Phosphate fertilizers - application and use, types, what plants need


Houseplants Published: 03 August 2012 Reprinted: Last edits:

If a red-violet or bluish tint appears on the leaves of your plants, if the plants do not bloom or fruits are not set on them, and the yield has decreased and has become of inferior quality, then you will need an ambulance in the form of phosphorus fertilizers. Phosphorus is one of the three most essential elements involved in plant nutrition and metabolism. That is why all plants, without exception, need phosphorus, regardless of the soil on which they grow. Most of all, phosphorus is needed for young plants, as well as for plants that are in the process of flowering and forming fruits.
Once again, I emphasize that the introduction of phosphorus fertilizers in one form or another is mandatory, since plants simply have no other way to get the element they desperately need.

Types of phosphorus fertilizers

There are several types of phosphorus fertilizers: simple superphosphate, enriched superphosphate, double superphosphate, precipitate, phosphorus flour. Now let's take a closer look at the features of each of them.

Simple superphosphate

This is a non-concentrated fertilizer that does not dissolve very well in water, moreover, the phosphorus contained in it quickly passes into a form that is inaccessible for assimilation by plants. It is best for sugar beets, flax, potatoes. The most convenient form of simple superphosphate is granules.

Enriched superphosphate

It contains a little more phosphorus, but it has the same drawback as simple superphosphate - too rapid a transition of phosphorus to a form inaccessible for assimilation by plants. However, this type of fertilizer is suitable for all plants and soils.

Double phosphate

Concentrated fertilizer, it can be applied both long before sowing, and immediately before it. However, if you had to limed the soil, be aware that it is strongly not recommended to apply double phosphate to the limed soil. In my opinion, double superphosphate is the most suitable option for fertilizing the soil, but its introduction is not practiced as top dressing.

Phosphoric flour

Best used on acidic soils well before sowing. It also cannot be mixed with lime. Phosphorus flour is not such a common fertilizer as the above phosphates, since it is ideal for only a few types of plants, for example, mustard, buckwheat, lupine, and peas. The quality of phosphoric flour directly depends on the size of the grinding: the finer the grinding, the better the properties of the flour.

Precipitate

It is introduced only into the soil, long before sowing, and it is advisable to use it exclusively on acidic or calcareous soils. This type of phosphorus fertilizer is suitable for all plants.

The best phosphate fertilizers

In my garden, I mainly use superphosphate or double superphosphate, dissolving them in warm water and cutting the dose in half. I apply phosphorus dressings strictly at the root, since this is how plants assimilate this element.

There is another fertilizer that contains not only phosphorus, but also nitrogen - Ammofoska. At the same time, there is no chlorine in the composition. Ammophoska can be used both in autumn and spring during planting. It dissolves well in water.

The complex phosphorus fertilizer Nitroammofosk has also proven itself well, in which all three macroelements necessary for plants - phosphorus, nitrogen and potassium - are contained in equal proportions. This fertilizer can be applied under any plant both during planting or sowing, and during growth.

I also use a natural (organic) fertilizer containing phosphorus - bone meal. During the planting of seedlings, especially tomatoes, I put one tablespoon of bone meal directly into the hole and no longer feed them with phosphorus. Bone meal can also be applied in liquid form during watering.

And for opponents of mineral fertilizers, I can offer a recipe for phosphorus feeding: dilute bone meal with hot water, let it brew for a day, stirring several times during this time. To obtain a working solution, mix one part of the resulting concentrate with twenty parts of water.

Do not forget to feed your plants with phosphorus, because they really need it! Only through timely feeding will you be able to grow an excellent harvest.

What plants need phosphorus

Phosphorus is needed more than others for flowering plants: poinsettia, begonias, anthuriums, hippeastrum, spathiphyllum ... It is better to feed them with frequent small amounts of phosphorus fertilization, especially on the eve of the budding process and the beginning of flowering. Non-flowering plants (for example, aspleniums, araucaria, ficuses) need less phosphorus, so they need to be fertilized with phosphates less often. Potted plants are rarely fertilized with phosphates.

There are rules for applying fertilizers that are common to all plants: only healthy plants can be fertilized during active growth, the dosage must be strictly observed, fertilizers can only be applied to moist soil. In addition, it is better to allow some lack of an element in the soil than an excessive accumulation of it.

