- When the bark is damaged
- Cooking garden var
- We treat frost cracks
- We treat large wounds
It so happens that the bark is partially ripped off the trunk, for example, it was eaten by goats, hares, or damaged by frost ... So, the tree must be treated.
In the event that the damage is found quickly and the naked cambium (a thin juicy layer of cells between bark and wood, which trees and shrubs actually grow) is alive, then the wound should be treated as soon as possible with a decoction of young linden bark, similar in consistency to paste.
Naturally not hot. And tie on top with plastic wrap, preferably black. This treatment should be periodically renewed without allowing it to dry out. And if the cambium is still alive, has not dried up, has not died, then the bark will recover during the growing season, grow again, and the tree will be saved.
If the cambium died, and the bark died out along the entire or on most of the circumference of the trunk, then perhaps the only way to save the tree is to graft the cuttings with a bridge. Or you need to inlay (insert) a piece of bark from another tree, which is more difficult to perform, and besides, this leads to severe damage to another plant.
In spring (extensive damage is more often found after winter), when installed through a not too wide wound, there may be one bridge. However, if the damage is annular, then there should be at least two, or even several; one for every 5 cm of the trunk diameter. To do this, when damage is found, in winter or early spring, long shoots are cut off, 15 centimeters longer than the wound. It is best if they are of this variety, or any other, but only necessarily compatible and highly winter-hardy.
The cuttings are wrapped in wet plastic wrap and buried in a large snowdrift on the north side of the house or shed, which is covered with sawdust on top. Small amounts can also be stored in the refrigerator. In mid-May, when the trees begin to wake up, and the gardener is finally convinced that the cambium has died, they are vaccinated, put bridges.
Remember, if the bark is damaged by more than 1/2 of the trunk diameter, the bridges must be installed, although, of course, the preserved "strap" - a small bridge of the living bark will make a lot easier for you. For example, if the bark is partially damaged, and for some reason you cannot install bridges this year, then their installation can sometimes be postponed until next year. But if the damage is annular, then, if measures are not taken in a timely manner, the tree will die. But in any case, this operation is mandatory, vital.
If the bark is damaged less than half the diameter of the trunk, then the tree also urgently needs help, although in this case there is often no need to install bridges.
It is advisable to immediately cover such a wound with a purchased, or even better, homemade garden pitch. To make it, they take vegetable oil, necessarily unsalted, heat it up, put natural wax in it, and when it melts, they throw rosin or dry pine or spruce resin into the melt. All components are taken equally (1: 1: 1). Instead of vegetable oil, you can use animal fat (lard, lard), but also necessarily unsalted.
This is the best tree treatment I know of. By the way, it is good to lubricate leather shoes with this mixture so that it does not get wet. True, the appearance of boots or boots covered with such a "cream" is very unattractive - whitish and without shine. But on the other hand, it will be excellent to protect from water.
This "cream" is quite suitable for summer footwear in wet weather. It is advisable only after you smear it, hold the shoes a little over the flame of a gas burner or blowtorch so that the impromptu "cream" melts and absorbs.
However, if there is no garden varnish at hand, and there is nothing to cook it from, it can be completely replaced with ordinary children's plasticine or window putty based on it.
The main thing is to deprive the dead wood of contact with atmospheric air and rainwater, so that it does not crack and does not become infected with spores of pathogenic fungi flying in the air, causing it to rot in the future. In extreme cases, if there was no plasticine at hand, the damage can be temporarily tied up with plastic wrap. But in the future, the wound should still be treated with garden varnish or plasticine.
Frost cracks are far from the most severe frost damage. They are quite narrow and overgrow quickly with proper care. It is much more dangerous when, under the influence of cold, the bark peels off from the wood. If it is detected in a timely manner, even in winter, i.e. when the cambial layer underneath has not died (not dried), then this can be easily corrected by simply pinning the bark with a few cloves.
