Rules for preparing for sowing seeds of vegetable and green crops

How I prepare seeds for sowing

During storage, the seeds rest. In them, metabolic processes are slowed down, and in this form they can be for a long time without losing their sowing qualities. This is the so-called shelf life of the seeds. Seeds during this period are able to withstand many adverse conditions. The shelf life is influenced by the weather and biological conditions of growing seeds, in what phase of maturity they are harvested, how the drying and ripening took place. And, of course, storage conditions also affect.

Usually, the seeds you buy are indicated with the expiration date of the seeds. However, if the bag was opened, and the seeds remained in it from last year, and besides, you do not know how fresh they were, you will have to check their germination before using for sowing. At the same time, their storage periods may differ from the reference ones, because much here depends on the storage conditions. For example, the standard shelf life of lobelia seeds is 2-3 years, but for me they remained viable for 5 years. It was the same with root celery seeds. These seeds were kept in the refrigerator.

About the sowing qualities of seeds

They are determined by such indicators as germination and germination energy. Seed germination shows their ability to produce normal seedlings for a certain period of time established for each crop under optimal growing conditions. Germination rate is defined as the percentage of seeds germinated during this period. Germination energy shows the goodness of seed germination for a certain period - also as a percentage in relation to the number of soaked seeds.

Determination of seed germination at home

To determine germination, 50 or 100 seeds are used. Typically, gardeners put damp paper or a cloth on a glass plate and sprinkle the test seeds on it. All this is stuffed into a plastic bag, put in a warm place - 20 ... 25 ° С, and for seeds of modern varieties of pepper - 25 ... 30 ° С and even more. And they wait for the seeds to hatch. Gardeners in most cases are satisfied with the very fact of seed spitting. And in vain, because hatching specimens often do not have enough energy to grow further. Therefore, you need to wait a few more days to ensure that the seeds have sufficient germination energy.

For example, the State Standard established the following terms for determining germination and germination energy. The dates are indicated in days, the number of days for determining the germination energy is indicated in brackets.

Cucumbers, pumpkins, rutabagas, turnips - 7 (3);
radish - 6 (3);
cabbage - 8 (3);
zucchini, squash, beans - 10 (3);
peas - 8 (4);
salad - 10 (4);
beets, carrots, tomatoes - 10 (5);
onion - 12 (5);
parsley, eggplant, rhubarb, spinach, dill, parsnip - 14 (7);
pepper - 15 (7);
celery - 18 (8);
asparagus - 21 (10).

At home, it is often necessary to use a smaller number of seeds to determine the germination rate, and the seeds of hybrids are even available in single quantities. Therefore, to determine the germination rate, you have to randomly sow a few seeds into the ground for germination. If they germinate, then the seeds are viable. Seeds of expensive hybrids are sown to determine germination in advance, a few days before the expected date of sowing a given crop for seedlings, in order to have time to buy new seeds if the sown did not sprout. If they sprout, grow them further for seedlings.

It is not necessary to determine the germination capacity of newly purchased seeds, the company from which we bought these seeds did it for us.

For germinating seeds, it is better to purchase a special glass container in the store - a Petri dish.

The seeds of many plants contain essential oils in their shells, which inhibit the germination of these plants. These are the seeds of carrots, celery, parsley, fennel, parsnips and others. In this way, these plants have adapted to life in nature. Let's say a seed lies in the ground and is waiting for it to start germinating. It was warm all around, it was raining It was delighted and released a sprout. But there is no more rain. Everything around has dried up, the seed has died. But with a seed that has been protected by essential oils, such a nuisance will not happen, because it will germinate only when moisture enters the soil for a rather long time, and it flushes the seed from these substances. This will serve as a signal for the seed to start germination.

Usually, gardeners free these seeds from these essential oils before sowing by rinsing them for two to three days in running water. I fill the seeds with very hot water - 60oС, let it brew, drain after a few hours, again fill it with cooler water - 40oС - and so 3-4 times a day. Then I dry them and sow them. Washed seeds sprout faster in the beds. This is done with the seeds of vegetable crops: carrots, parsley, coriander, fennel, caraway seeds, dill, lofant, parsnips and others.

