Liana kobea (lat. Cobaea) is a perennial climbing semi-shrub of the Sinyukhovye family, grown in culture as an annual. The kobei plant got its name in honor of the Spaniard, the Jesuit monk-naturalist Barnabas Kobo, who lived for many years in the homeland of kobei - in Mexico and Peru. Under natural conditions, the kobei flower grows in the humid tropical and subtropical forests of the American continents.
to keep an exotic plant at home, you need to know the intricacies of care. Most love brightly colored plants. Breeding conditions for large groups of flowers are the same. Each living being requires individual care. In this collection, we tried to cite several articles in order to avoid death while keeping an unusual plant. To determine the correct procedures, you should determine which class your flower belongs to.
Some of our wild-growing ones belong to the aroid family (lat.Araceae) - in the lowlands there is a poisonous calla with an ear of red berries along the banks of reservoirs, calamus with saber-shaped leaves grows, its fragrant root is edible and has medicinal value, Far Eastern arizema.
In indoor conditions and greenhouses, alocasia, anthurium, spathiphyllum, monstera, philodendrons, syngoniums, caladiums, dieffenbachia, aglaonema are grown. This endless list can be continued further with more rare names, which most of us do not even suspect. A significant part of aroid plants not only have a bright color and unusual leaf shape, but also bloom excellently.
All plants of the aroid family have flowers located on an inflorescence - a cob in the form of a rod or club. The name of the family, according to the Hebrew legend, speaks of the wonderful rod of Aaron. This rod allegedly overnight became covered with buds, almond flowers and even nuts. It is a large bedspread that is most important in assessing the decorative qualities of plants (calla lilies, anthuriums, spathiphyllums). Many indoor aroids bloom extremely rarely (or do not bloom at all) in indoor conditions and usually have a nondescript small veil, but they are striking in color, shape and size of leaves. Aroid fruits are juicy berries, in many species with a pleasant aroma, edible.
Tuberous aroids are divided into two groups, depending on the depth of the dormant period. One - with long and deep rest (caladiums, sauromatums), the second - with short-term and mild (zantedeschia, alocasia). A small part of aroids behave like true epiphytes. Plants grow and develop without coming into contact with the soil and staying in the trees all their life. The most typical life form of aroids are vines, which are subdivided into corn-growing and creeping. Many of them are semi-epiphytes.
Calla lilies (Calla L.)We are especially fascinated by the charming calla lilies (zantedeschia), or as it is also called Calla lily. The plant is so loved by the people that it can be found in almost any flower shop or specialized department. They surprise even when the first shoots appear. Even on the smallest leaf, white strokes are clearly visible, which give them a decorative effect for the entire growing season. In addition, each variety has its own shape and shade of leaves, its own height of the bush. In recent years, variegated varieties have been especially popular.
Caladium (Caladium) Tuberous stemless plant with beautifully colored arrow-shaped leaves. Translated from the language of the local natives, Caladium means "plant with edible roots." In culture, hybrids with the most unusual combinations of leaf colors of green, white, carmine, purple, pink and yellow are widespread. The plant thrives in a semi-shaded or bright place without direct sunlight. High humidity is required, in winter it is at rest, shedding all the leaves, so the pot with tubers is placed in a cool place. In March, when growth resumes, watering is increased. Leaves are preserved in winter only with additional lighting. - see further
Of the most exotic flowering aroids, representatives of the genera Arum, Arisema, Amorphophallus, Steudner, Sauromatum, etc. can be named.
Sauromatum A tuberous plant from the aroid family with an unusual appearance and an interesting growing cycle. It is also called arum dracunculus (sauromatum). The name comes from the word "saura" - a lizard, given because of the spotted wing. This plant is more original than beautiful. Flowers appear already in May, after a dormant period and only from large tubers, although it is completely leafless. Blooms before the appearance of a new, only one large dissected leaf, dying off during the dry season. The inflorescence is a brownish-red ear. Bedspread 50-100 cm long and 10-15 cm wide, purple outside, yellowish-green inside with purple spots. Flowering is short and in the sun the flowers exude a specific aroma, which attracts flies and other insects.