And to ensure that the cambium does not dry out, it is again worth wrapping the wound with plastic wrap. In this case, if you are not late, the bark in the spring, during sap flow, usually grows well to its place. Then the damage is localized in the form of a narrow longitudinal strip (crack), which is not very dangerous and quickly overgrows during the summer season. But if the peeling of the bark was not detected and corrected in a timely manner, then in the spring, with the beginning of the growing season and sap flow, this will cause the death of the lagging section of the bark, its necrosis, and, therefore, the appearance of a significant wound, a large dead area on the tree trunk. And you will have to heal this wound with bridges or putty, depending on the size of the affected area.
It has a good disinfecting effect and even heals not too large wounds two or three times rubbing the damaged area with chopped fresh leaves common sorrel or horse sorrel. And then you need to put finely chopped leaves of these plants on the wound with a layer of 1–1.5 cm. After that, the affected area should be wrapped with plastic wrap, or even better - with stretch, usually used in food packaging stores. It is elastic, sealed, stretches well and adheres to the wound without slipping.
With further treatment of wounds, it is very useful every year in the spring, in May, to carry out furrowing - a shallow cutting of the living bark around them with a knife, while trying not to damage the wood. This stimulates the formation and growth of cortical tissue, and therefore faster wound healing.
The time it takes for the wound to heal can be determined, albeit approximately, as follows: the injury heals about half a centimeter per year on each side. Consequently, the wound will decrease, on average, by one centimeter. That is why cuts of branches with a diameter of less than 1 cm usually do not require processing with a garden pitch - and so over the summer they will overgrow. However, it should be remembered that if the wound occupies the surface of more than half the diameter of the trunk, then it will never heal. In such cases, in order to save the tree, as already mentioned, it is imperative to inoculate with a bridge. But even after that, its healing will take many years, and the scars on the bark will remain forever.
It so happens that the bark is partially ripped off the trunk, for example, it was eaten by goats, hares, or damaged by frost ... Healing of large wounds with a diameter of more than 10 cm is well helped by applying a creamy mixture of clay and fresh cow dung on them, followed by tying them with a sheet of plastic film ... When treating minor injuries, there is no need for such treatment, and tying such wounds with polyethylene will create additional difficulties. And without it, the treatment with manure will not be effective, the applied mixture will dry and fall off. Therefore, the coating will have to be updated from time to time.
Very large and old wounds on mature trees will most likely never heal. However, they also require their regular treatment. Otherwise, wood-destroying mushrooms will destroy such trees that bring abundant harvests in a matter of years, which is a shame. At the same time, the regular, at least once a year, smearing of wounds with nigrol (TAT-15) - a kind of dark machine oil, it is possible and used - will preserve them. And they will produce good harvests for many years to come, perhaps even decades.
Indeed, wood-destroying fungi cannot settle and develop on wood treated in this way. And, therefore, it will practically not rot. In addition, brushing such wounds with nigrol, which has a liquid consistency, can be applied much faster than with garden varnish. Yes, it is also much cheaper, since var is relatively expensive, and a lot of it will go to cover large wounds. Spent nigrol usually costs nothing, and protects large wounds from being damaged by pathogenic fungi much better than garden var.
But from often recommended in the literature (especially old) painting dead wood wounds with oil paints, to protect them from the penetration of spores of pathogenic fungi, it is better to refuse. Firstly, natural oil paints are now used only in painting and are very expensive. And most importantly, instead of them, under this name, hardware stores usually sell various paints from synthetic dyes, created on the basis of various chemical solvents.
The impact of both on living tissues of trees is very difficult to predict. Often, as a result of the use of such paints, a bark burn occurs, and, as a result, a significant increase in the area of the affected area. Although they are quite suitable for painting dead wood of buildings.
Vladimir Starostin, dendrologist,
candidate of agricultural sciences
Hello dear friends!
Damage to the bark caused by sudden temperature changes in late winter - early spring are called frost breakers.
The dark tissues of the bark, heated during the day under the sun, crack during the night frosts. The resulting rupture of the bark tissue negatively affects the condition of the tree, despite the fact that it continues to bloom and bear fruit.