I slightly automated the washing process by building a “home system”: I pour warm water into a three-liter jar. I put the jar in a basin or other spacious dish. I dip the wick from the bandage into the water in the jar. Outside the jar, I tie a bag of washed seeds to the wick. Water flows down the wick from the jar into the basin, simultaneously washing the seeds in the bag. The drainage rate can be adjusted by the thickness of the wick. One drop in 10-15 seconds is enough. So that the rinsing process does not stop, you need to add water to the jar as you use it, and hang the bag lower so that the water level is always above the level of the hanging bag. And, of course, you need to drain excess water from the basin so that it does not overflow.

Washing lasts for two days, after which the seeds can be dried to a free-flowing state. That's all. They can already be sown.

Sometimes I also use other seed preparation tactics. I put all the processed seeds in bags made of a double layer of gauze, waffle towels or other permeable fabric, put labels with the name of the variety in them. I bury the bags in the snow in the garden in a place where it does not melt for a long time. When the snow melts, I open the bags, dry the seeds from them a little and sow. At this time, the soil in the beds is already ready for sowing.

About other methods of seed treatment

Before planting, many gardeners treat seeds with microelements, soaking them in various nutrient solutions and growth stimulants. I've tried it all too. I came to the conclusion that the effect on a small number of plants that I grow is quite ghostly. And these treatments take a lot of time. Therefore, I abandoned all these manipulations with seeds. And everything is growing beautifully.

In the event that the germination energy of valuable seeds has decreased as a result of storage, they can be soaked in solutions of Energen or Zircon and Gumi - according to the instructions for these preparations. Soaking these preparations in solutions accelerates the germination of seeds, which normally take too long to germinate.

About the depth of planting seeds in the soil

It depends on the size of the seeds. Usually the depth is three to four diameters of the seed. If the seeds are buried more, then the seedlings will be rare and weak. If sown smaller, they will suffer from a lack of moisture on the surface. The smallest seeds are not covered with soil at all. They are simply sprayed from a spray bottle, covered with glass or film. In addition, many seeds germinate in the light, for example, celery, lobelia, strawberries. The seeds should be left in the soil as they naturally lay. For example, some gardeners put flat seeds of zucchini, pumpkins and other crops on the edge. It is believed that this way they will rise faster. Perhaps they will rise a day earlier, but at the same time they will not shed their "caps", which, having dried in the air, will prevent the plants from developing further. It is better to sow a day earlier.

Bela Senich

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Winter sowing of seeds of vegetables and green crops: good advice from a candidate of agricultural sciences

What, first of all, should we do now? Well, I think that you have the beds for winter crops ready. If not, then please prepare.

Be sure to add well-ripened organic matter there. And if necessary, sand, peat. It depends on what kind of soil you have on the site. But be sure to apply fertilizer anyway. After digging up the soil, we must level it, grind it so that it is small.

We level and grind the soil

Think about the acidity of the soil. If your soil is acidic, be sure to add deoxidizing materials, be sure. This is dolomite flour, deoxidizing agent, chalk - it doesn't matter. But be sure, after checking, making sure what acidity, Ph, yes, with litmus strips, you add the required amount of these materials. Only then will these crops, which I have mentioned, grow remarkably and give an excellent harvest.

So we prepared the ground. It is necessary to tamp it a little. What does ramming mean? Turn on the Russian to dance - no. And simply take a jar or a log and, having previously leveled it with a rake, then simply roll the surface with a jar, there, a five-liter, say, or a log. Roll it in so that the soil is denser.

Then we make grooves. We make grooves at a distance, for almost all crops that you see here, we make grooves with a depth of about 3, at least 2.5 cm. This can be taken with a lath, it can, for example, be done with a scoop. These are the grooves.