With an excess of phosphorus, the plant can get sick with chlorosis, its leaves turn yellow and fall off, and with a very large oversaturation, the plant can die. If you find too high a concentration of phosphorus in the soil according to the described signs, do not despair, just flush the soil from phosphates or transplant the plant into fresh soil.

What is the value of phosphorus for plants?

Phosphorus in plant life - what is it for and how to apply it? If nitrogen is responsible for the quantity of the crop, then phosphorus is responsible for its quality. After nitrogen fertilization, plants especially need phosphorus, and although they absorb it much less than nitrogen, phosphates still play a very important role in their life.

Timely feeding of plants with phosphorus is a guarantee of the future harvest, because it is he who is a source of energy for plants. Phosphorus brings the onset of fruiting closer and promotes the rapid development of the root system. Thanks to phosphorus, plants begin to absorb water and nutrients from the soil well, and perennials and large-sized plants tolerate cold winters better.

What happens when plants have enough phosphorus for me? Their growth and development is delayed, the leaves change color, become smaller, then curl and die off. Since plants lack chlorophyll, flowering and fruit ripening are delayed.

How and when to apply phosphate fertilizers

I apply phosphorus fertilizers mainly in the fall, for digging. During the winter, they dissolve well in the soil, and in late spring or early summer, plant roots begin to assimilate them. You cannot overfeed with phosphorus: the plant will take it as much as it needs. But still, this does not mean that phosphates can be added without measure. At the beginning of growth, phosphorus is required for crops such as beets, carrots and tomatoes.

Sections: Fertilizers


Nitrophoska fertilizer application for strawberries

Nitrofoska is a complex complex fertilizer with a balanced composition of minerals. Fully satisfies the need of plants to obtain nutrients during growth.

It is used to increase the germination of crops, build up green mass, increase the formation of ovaries. Does not contain impurities harmful to humans, it is convenient to use and store. That is why it has been used in farms and summer residents for many decades, and still remains the most demanded mineral supplement.


Autumn feeding of the garden

Foliar dressing of fruit trees and shrubs with micronutrient fertilizers can be done immediately after harvesting, while the foliage has not yet begun to turn yellow, but its use is not necessary, you can limit yourself to bark introduction of nutrients.

Table: fertilization rates for garden crops (per 1 m 2)

If necessary, fertilizers are applied in the fall to reduce the acidity of the soil:

  • lime - 300 g per 1 m 2
  • dolomite flour
  • eggshell - 1 glass / m 2.

Video: autumn feeding of apple trees


Peat types

According to research, there are 38 types of peat in nature, but they are grouped together. They are distinguished by the location of the reservoir, the characteristics of the waters, they are divided into lowland, transitional and boggy. Depending on this parameter, the properties of the mineral differ.

Low peat

The substance receives additional recharge from groundwater. Acidity is neutral or weak, depending on the location. The composition contains at least 70% organic residues and a high content of minerals. Often the lowland type is used to improve the composition of the soil after prolonged downtime, without the introduction of additional fertilizers.

Transitional peat

The transitional fraction is located between the lowland and upper layer, it is a kind of interlayer. In its composition there are fewer nutrients, the substrate is characterized by low acidity. The content of plant residues and minerals may vary slightly depending on the source of the fossil.

Horse peat

In terms of composition, the top layer is considered the most infertile, therefore its use as a fertilizer does not justify itself. It is suitable for mulching the soil for crops that require high acidity of the soil mixture. The substance helps to retain moisture, therefore it is often used in indoor floriculture when growing whimsical plants, for example, Saintpaulias and ferns.

Another application of high-moor peat was invented by gardeners who grow fruit crops in a greenhouse. They use it as an antiseptic. The substance does not contain parasites and weeds and does not "clog" indoor ground. By adding a beneficial compound to the composition of the mixture, its ability to retain moisture is increased.


What are phosphorus fertilizers - types, names, application features

Adding an article to a new collection

Phosphorus is a very important element that is necessary for the development of all plants. With its deficiency, gardeners and gardeners apply phosphorus fertilizers. We will tell you what types they are and how to use them correctly on the site.

Phosphorus controls the metabolic processes in the plant and is a source of energy. This element is part of the cell nucleus and many substances that play a major role in the life of the flora. And besides, in the mineral form, phosphorus is involved in the synthesis of carbohydrates.