Unhealed cracks expand over time, and a hollow may appear in their place. In addition, open wounds are gateways for infectious agents. The risk of developing dangerous crop diseases on such seedlings increases many times over.
We will talk about how to treat frost cracks and prevent their occurrence today.
Frost cracks should be fought in all ways available to the summer resident. And the best method for solving any problems in the garden is prevention. Long, longitudinal cracks tend to form in trees that have not been whitewashed in the fall.
According to experienced gardeners, a thick layer of whitewash applied to the trunks and bases of skeletal branches in September-November is considered the best way to avoid frost cracks in the spring. Such protection repels the sun's rays, which are very active with the arrival of March.
First of all, it is required to remove the damaged areas of the bark by cutting off the black and brown layer of dead tissue with a sharp knife to healthy wood, which has a greenish tint. It is advisable to pre-disinfect gardening tools by wiping with alcohol or a solution of potassium permanganate.
The wound should then be treated with any solution containing copper, such as copper sulfate, Bordeaux liquid, or HOM.
The last stage of treatment is covering the wound surface with a layer of oil paint made on the basis of natural drying oil. You can also use acrylic sealant, acrylic paint, or red lead as a coating. The traditional putty of all plant breeders - garden var - should not be used for large and voluminous longitudinal cracks. The fact is that the plastic layer of the var will wear off over time, exposing the wood tissues, and phytopathogens (fungal spores, microbes, bacteria) will begin to penetrate through the wound.
But after treatment with a copper-containing antiseptic, you can try to heal minor damage with a mixture of clay and manure diluted with water. A homemade chatterbox, reminiscent of thick sour cream in consistency, is applied to the wound, after which the trunk or branch is wrapped in a natural cloth, and wrapped with plastic wrap on top. Shallow cracks under such a bandage heal quickly enough.
Remember that whitewashing trees in spring does not protect against frost damage, but rather has a decorative function and partially helps in pest control. According to the rules of agricultural technology for fruit trees, the trunks and skeletal branches should be whitened at the end of each season.
Now you know how to treat frost cracks on fruit trees! Good harvests in the garden and in the garden!
That is why I dwelt in such detail on the treatment of sunburns that frost cracks they are treated in almost the same way, with one additional procedure: every spring, it is desirable to furrow the bark along the treated frost-hole - cut it with a sharp tip of a knife about a millimeter in two or three parallel lines every 2-3 mm. This greatly contributes to the mobility of the bark in growth, and after two or three years, even medium-sized cracks float without a trace - if only the mushrooms do not settle!
These are the most dangerous tree pests. Pests-saboteurs, pests-killers. Infection occurs through non-overgrown sections of branches, cracks in the bark, frost holes, into which spores of tinder fungi fall. Spores germinate and form mycelium - the vegetative body of the fungus. Then there is a period of growth and development of the mycelium. This period is hidden from human eyes, because the tinder fungus mycelium develops inside the substrate - in the wood, causing its destruction. Later, when the mycelium reaches a certain size, on the surface of the tree, fruiting bodiesto dissipate spores with the wind again. And only by seeing these fruiting bodies can one understand that the tree is infected with tinder fungus.
Tinder fungi destroy wood and destroy wood
Unfortunately, at this stage of development, it is almost impossible to destroy the mycelium. And even if we manage to cope with it, the wood will remain damaged. It will become soft, brittle and under any load (for example, wet snow, strong gusts of wind, bountiful harvest) can easily break. In addition, the mycelium disrupts the conducting system, which means that the tree will constantly experience a lack of nutrition, which will gradually lead to its death.
Therefore, it is very important to conduct preventive actionspreventing fungal infection. When pruning, never leave open wounds more than one centimeter in diameter. Sections should be covered with garden varnish, oil paint on natural drying oil (ocher or red lead). Frostbites, sunburns must be cleaned up to healthy tissue, and then treated with a 1% solution of copper sulfate and covered with garden varnish.