We make grooves about 3 cm deep

The distance is no less than the width of the hoe in your area. Do you have any choppers? Just measure it - about 15 cm, no less. Because we will need to perform mechanical work in terms of removing weeds, loosening the soil, so the hoe just, easily passes between these rows. Then they took river sand, sprinkled these grooves, about 0.5 cm in height. They sprinkled it exactly like that.

Sprinkle the grooves with river sand

I'm not going to sprinkle everything - I'll just show you how easy and simple it is to do it. That's how they sprinkled it. It is desirable that the sand is dry, so that it occupies these voids that we have formed. And again, with some kind of rack, or with what you will do it, they have compacted. The sand was compacted. Only after that we start sowing seeds.

We compact the sand with a rack

Well, let's say let's take a beet. We plant the beets, knowing that the diameter of the beets can be 7-10 cm, after about 5-7 cm we sow seeds with the expectation that the beets will grow, and if it is cramped, then it will move a little. from a friend and will take its normal position. Too often - this is wrong, because the roots will be small, too rarely if you sow seeds, then in this case we will not collect the harvest that we, as it were, are planning.

So, open a bag of seeds. We take out the seeds. Dear ones, please do not forget: seeds when planting in autumn, when sowing in autumn, we sow only dry. Please, don't forget about that. Here, look, our seeds are wonderfully processed beets and we plant them one by one. These seeds are beautiful, smart, well processed. And even if they were not processed, we still sow with dry seeds. Try evenly. Well, if somewhere suddenly a little more often, a little less often - it's okay.

Sow a crop with dry seeds

It is clear that we sow large seeds with you individually, we can interfere with small seeds with a small amount of sand. Well, let's say, take 5 times more sand than the volume of seeds. Or even 10 times - it's okay. This is how we distributed the seeds. Then they took a good, loose soil, nutritious, took it and sprinkled it like this. And sprinkled it.

Sprinkle with good, nutritious soil

You either have your own soil from the garden, or you can even buy a pretty vermicompost, for example, biopergic. Like this. And it is imperative that after such a sowing, it is imperative to compact the soil, compact it. Like this. It is clear that I do it with my finger, you can do it with any rack, board there, right? You can take a liter, three-liter jar. And roll up your landings.

If the soil is wet or frozen, then, in this case, after the seeds are buried, watering is not necessary. If the soil is dry, warm, then watering can be done simply over the surface. Neat and deep enough. Water very carefully, as the seeds can go very deep with a strong jet.

Water gently

Be sure to put beacons, inscribe varieties, culture. We put a beacon - now, you know that there are beets. Then you plant, for example, plant carrots, right? Mark it too. Write and tag.

We put beacons and sign varieties and cultures

No shelter, nothing is required from you if you plant seeds of vegetables and green crops in the month of November. Approximately from the 10th, from the 15th. It all depends on the weather. To determine the timing of sowing, only personal experience will tell you when to do this. And I think that I will also tell you when to do it a little later. Dear ones, I say goodbye to you and wish you all the best!

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Video: Winter sowing of seeds of vegetables and green crops

Soil preparation

Work in April: it's time to set the stage. Photo:

In early April, experienced gardeners begin work on retaining moisture and preparing the soil for field work: they clear grooves for the flow of melt water, scatter snow and prepare the soil, protecting it from moisture evaporation.

On the sites located on the slope, for the retention of melt water, they construct ramparts from snow. Do not allow melt water to wash away the topsoil. If necessary, the melting of snow is accelerated by blackening with ash or peat chips.

In April, moisture stagnation in beds with perennial plants is eliminated. Stagnant moisture can destroy the roots of plants - they will suffocate without oxygen.

April is the time for feeding. Nitrogen fertilizers are applied to the thawed soil, sorrel, onion, rhubarb and other green plants are fed. Top dressing is carried out at the rate of ½ teaspoon per 1 m 2. Humus is introduced under the rhubarb and the soil is mulched.

