferimento alla forma delle foglie. Fu Plinio il Vecchio ad attribuire al fiore il nome utilizzato ancora oggi. Lo scrittore e naturalista romano si ispirò alla forma delle foglie che gli ricordavano il gladio, l’arma simile a una spada utilizzata dai legionari dell’esercito romano.
  2. Grecia: nell’antica Grecia i gladioli erano utilizzati dalle donne per decorare le proprie vesti o creare corone di fiori che servivano ad abbellire le acconciature delle spose.
  3. Adamo ed Eva: una leggenda narra che quando Adamo ed Eva furono cacciati dal Paradiso Terrestre erano nudi, spaventati e infreddoliti e il cielo accorse in loro aiuto facendo piovere petali di gladiolo.


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