Therefore, only with a sufficient amount of phosphorites, plants develop correctly, grow quickly and bear fruit well. Phosphorus fertilizers promote the growth of the plant's root system and increase yields, so they are especially important for vegetable, grain, berry and fruit crops.

As you can see, the importance of phosphate fertilizers can hardly be overestimated. The peculiarity of using such dressings is that you can not be afraid to “overfeed” the plants with phosphorus. An excess of this element in the soil will not harm green pets, since they absorb it in such an amount that the plant needs for proper development. Of course, this does not mean that you can feed the plants without measure, but you should not worry if you added more fertilizer to the soil than was indicated in the instructions.

Signs of phosphorus deficiency

  • The stems and leaves of plants first darken and then turn purple or purple. Often, necrotic dark spots appear on the lower leaf plates of the bush.
  • The leaves are deformed and fall off prematurely.
  • The plant stops growing, the root system develops poorly.

At the first symptoms of a lack of phosphorus, phosphorus fertilizer must be applied to the soil. And it is better to do this annually for prevention purposes.

Types of phosphorus fertilizers and their use

All phosphorus fertilizers are recommended to be applied in the fall for digging, and not just scattered over the soil surface. The fact is that phosphorus is contained in them in a form that is difficult to assimilate, and during the winter these substances spread into the soil layers and in late spring - early summer are already well assimilated by plant roots. But some fertilizers (usually liquid), in which phosphorus is present in an easily digestible form, are also used in spring and during the growing season. Consider the most popular phosphorus-based plant fertilizers.

Superphosphate

Many gardeners and gardeners believe that this is the best phosphorus fertilizer. It is composed of monocalcium phosphate, phosphoric acid and trace elements such as magnesium and sulfur. Superphosphate happens plain (15-20% phosphorus) and double (about 50% phosphorus). Both types are suitable for both open and closed ground. And they are used for all crops and on all soils. But first of all, these phosphorus fertilizers are useful for flowers (in particular, for roses), tomatoes, cucumbers, apple trees, grapes, and strawberries.

When planting garden crops, 15-20 g of superphosphate are introduced into each hole, and when planting shrubs and trees - 35-70 g each. During the growing season, liquid phosphorus fertilizers are used: 100 g of simple superphosphate is diluted in 10 liters of hot water and introduced into the trunk circle 0.5 liters for each bush. When using double superphosphate, the fertilizer application rate is divided by 2 due to the high concentration of phosphorus in it.

Ammophos

This fertilizer is obtained by neutralizing phosphoric acid with the participation of ammonia. It turns out ammonium phosphate. Also, during this reaction, nitrogen is produced - another important element of plant nutrition.

So, in the composition of ammophos - 11-12% nitrogen and about 50% phosphorus, while there is no chlorine and nitrates, therefore, this phosphorus-nitrogen fertilizer is ideal for cucumbers. Ammophos can be used not only in autumn, but also in spring during planting, as it dissolves well in water.

For feeding ornamental plants and vegetables use 15-25 g of ammophos per 1 sq. M, and for fruit trees and berry bushes - 20-35 g per 1 sq. M.

Diammophos

Other names for this fertilizer are ammonium hydrogen phosphate and diammonium phosphate. Diammophos contains about 50% phosphorus and 18-20% nitrogen. This fertilizer reduces soil acidity and is often used in conjunction with manure or poultry droppings. It is mainly used for planting vegetables.

So, when planting potatoes, 1 tsp is added to each hole. diammophos granules. When planting seedlings of tomatoes and cucumbers on a permanent place in the ground 1 tsp. diammophos is thoroughly mixed with the soil in the planting pit.

Potassium metaphosphate

This white powder phosphate fertilizer is a potassium salt of metaphosphoric acid. It contains 55-60% phosphorus oxide and 35-40% potassium oxide.

Potassium metaphosphate is well absorbed in acidic soil. Top dressing with this phosphorus-potassium fertilizer is effective for plants susceptible to chlorine: grapes, legumes, etc.

Phosphorite flour

This mineral fertilizer (in powder form) contains about 20% phosphorus, 30% calcium and a complex of trace elements. Calcium phosphate is slightly soluble in water, therefore it is absorbed by plants only on acidic soils (podzolic and peat) or when applied together with acidic fertilizers (for example, manure).

Phosphorite flour, as a rule, is embedded in the soil during digging before sowing garden crops (1.5-2 kg per 10 square meters). It is also used for composting.