The dried-up areas of the soil on level and elevated places are harrowed with a rake, covering the moisture.

If the soil is dry and crumbles well, without the formation of solid, large, lumps, it is time to till the soil. It is easy to determine the "ripeness" of the soil. Take a handful of earth from the depth, squeeze it in your palms and drop the lump on the ground.

A lump of "ripe" sandy loam and light loamy soil breaks up into small lumps, and a lump of heavy loamy or clayey soil does not change its shape when it falls.If the lump remained intact during the fall and only slightly flattened, then the soil is very wet.

In the second half of April, if the weather permits, they prepare beds for sowing carrots, beets, onions, parsley, and dill.

When introducing manure into the soil, do not leave it on the surface, immediately close it up, otherwise it will erode and lose many useful substances.

Calculation of the timing of sowing vegetable seeds for seedlings

After the New Year holidays, gardeners begin to prepare for sowing seeds for seedlings. Experienced, with many years of experience in growing vegetable crops, can easily determine the date of sowing seeds for seedlings, using their observations and calculations. It is much more difficult for beginners to determine this date. To determine and clarify the date of sowing seeds for seedlings, you can use several methods:

based on the results of agrotechnical research,

Using ready-made averaged parameters

It is advisable for novice gardeners to use special reference books for agricultural crops. Data on the timing of sowing vegetable seeds for seedlings are obtained in long-term agrotechnical experiments in conditions close to the area of ​​cultivation. Seeds are called zoned and when sold on the back of the package, producers always indicate the output data, up to the recommended sowing date for seedlings.

It must be said that the seed sowing dates given on the package are average. They do not take into account the climatic conditions of the year, the characteristics of the variety named on the label, and other parameters. Therefore, in the winter period (free from field work), gardeners need to familiarize themselves with the recommendations of the breeders and select the varieties and hybrids they like from reference books and catalogs. It is more expedient to buy hybrids marked F1.

These are hybrids of the first reproduction. They always differ from subsequent ones with increased resistance to diseases and more closely correspond to the reference characteristic.In your garden diary, draw a table and enter data that will help you more accurately determine the date of sowing seeds and planting seedlings permanently in open or protected ground (greenhouses are heated, cold, film, spandbod and other permanent and temporary shelters).

The required parameters for the main vegetable crops are given below in table. 1 and 2. Please note that in table 1 and 2 the same crops differ in the age of seedlings and the timing of planting (the region is one, but the regions are different). These tables show how much the official data are averaged. Therefore, when using ready-made parameters for seeding, it is better to take data from your area.

Table 1: Averaged seedling seeding data obtained on the basis of agrotechnical experiments for central Russia

Crop name, days Seedling age, days Seed sowing date Seedlings, days Seedling planting date

Early tomatoes 45-50 10.03-15.04 5-7 1-10.06

Medium and late tomatoes 65-70 11.03-20.03 5-7 5-15.06

Sweet and bitter pepper 65-75 11.03-20.03 12-14 5-10.06

Eggplant 60-65 21.03-31.03 10-12 5-15.06

Head salad 35-45 21.04-30.04 3-5 11-20.06

Celery 75-85 12.02-20.02 12-20 21-31.05

Zucchini, pumpkin 25-30 11.04-20.04 3-5 21-31.05

Cucumber 25-30 1.05-10.05 2-4 1-10.06

Cauliflower 45-50 1.04-10.04 4-6 21.05-31.05

White cabbage 45-50 03.25-10.04 4-6 05.21-31.05

Table 2: Timing of planting seedlings in central Russia in protected and open ground

Name of culture Age of seedlings, days from germination Emergence of seedlings, days Dates of planting seedlings

Tomatoes Greenhouse 60-70, open ground 50-60 5-8 Greenhouse - mid-May, open ground - early June

Cucumbers greenhouse 25-35, open ground 20-25 2-4 Greenhouse - the twenties of May, open ground - early June

Eggplant 55-65 7-9 Greenhouse - end of May

Pepper 50-60 7-9 Greenhouse - end of May

Head salad 30-35 3-5 Greenhouse - mid-April, open ground - mid-May

Zucchini, pumpkin 20-25 2-4 greenhouse - mid-May, open ground - early June

To apply this method of calculation, it is necessary to additionally use regional climatic maps, which show the parameters of the onset of stable warm weather in spring (without the return of possible spring frosts) and autumn cooling. Data on the length of the growing season of crops is also required. For a better organization of the sowing and transfer period, we enter the necessary parameters in our garden diary.