In the middle lane, the tubers are dug up for the winter and stored in a cold place. Can be stored in the refrigerator, overlaid with dry sphagnum moss, placing in a plastic bag. The condition of the tuber is periodically checked. If a sprout begins to develop, then it is placed in a colder place. Planted in the garden in April and early May. It can be planted in a pot in the spring, as soon as it starts to grow.
AmorphophallusA very large herbaceous tuberous plant from the aroid family, which is one deeply dissected leaf blade on a straight, smooth, covered with reddish-brown spots, rather thick petiole up to 1 m high. In its homeland it was called "snake tree". During the dormant period, the plant sheds a single leaf. Tubers are stored at a temperature of 12-15 degrees. Having started to grow, it can first form a flower arrow bearing an inflorescence-cob, enclosed in a dark red or brown cover leaf. During flowering, it emits a very unpleasant smell of rotting meat, attracting pollinating flies to itself. Amorphophallus is cultivated only in greenhouses and greenhouses due to the very large size of the inflorescences.
Arizema (Arisaema) An unusual and rare tuberous plant from the aroid family. The leaves of arizema are pinnately dissected or sickle-shaped with wide or narrow lobes. Flowers collected on the cob have no decorative value. A feature of this plant is dioecious flowers, therefore two plants with female and male flowers are needed for cross-pollination.
Arizema open (A. ringens) - in nature can be found in Japan. The tubers of this plant are flat, the leaves have an oblong-oval shape with an expanded base. The leaf blade is divided into three segments. The upper edge of the leaf is colored green, the lower one is grayish-green. During the flowering of the arizema, the open one releases a peduncle (up to 20 cm) with an inflorescence-cob located on it. On the male plant, flowers on the cob are densely located, on the female - scattered. In the upper part of the inflorescence, the flowers are asexual. The ear is covered with a wide-toothed blanket at the bottom and lamellar at the top. The color of the bedspread is grayish-brown, the inner part is decorated with white longitudinal stripes.
Aronnik (Arum) Aroid family (Araceae). Comes from the ancient Greek word "aron" - the name of one of the species of this genus. Small perennial grasses with a dormant period and with hemispherical or ovoid horizontal tuberous rhizomes.
Plants from the aroid family, or Aronicaceae, attract us more and more. It is one of the largest families of monocotyledonous plants, including about 150 genera and more than 3000 species, distributed mainly in the tropical and subtropical regions of both hemispheres. There are many aroids in the temperate regions, and some of them even enter the subarctic regions, but their species and generic diversity outside the tropics is small (less than 10% of species).
A very large contribution to the study of plants of the Aroid family was made by the Austrian botanist Heinrich Wilhelm Schott. The genera described by him are supplemented by the abbreviation "Schott".
There is a specialized magazine "Aroideana", which publishes serious scientific articles about various members of the family. Aroids are so diverse that special exhibitions are dedicated to them. There is the International Aroid Society, founded in 1978 and uniting not only scientists - botanists, but also numerous amateurs.
Many life forms are represented among the aroids. These are marsh and aquatic plants - hydrophytes (Cryptocorynes, Lagenanders, Anubias), and even aerohydrophytes, with the only non-typical representative - the teloresis pistia.
The Aroid family, or Aronnikovye, refers to monocotyledonous perennial plants. They include about 150 genera and over 2000 species of terrestrial herbaceous plants, sometimes aquatic perennials, as well as lianas and epiphytes. The Arronic family is also known for its poisonous milky sap, which is found in numerous plant species.
Representatives of the Aroid family are mainly plants growing in an earthen environment, which are also often found in swampy areas. However, there are grasses that live in the aquatic environment with tubers or elongated rhizomes. Mostly plants of the Aroid family grow in the tropics and in areas with a moderately warm climate. The natural tropical growing environment causes almost all types of plants to reach large and fairly large sizes.
It should be noted that almost all plants of the family are very resistant and not whimsical to various factors and habitat conditions, so they are also often found in natural habitat and on the territory of Russia. For example, in some areas of the middle lane, where, as a rule, there is not enough sunlight, it is possible to grow even quite demanding certain types of plants.