Polypores found on trees must be cut, wounds treated
If there are any wood materials on the site (boards, logs, stakes) on which the fruit bodies of tinder fungi grow, it is better to burn them. If tinder fungi are found on the trunks of living trees, these fruiting bodies must be cut off, and the wounds must be treated with a 3% solution of copper sulfate. If the fungus re-grows, the procedure must be repeated.
In the literature, I have come across an advice to rub the place where the fruiting body of the tinder fungus is cut with the leaves of horse sorrel. I myself have not tried this method and cannot guarantee its effectiveness, but any means will do in the fight against tinder fungus.
Despite the fact that mosses grow almost everywhere, most of them are in places with excessive moisture: in swamps, humid forests of different climatic zones, in humid highlands. They settle on soil and stones, on deadwood and rotting wood, very often they are densely overgrown with trunks and branches of trees.
Trunks and branches of trees can become densely overgrown with moss in high humidity conditions
To imagine how numerous mosses can be, it is enough to recall the tundra and forest-tundra, which have long been called the “kingdom of mosses and lichens,” or sphagnum bogs. Fortunately, our summer cottages are not so attractive for mosses. However, they can be found in damp areas, shaded areas, in thickened plantings - that is, where it is humid enough. They can be seen especially often in the trees at the base of the trunk.
Mosses living on trees are epiphytes, that is, they use the tree as a substrate, as a place of attachment. They are do not parasitize trees, their effect is purely mechanical. Distinguishing in a group form of growth, mosses can create "carpets" of varying degrees of density. Growing up, they clog the stomata located on the cortex. For the trees themselves, this is not fatal, especially since in our strip mosses settle only on a small part of the trunk. BUT small amounts of mosses do not harm trees... Their presence in the garden can be ignored.
Mosses and lichens in small quantities do not harm trees
If they do get in the way, for example, from an aesthetic point of view, they can be removed mechanically - remove with a scraper. Another method is chemical: in the fall, on bare branches, treat the tree with a 3% solution of ferrous sulfate (300 g per 10 liters of water). Subsequently, regular whitewashing of the trunks is necessary.
And again the readers of the site write to us, this time Tamara Korzunova from Serpukhov: “Recently we finished the construction of a gazebo in the garden. It turned out wonderful, but only during the work was the bark of our beloved Antonovka damaged - it came down in several places in layers. You cannot leave an apple tree in this form for the winter, it may die. Tell me what to do in this case? The husband advises to nail the pieces that have fallen off. But that won't solve the problem, will it?
Dear Tamara. Treating damaged bark of hearth trees, as your husband advises, is useless. There are other ways to restore it to its original location.
The trunk and branches of any tree consist of wood covered with bark on the outside. It protects the wood from damage. And between them there is another very thin layer of fabric. It is called cambium. It consists of special cells that divide continuously and form both wood and tree bark. So, if you keep the cambium in the damaged place, then the bark will grow again.
How to treat damaged fruit tree bark. First, you should clean the edges of the damage with a sharp knife and remove all chips sticking out of it. After that, the wound can be covered with a thick mixture of clay and mullein. The latter promotes cambium healing. Then, so that this place does not dry out quickly, it must be tied with a piece of film. She, moreover, protect the wound from spores of fungal diseases.
In the spring, when your apple tree wakes up from hibernation, cambium cells will begin to divide and a new one will appear in place of the damaged bark. By the end of May, the protective bandage from the tree can be removed.
True, if the bark has been severely damaged, then its healing will not occur so quickly. In this case, the cambium, along with the new bark, will grow along the edges of the wound. In this case, the swollen crust forms a kind of a ring. Its thickenings should be cut right down to the wood with a sharp knife blade along the tree trunk. This procedure will help the damaged bark heal. The said ring will begin to tighten and over time the wound will close completely.
The above method in horticulture is called furrowing... Professionals use it not only to treat damaged bark, but also to strengthen the trunks and weak branches of fruit trees. This procedure is carried out twice - in spring and summer. New overgrown bark on cherries and plums makes their trunks and branches more durable.