In the table we place the data on the age of the seedlings, the period of their planting in the ground, the emergence of seedlings, the allowance for unforeseen circumstances, adaptation after the pick and the calculated data.

For example: in central Russia, a warm frost-free period begins in the second decade of May. We take the deadline - May 15. The period of early development of tomatoes from germination takes 45-50 days. To this period we add 5-7 days for the emergence of seedlings and 3-4 days for the adaptation period of the seedlings after picking and other unforeseen cases (50 + 7 + 4 = 61). Using the calendar, we count in the opposite direction 50 days from the age of the seedlings, 4 days for picking and 7 days for the emergence of seedlings, and we get the number of counting days (60-61 days) and the fixed date of sowing seeds for seedlings. The date falls on March 14-15. Sowing seeds can be extended by holding it in several periods with a break of 10-15 days. Planting seedlings will take the period from March 15 to April 1.

Here's another example of a sweet pepper countdown. We determine the deadline for the frost-free period according to the climatic map. In the southern regions, it occurs in the last decade of April - the first decade of May. The age of sweet pepper seedlings, ready for permanent planting, is 65-75 days. We are counting down from May 10 (so as not to fall under the return frost). To the age of seedlings 65 we add 5 days for the emergence of seedlings and 7 for unforeseen circumstances (temperature drops, lack of lighting, delay in watering) and we get a total of 77 days. We count them from May 10 and we get the date of sowing seeds for seedlings on February 17. So, the period of sowing sweet peppers for seedlings in the southern regions is from February 17 to March 1.

If sown in 2-3 terms with a gap of 8-10 days, then the period of sowing pepper seeds for seedlings will last until March 5-10. When calculating the date of sowing seeds, adhere to the rule: it is better to permanently plant younger undergrown seedlings than overgrown ones. Young seedlings go through the period of adaptation to new living conditions faster (like a newborn baby), and the overgrown seedlings are inconvenient to plant (a lot of waste) and are susceptible to diseases during the adaptation period.

If you are not sure about the quality of the preparation of the permanent planting sites, then always postpone the sowing date to a later date (sometimes up to 10 days). You can sow seeds in several times. This technique will provide an opportunity to get into a culture-friendly temperature and light conditions.

Calculation by the correction formula

As you have seen in the examples above, the seed sowing date is still floating and fluctuates within 10 days. There is another way to calculate a more accurate sowing of seeds for seedlings - according to the correction formula. To calculate it, you will need additional data, which can be taken from the reference literature or use the results of your long-term observations.

We draw an auxiliary table, where we enter the following data (Table 3). When determining the date of sowing seeds for seedlings according to the amendment formula, we calculate at the level of the variety. That is, we take into account the parameters not in general of early tomatoes or another crop, but of a certain variety or hybrid.

Table 3: An example of calculating the sowing date of vegetable seeds using the correction formula Calculation parameters

Vegetable culture Early tomatoes Eggplant

Variety, hybrid (Name) Name)

Vegetation period, days 70-85 100-150

Seedling age, from germination to planting, days 45-50 60-65

Receiving seedlings, days 5-7 7-9

Climatic conditions (date of planting seedlings in open ground, Moscow, Moscow region) 10.06 15.06

Sowing date of seeds for seedlings April 15 March 29

In order to accurately calculate the date of sowing seeds for growing seedlings, you need to know: the length of the growing season of a particular variety, the optimal age of the seedlings (days from germination to permanent planting), growing conditions (greenhouse, greenhouse, open ground), seed germination period, days, climate region (the duration of the warm and the onset of a frost-free period).