Leaves, as a rule, have petiolate, arrow-shaped and broadly elliptical forms that extend from a tuber or creeping rhizome, inherent in most terrestrial plants of the aroid family. Some species have a rather short stem, or its complete absence. For example, amorphophallus has such a sheet in a single copy and is deeply dissected. But the vines, known to everyone as twisting plants - philodendron, monstera - are attached to tree trunks with the help of many aerial roots.
A characteristic feature of the family is the inflorescence - the ear. Among the family, small-sized flowers are widespread, which outwardly seem like single flowers. The inflorescence is always covered with a cover leaf, which is usually green in color or other color tones close to green.
Flowering in representatives of the Aroid family is most often accompanied by a smell, which attracts insects to pollinate flowers. The cover leaf is often a trap for some insects, such as pollinating flies. It is worth noting that many species are fruit-berry crops, however, there are both juicy and dry fruits, which have their own unique specific taste and aroma, which is not similar to other plant fruits. An interesting fact is also that some species of plants of the Aroid family have edible ears, for example "Monstera".
Due to the presence of calcium oxalate crystals contained in the leaves and ears of many plants, the use of fruits and leaves is also well practiced in medicine, various tinctures or special ointments with the addition of necessary elements are used to treat rheumatism or back pain, mainly as a rubbing agent.
Some types of plants such as Anthurium, Spathiphyllum and many others are used as indoor ornamental plants for landscaping and creating a more pleasant interior. It is worth noting that their difference is bright inflorescences. Plants such as Amorphophallus and Aglaonema are distinguished by their unusual colors and color tones of the leaves. Pistiateloreznaya is bred as an aquarium plant.
In places with a tropical mild climate, plants of the Aroid family decorate gardens and are used as vertical gardening of a fence, or a fence, where climbing plants or vines are very popular. The features of certain plant species of the Aroid family indicate their rich diversity, as well as their abundance and plant uniqueness.
The most famous tropical crop of this family is the Taro plant, which is grown as a source of starch with starchy tubers that resemble potatoes but are larger in size. Food plants are also Xanthosoma "Arrow-leaved", Alokazia "Large-root", which grow in the territory of Southeast Asia.
In places of greatest natural growth and distribution, namely in Central and South America, some plants, including Syngonium, are large and fast-growing vines. Syngonium is interesting primarily for its color coloration, as well as for its distinctive feature - with age, it changes the color of its leaves. Young specimens have a rich and bright green color of their arrow-shaped leaves growing on a straight stem, which does not require support, but during growth and development, the plant stem gradually develops and a direct need for support is eaten, which can be served by nearby growing trees.
Caladium is one of the brightest and most beautiful plants of the Aroid family, with a variety of leaf colors. But it is worth noting that the brightness and beauty does not last long and is limited to the time period from February to August, after which the leaves wither and fall off.
Aglaonema is considered to be a rather demanding plant in terms of lighting conditions. Lack of natural light requires artificial lighting, but Philodendron, on the contrary, is quite shade-tolerant.
Ornamental plants should rightfully be considered such plants as Spathiphyllum, Calla, Anthurium and many other plants. Most of them are a storehouse of various varietal varieties, with a large color coloration. With the gradual development of the world of plants and floriculture, as well as the formation of plant cultivation a widely popular occupation, an increasing variety of varietal and specific crops with the latest colors and unique features appears.
A special part of the aroid family is distinguished by a variety of structure, size and color - these are their leaves. Anthurium is able to amaze with its unique beauty and wide solid green leaf blade. Monstera and Philodendron have very widely dissected leaves. Zamiaculcas has the most complex leaf structure, which is due to the large number of leaf blades on one petiole. It is worth noting such a plant as "Scindapsus", characterized by small whole leaves and has a fairly rapid growth and development. The beauty of Dieffenbachia lies in the variegated coloration of large oblong leaf blades, but if it is placed in a very dark room, it loses its decorative appeal. Alocasia has pronounced light colored veins.