Bone flour

This product of processing bones of cattle contains 15-35% phosphorus, as well as calcium, biologically active substances and trace elements (magnesium, sodium, iron, copper, zinc, manganese, cobalt, iodine). Bone meal is an excellent organic food for vegetables and flowers (including indoor ones).

Fertilizer does not dissolve in water, is absorbed by plants slowly - in small doses for 5-8 months. It is used on acidic soils when planting plants: 2-3 tbsp. in the hole when planting vegetables, 60-100 g per 1 square meter when planting shrubs, about 200 g per 1 square meter for fruit trees.

Nitroammofoska

Currently, complex phosphorus fertilizers are very popular, because they contain not only phosphorus, but also other macronutrients necessary for the proper development of plants (potassium and nitrogen). Nitroammofosk is often used in the areas. This complex nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium fertilizer is available in liquid form and in the form of gray granules.

Nitrogen, potassium and format are contained here in the form of readily available compounds, so these important elements are quickly absorbed by plants. It is noteworthy that phosphorus is presented in three forms: monocalcium phosphate, dicalcium phosphate and ammonium phosphate. Depending on the manufacturer, the ratio of nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus can be different. Most often, fertilizer with a NPK ratio of 16:16:16 is used in the garden and vegetable garden. This top dressing is suitable for all types of plants and is applied both before sowing / planting crops and during the growing season.

Before applying phosphorus fertilizer on the site, carefully read the instructions for a specific preparation and familiarize yourself with the Basic rules for applying mineral fertilizers.


Foliar dressing of sunflower with micronutrient fertilizers

Sunflower foliar feeding

Foliar dressing of sunflower with micronutrient fertilizers plays an important role in increasing yields, since conventional organic or mineral fertilizers cannot independently provide plants with normal growth and development. The use of micronutrients is especially important in the so-called critical phases of crop development, when it is necessary to provide a balanced nutrition of sunflower plants with microelements in order to stimulate the formation of roots and the formation of baskets, which ultimately will affect the increase in productivity.

It is recommended to carry out foliar feeding of sunflower twice a season: during the period of intensive plant growth (phase of 4-12 leaves) and at the beginning of the budding phase. During the first application of micronutrient fertilizers, sunflower is especially acutely in need of nitrogen, boron, phosphorus, potassium. These microelements in the first half of the growing season are very quickly absorbed from the soil, this is especially evident with intensive technology of growing crop hybrids.

To compensate for the lack of vital trace elements in the first critical period (before the beginning of budding), it is recommended to carry out foliar feeding of plants with a combined mixture of Nanit Master + Nertus Bor + Humate Bio + Urea (check the exact norms with the manager agrotorg.in.ua). This helps relieve stress from herbicidal effects, stimulates the development of the root system, the laying of reproductive organs, increases resistance to diseases, creates conditions for increasing yields by about 10-15%.

Hanit Master provides plants with vital nutrients. It contains a high composition of phosphorus in three forms at once: phosphate, phosphite and organic phosphorus. Thus, first of all, it feeds the sunflower with available phosphorus, which is necessary to increase resistance to fungal diseases, including powdery mildew and root rot, and lodging of stems. Phosphorus is also important for sunflower because it helps to strengthen the initial growth of the root system, vegetative organs, and to provide stress resistance to external factors. Recommended dose of Hanit Master
in a tank mix - 1 l / ha.

In the first critical phase, a special sensitivity of sunflower to boron deficiency is manifested, which has a significant effect on the productivity of flowering and the quality of filling the baskets with seeds. That is why it is important to use the drug Nertus Bor for foliar feeding. It is produced on the basis of boron-ethanolamine and helps to avoid pollen sterility, increase the number of hemicarps in baskets, and increase the quantitative and qualitative indicators of the yield.

The absence of boron deficiency for sunflower helps to avoid leaf deformation, growth retardation, problems with the formation of inflorescences and uneven achenes. The recommended dose of Nertus Bor in the tank mixture during the first feeding is 1 l / ha.

Also, sunflower in the period before budding has a high need for potassium. The drug Humate LF20, which also contains natural humic and fulvic acids, helps to ensure its presence in sufficient quantities. Potassium is essential for sunflower plants to increase their drought tolerance as it helps to optimize water use. Thus, it prevents the loss of turgor and wilting of plants. The recommended dose of the drug Humat LF20 in the tank mixture at the first application of micronutrient fertilizers is (0.2-0.4 l / ha).