Some of the parameters can be found on a bag with seeds, others can be obtained from reference books, climate maps of the region, district. To calculate, immediately determine in what conditions the crop will be grown in the post-seedling period. The following parameters should be indicated on the seed bag: name of the variety or hybrid, growing region, sowing date, date of planting in the ground, seed treatment. The last 2 parameters will be for you. guideline for calculations.

It is important to know whether pre-sowing seed treatment has been carried out. If not, you must treat the seeds from diseases and pests yourself. Poor-quality seeds will delay the development of seedlings and you can be late with the timing of planting permanently, not get or get very thin shoots, etc. To fill out the calculation table, a number of parameters obtained experimentally will be required (duration of the growing season, age of vegetable seedlings, seed germination time).

On average, the length of the growing season is always indicated on the seed bag or in catalogs of varieties and hybrids of vegetable crops. Let's take the average data as a basis: tomatoes - 75-140 days sweet pepper - 80-140 days, eggplant - 90-150 days.

Recommended seedling age (more precise parameter is indicated on the package with seeds): tomatoes - 45-50 days mid-ripening tomatoes - 55-60 days late-ripening tomatoes - 70 days sweet pepper - 55-65 days eggplant - 50-60 days.

Receiving seedlings depends on the preparation of the seed: - treatment with growth substances, sowing with seed or dry seeds, etc. On average, the germination period of seeds is: tomatoes - 4-8 days sweet peppers - 12-14 days eggplants - 10-12 days white cabbage - 4-6 days.

It is possible to get a harvest in a predetermined time, as well as prolong the fruiting of the culture. To do this, sowing seeds is carried out in several stages, with a gap (depending on the culture) in 8-12-15 days. To get a very early harvest, we select an early ripening variety and sow it as early as possible, providing all the required conditions (heat, watering, supplementary lighting, feeding).

There is a risk of losing seedlings from freezing, but a high-quality temporary shelter will help preserve seedlings and get a very early harvest. Planting seedlings on a permanent basis significantly affects the time of sowing seeds for seedlings. If the seedlings are planted in open ground, then it is necessary to know as accurately as possible the onset of the spring frost-free period. For central Russia (area Moscow, Ufa, Chelyabinsk) this is the period from 10.06. For the colder region, covering Perm, Yekaterinburg, the frost-free period starts from 15.06. At the level of Voronezh and Saratov, steadily warm weather is established from 1.05 and in the south (Rostov, Krasnodar) - from 10.04.

The steady warming will have a noticeable effect on the condition of the soil, it will begin to warm up. This is especially important when sowing in plastic greenhouses and greenhouses without constant heating. By the above dates, the soil for seedlings should warm up to +10 .. + 14 ° C in a 10-15 cm layer. In cold soil, it is better to delay the sowing. Researchers engaged in agricultural technology of vegetable crops believe that it is more rational to plant seedlings for a shorter period than overgrown ones.

According to the table. 3 we calculate the date of sowing seeds of early tomatoes for seedlings according to the amendment formula. The date of planting seedlings in open ground for Moscow and the region is June 15. The optimal age of seedlings is 50 days. According to the optimal parameters, the seedlings by this period should have 25-30 cm in height, 5-7 formed leaves, a stem diameter of at least 6-8 mm and 1-2 inflorescences with buds.

If the seedlings have such indicators, but they are still only 44 days old, they can be planted in open ground with the above accepted indicators of soil readiness. If the soil has not yet warmed up and the weather is cold, then you can reduce watering and lower the temperature in the greenhouse (stop the growth of seedlings) or plant them in the ground by making a temporary shelter (for example, use a double layer of spandbond). From the date of June 15, we subtract the age of the seedlings by counting down ( 50 days). We get the date April 27, subtract the seed germination time (7 days).