Any plant of the aroid family occurs and is distributed mainly in the subtropical and tropical regions of our globe. Many of them can be found in the temperate zone, and there are even representatives growing in the subarctic regions. But the generic diversity outside the tropics is no more than 10% of all species. Among them you can find a giant liana or epiphyte, marsh, terrestrial and even aquatic grass. These plants have tubers or slightly elongated rhizomes. The inflorescence of all aroids of the same type is an ear on which nondescript flowers are arranged in a spiral and very densely. The fruit of any plant in this family is a single-seeded or multi-seeded berry, in most cases brightly colored.
Calamus is a perennial perennial herb of the aroid family. It can reach a height of 120 cm, has a triangular stem with linear, long, pointed leaves at the ends. Its small greenish-yellow flowers are collected in a cylindrical ear, which is located closer to the top of the stem. The thick white rhizome inside is used for food. It is fragrant and bitter in taste. Jam is even made from its roots. They are also used as a spice instead of lavrushka, cinnamon or ginger. Essential oil made from calamus rhizomes is used in the production of confectionery, beer and liqueurs. In our country, this perennial herb of the aroid family is widespread in the Far East, Siberia and the European part. Usually these are thickets along the banks of streams, lakes, rivers and oxbows. It also grows in wetlands and in the bays of lakes and ponds.
Taro is also a perennial herb of the aroid family. It is also called "edible taro", "dashin" and "ancient taro". Taro is a very popular edible plant in Southeast Asia, Africa and other tropical regions. It has a fibrous root system that forms a large underground tuber. Its pulp can be white, orange, yellow, creamy and even red - it all depends on the variety. Dasha's leaves are arrow-shaped or heart-shaped, very large, they reach 50 cm in width and 1 meter in length. It has an inflorescence, like any perennial herb of the aroid family, - an ear with a veil of a greenish-yellow hue. Its fruits are small red berries. This plant is successfully bred in Tahiti and Hawaii. In general, this is the ancient culture of Egypt and India, and it has been bred for more than 2 thousand years. But in the wild, tarot can no longer be found.
Flowers of the aroid family are distinguished by the graceful shape of the leaves with a very beautiful and varied color. Inflorescences are also cob-shaped, in some species the veil is widely bent, in others it tightly covers the cob. Representatives of this family include aglaonema, alocasia, anthurium, dieffenbachia, philodendron, monstera, cladium and so on. Most of them not only have beautiful leaves, they also bloom excellently. For example, calla lilies, which also belong to tuberous aroids. The people call this plant "Callanum", and it is so loved by everyone that it is found in almost every home. Varieties with variegated leaves are especially popular today, which makes them decorative throughout the growing season. Or take all the same Dieffenbachs and Monsters. Not a single post office in our country could do without them. And any other flower from this family will become a welcome guest in any home for its sophistication and decorativeness.
General information about aroids
Aroid or Aronnikovye (lat. Araceae), a family of plants of the monocotyledonous class. It includes about 150 genera and more than 2000 species of herbaceous terrestrial, less often aquatic perennials, epiphytes and lianas. Distributed mainly in tropical and temperate areas. There are many aroids in temperate regions, and some of them even enter the subarctic regions, but their species and generic diversity outside the tropics is small, less than 10% of the species. The brightest representatives: Symplocarpus foetidus from the aroid family grows in the Far East and the east of North America. The whole plant has a strong smell of garlic, is poisonous.
Dieffenbachia (Diffenbachia), a genus of perennial plants of the aroid family (aronnikovykh). 30 species, in the tropics of America.
Dieffenbachia spotted (Diffenbachia maculata) is a plant up to 1 m high. The leaf blade is oval or lanceolate, long pointed at the end, reaches 40 cm in length and sits on a petiole equal to it in size. Numerous varieties differ in the shape and color of leaves and petioles: leaf blades can be heart-shaped, covered with ivory strokes, numerous white spots, etc.
Dieffenbachia seguina (Diffenbachia seguina) differs from the previous species in a wider leaf and fewer white spots on it. The Camilla variety has greenish-white leaves with a green border around the edge. The popular Tropic Snow has an almost geometrically regular yellow-green pattern between the lateral veins.