The most important nutrient for sunflower in the first half of the growing season is carbamide. This is a substance from the class of urea, which is the main nitrogen-containing fertilizer for foliar feeding. Urea contains readily assimilable amide nitrogen. It enhances plant growth and plays a key role in the formation of large plants and sunflower baskets. The recommended dose of Urea in the tank mix is ​​5 kg.

Agronomists have been studying how to fertilize corn during its cultivation for a long time, and use a whole system of nutrition for agricultural crops. Directly due to the right approach, a rich harvest is obtained in this area. Fertilizers for corn require careful study not only in the fields, summer residents and gardeners should also use them to increase the yield during harvesting.


Nitrogen phosphate fertilizer is one of the most common types of fertilizers in the agricultural industry. It promotes better plant growth, an increase in their resistance to harmful environmental factors, including frost, and helps to accumulate polysaccharides in root crops.


According to the hazard class, it belongs to low-hazard substances. It has a negative effect on the human body only in very large doses, so that when fertilizing the soil, it is necessary to observe the optimal proportion. It is a highly flammable substance, so you should protect the fertilizer from fire and exposure to high temperatures.


Nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium fertilizer combines all of the above properties, and plus to them allows the seedlings to more easily survive the "stress" associated with planting on the soil, contributes to the accumulation of useful microelements in fruits and vegetables, and also makes it possible to keep the harvested crop longer in winter period. Both types of fertilizers are complex substances that dissolve completely in water.


No harmful or hazardous compounds are formed during the chemical reaction. Fertilizers do not harm the soil itself, which is a very important factor in obtaining future crops. Their unit price is low compared to the benefits and benefits that the farmer derives from the use of fertilizers on their land.

Application of nitrogenous fertilizers


An excess of fertilizers can lead to an excessive accumulation of a certain element in the fruits, which will affect the taste of the crop, and a lack of nutrients can completely ruin all the work. So a farm is, in fact, the same factory as an industrial enterprise, but only in the open air. And here it is also necessary to strictly follow the technological process in order to obtain excellent results.


Application of nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium fertilizers is possible in spring, summer and autumn. In the spring, they will help prepare the soil for the sowing season by filling it with useful microelements. You need to apply fertilizer directly during the plowing of the fields, so that it is guaranteed to fall into the ground and start working. You can also add it directly to the hole before planting seeds or seedlings. This approach is more economical in terms of substance consumption, but more laborious in terms of labor costs.


In summer, fertilizer is added directly under the plants during watering. Such feeding will help them gain nutrients and fill them with the vitality necessary for the ripening of the crop. Also, the potassium content will make it easier to tolerate drought, which is quite common in the summer in the temperate and tropical climatic zone.

In the fall, fertilizers are applied to restore the optimal soil balance that has been disturbed by the cultivation of crops. Most plants almost completely deplete the land in just one season, so maintaining chemical balance is an important task for those who want to harvest record harvests every year. In the fall, fertilizer is applied in the same way as in the spring - during the plowing of the field.

Benefit and harm


The most dangerous thing that can happen is an uncontrolled chemical reaction. This process can not only kill the entire crop, but also render the soil unusable for many years. Therefore, you need to observe the utmost care and accuracy. Nitrogen fertilizer 20:20 is an example of a complex substance. In addition to nitrogen and phosphorus, it contains sulfur (up to 8%) and magnesium with calcium (0.5% each).


The use of fertilizer allows you to increase the amount of protein in vegetables and fruits, gives excellent performance in terms of the size of sunflower seeds, corn grains and ears of grain crops. The fertilizer contains nitrogen and phosphorus in an easily soluble form, which improves their absorption by the root system. The fertilizer is suitable for both herbaceous plants and shrubs and trees. It fixes well in the soil and does not wash out after a few rains.

Another positive point is that the substance is very easy to store. It does not age and retains its properties for several years. The main thing is to ensure the optimal temperature in the room and block access to moisture. So you can safely buy the required amount of fertilizer in winter, when the price for it decreases. Until the start of the sowing period, nothing will happen to him. This will reduce the cost of finished products and get more profit from the sale of the crop.


Watch the video: Make Zero Waste Plant Fertilizer with Everyday Items!


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