We get the date April 20. Subtract the adaptation period if the seedlings are grown using a pick (1 + 4 = 5 days). We get the date April 15. The calculated dates of sowing seeds for seedlings completely coincide with the data in Table. 1 (averaged parameters of sowing seeds obtained in long-term experiments), but are more accurate.


Planting can be carried out in grooves or on a flat surface to a certain depth. It is good to pour a layer of sand 1-2 cm thick at the bottom of the grooves - this will protect the bottoms of the bulbs from decay. The planting depth is calculated based on the diameter of the planting material.

The general rule is that the planting depth should correspond to two diameters of the seed or bulb.

Onion sets planted to a depth of 4-6 cm, wild oat to a depth of 2 cm. The neck of the bulb is not cut off so as not to provoke decay. The neck should be 1.5-2 cm below the soil level. The distance between the rows is 15-20 cm, between the bulbs in a row is 8-10 cm. Nesting of 3-4 bulbs in a "nest" is also possible, the distance between the bulbs is 2- 3 cm.

Garlic the bulbs are planted to a depth of 2-3 cm with a distance between the lines of 15-20 cm, between the bulbs in a row 2-3 cm. Teeth and "apples" are planted to a depth of 5-8 cm with a distance in a row for the shooting varieties of 10-15 cm and 6-10 cm - for non-shooting. The distance between the lines for both is the same, 10-15 cm.

After planting, the seedlings are covered with earth, the soil is slightly compacted and mulching is carried out with peat or compost with a layer of 1.5-2 cm.It is not necessary to water. If weather conditions are favorable, rooting takes place within 2 weeks. Well-rooted seedlings are not afraid of soil freezing.

If the frosts are early, and the snow has not yet fallen by that time, the sevok may not take root and disappear. To prevent this from happening, you can additionally cover the plantings with small shavings (not sawdust), dry fallen leaves.

Winter crops of root crops (carrots, beets, radishes, celery) and green crops (dill, parsley, lettuce, Chinese cabbage) are carried out in the second half of October-early November to a depth of 2-3 cm with the obligatory mulching of crops with a layer of 3-4 cm. light moistening to eliminate voids between seeds and soil. The distance between the rows for green crops and radishes is 8-10 cm, for beets, carrots and celery - 15-20 cm.

In early spring, even in the snow, the beds are covered with plastic wrap, black non-woven material, you can dust it with ash. As soon as the snow melts, urea is added at the rate of 15-20 g per 1 m 2. In the future, agrotechnical care adopted for each culture is carried out.

In agriculture, in vegetable gardens and summer cottages, mustard is often used as green manure.

Siderata are a group of plants that are grown to be embedded in the soil before or at the beginning of their flowering phase.

The green manure of the cruciferous family includes mustard:

  • white (English)
  • gray (sarepta)
  • yellow.

Consider the benefits of mustard sown on the site as a siderat:

  • enriches the soil with organic substances, nitrogen, microelements
  • extracts and transforms difficult-to-dissolve minerals into accessible forms
  • improves the mechanical properties of the soil (the root system loosens clay soils and keeps sandy soils from crumbling)
  • forms compost, protects soil from erosion and leaching of nutrients
  • prevents the growth and development of pathogenic fungi and bacteria (e.g. scab)
  • inhibits the growth of weeds due to the developed root system, which does not allow weeds to take root, and the creation of shade
  • reduces crop rotation, allows you to sow the same crops in the same place more often
  • mulches the soil and retains snow on it.

Mustard has other uses as well. It is used as:

  • Companion plant - Benefits when planting next to the main crop:
    • attracts pollinating insects and thus increases the yield
    • repels pests due to the content of essential oils
    • stimulates plant growth through root secretions.
  • Honey plant - each flower gives from 0.2 to 0.5 mg of nectar, from 1 hectare of crops bees collect 70-100 kg of honey.

Watch the video: Perfectly Planting Cucumbers, Squash u0026 Zucchini: Making the Planting Hole u0026 2 Top Mistakes to Avoid

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