Dieffenbachia, especially dieffenbachia seguin, are poisonous. The juice of this species causes burns to the mucous membranes and skin, which was used in the past by the planters of the West Indies to punish slaves ("dumb rod"). The extract from this plant in Nazi Germany was going to be used to sterilize prisoners of concentration camps (Himmler ordered to grow Dieffenbachia Seguin in greenhouses in the camps, but entering the war on the side of Brazil's allies, from where the plants were to be obtained, thwarted this plan). The genus is named after the German botanist J. F. Dieffenbach (1794-1847).
Taro, a tropical perennial plant of the aroid family. Large tubers (up to 4 kg, contain 25-27% starch) are eaten and cultivated in the tropics and subtropics of the Eastern Hemisphere. Plants are shade-tolerant, demanding on air humidity. Propagated by cuttings.
Botanical description. Representatives of the family are terrestrial, marsh, or aquatic grasses with tubers or more or less elongated rhizomes. In tropical countries, aroids often reach gigantic proportions. There are many lianas and epiphytes among them. Stemless or short-stemmed terrestrial aroids often have petiole leaves, arrow-shaped or broadly elliptic, extending from a creeping rhizome or tuber. In amorphophallus (Amorphophallus) this leaf is single, deeply dissected. Vines entwining tree trunks - monstera (Monstera), philodendron (Philodendron), scindapsus (Scindapsus) - are attached to them by numerous aerial roots. Many aroids contain a toxic milky sap. The inflorescence is an ear, consisting of numerous small flowers, but often looks like a single flower; it is completely or partially covered by a green or otherwise colored coverlet - a veil. Sometimes flowering is accompanied by a specific unpleasant odor that attracts insects, primarily flies that pollinate the flowers. The cover of some aroids is a kind of trap for such pollinators. The fruits are most often berry-like, less often dry, cracking. Currently, within the Aroids, 8 subfamilies or 9 (together with the subfamily Aireae) are distinguished: Aroidae (Aroideae)
Calla, or Callaidae (Calloideae)
Healing properties and applications. Aronnik spotted. Homeopathic remedy Arum, obtained from arum spotted, is quite popular for rhinitis, inflammation of the oral mucosa, catarrh of the upper respiratory tract, mumps, scarlet fever and measles. Arum helps in almost all cases of hoarseness when the vocal cords are overstrained, such as when a singer or orator is unable to sing or speak loudly. It is taken in dilution D1-D6 several times a day for 3-5-8 (up to 10) drops. You can also gargle with a highly diluted tincture: 5 drops in a glass of warm water.
Common calamus. Calamus belongs to the group of aromatic bitterness and therefore is applicable for gastrointestinal and biliary system diseases, for loss of appetite and for a general increase in the tone of the digestive tract. Calamus is especially good at helping with gastrointestinal diseases, the cause of which should be sought in the autonomic nervous system. Calamus is valued in folk medicine as a remedy against disorders in the digestive system as a whole. Moreover, tea from calamus rhizome is used as a cleanser against skin rashes and dandruff. Essential calamus oil, obtained by distillation with water vapor, or alcohol extract from calamus rhizomes are also used as a rubbing against rheumatic ailments.
In some species, for example, Monstera deliciosa, the cobs are edible. The presence in the leaves and ears of aroid crystals of calcium oxalate allows them to be used as a distracting (irritating) means for rubbing with rheumatic pains. Species of the genera Zantedeschia (known as calla lilies in floriculture), Anthurium (Anthurium), Spathiphyllum (Spathiphyllum), are used in indoor floriculture for bright inflorescences, and the types of Dieffenbachia, Caladium (Caladium), Aglaonema (Aglaonema), Amorphophallus (Amorphophallus) , sometimes unusually colored foliage. Liana-like aroids - philodendron, syngonium (Syngonium) - are used for vertical gardening. In aquariums, a floating plant is bred - Pistia stratiotes. One of the widespread tropical crops belongs to the aroid family - taro, or edible taro (Colocasia esculenta), grown for large starchy tubers. As food plants, Xanthosoma sagittifolium from the West Indies and Alocasia macrorhiza from Southeast Asia are also bred.
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