A Russian proverb says: "Buckwheat porridge is our mother, and rye loaf is our dear father"... It is impossible to say more fully about the most important and vital products for the Russian person.
Buckwheat contains on average up to 14% protein, 77% starch, over 3% fatty oil, 2.4% ash in grain. Buckwheat is preferred to millet and other cereals for its high dietary qualities associated with the presence of a large percentage of iron, phosphorus, calcium and copper, as well as organic acids (citric, oxalic, malic) and B vitamins. Buckwheat flour is added to some types of bread , confectionery, in special varieties of vermicelli. Buckwheat bran is a good concentrated feed for pigs and chickens.
Buckwheat straw is fed to pets with a known precaution, as it can cause itchy skin and hair loss in animals. Rutin containing vitamin PP is extracted from buckwheat leaves.
This vitamin has great healing properties and is used for complications after X-ray irradiation with violations of vascular permeability caused by radiation to prevent hemorrhages. Blooming buckwheat is one of the good honey plants, readily visited by bees (up to 100 kg of honey per 1 hectare). In addition to bees, buckwheat is visited by more than 90 species of insects.
Over the years, the sown area of buckwheat in Russia ranged from 1.2 to 2 million hectares. But its yield was and remains low (0.3-0.8 t / ha). This is due to violations in the cultivation technology, and to the biological characteristics of buckwheat. This is associated with a number of its morphological and physiological characteristics - along with growth, flowering, fruit formation and ripening of some of the fruits occurs, intensive branching and growth of the vegetative mass continues.
These morphological properties of the culture create great tension in providing plants with water and nutrients. The root system of buckwheat is rather weak, it spreads to a depth of 30-35 cm, in old age - up to 40 cm. In this case, the root hairs die off on the thirtieth day of life.
Flowers of different quality (dimorphism) open and pollinate only under favorable weather conditions. Therefore, at the end of the growing season, only 10-15% of the fruits of the total number of flowers are formed on the plant.
Currently, about 50 varieties of buckwheat have been zoned in Russia, and many of them provide a yield of up to 3 t / ha. In the North-West, including in the Leningrad region, in the past, more than 2 t / ha of buckwheat grain was obtained.
The botanical name for buckwheat is Fagopyrum Gaertn. So she was named by Gertner for the similarity of the fruit to the fruit of a beech. The genus of buckwheat includes 5 species, but only the species Fagopyrum esculentum (cultivated buckwheat) is of practical importance.
Researchers believe that buckwheat originates from the Himalayas. It was brought to Russia by the Tatars in the 18th century from Asia. This, apparently, can explain the name of buckwheat - "Tatar", used by the Western Slavic and Baltic peoples (Poles, Slovenes, Estonians, Finns, etc.).
Its fruits, along with grains of wheat, barley and rice, were found in a number of burial grounds left by Slavic tribes (northerners and glades). Buckwheat entered the culture on the territory of our country, at the earliest, in the feudal period, that is, much later than oats and even rye, but it received very rapid recognition from the population and occupied the second place in terms of sown area after rye.
Modern buckwheat varieties have a growing season of 65 to 100 days, due to which in a number of regions it is cultivated as a stubble and post-harvest crop. It belongs to the plants of a short day and grows best with 16-18 hours of daylight hours. This culture is thermophilic, therefore it is sown when the soil warms up to 6 ... 8 ° C, but more friendly shoots appear at a temperature of 13 ... 16 ° C. Buckwheat seedlings are very sensitive to frost. When the temperature drops to -2 ... -2.5 ° C, leaves, flowers and stems are damaged, and at a lower temperature the plants die. The crop yield increases if the weather is warm (16 ... 18 ° C) and normally humid during flowering.
Buckwheat is hygrophilous, demanding on nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, soils (pH - 5-6.5). This culture is a good predecessor for other cultures. Thanks to the branched root system and the organic acids it releases, hard-to-reach phosphorus compounds are assimilated from the soil.
The assimilation capacity of buckwheat roots is 7-8 times higher than that of winter wheat and 1.5 times higher than that of millet. On the experimental field of the Department of Plant Production of St. Petersburg State Agrarian University (St. Petersburg State Agrarian University) in the city of Pushkin, we grew buckwheat of the Kazan large-fruited variety. They were sown in ordinary (after 15 cm) and wide-row methods (after 30 cm) in the first and second ten days of May as the soil matured.
Our research was carried out in 2007 and 2008 on various agro-backgrounds, providing for ancient fertilizers - wood ash (2 c / ha), mineral fertilizers (N60P60K90) and a bacterial preparation consisting of rhizosphere nitrogen-fixing soil bacteria.
Bacterial preparations with various strains of nitrogen-fixing rhizosphere bacteria (they settle not in the roots of plants, like in legumes, but near the roots) are introduced into the soil when sowing seeds and on vegetative plants. Employees of the Department of Plant Industry of St. Petersburg State Agrarian University investigate biological products in all field crops. The increase in yield from the use of atmospheric nitrogen by plants due to the activity of soil bacteria ranges from 20 to 200%.
These biological products were created at the All-Russian Research Institute of Agricultural Microbiology of the Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences and are widely introduced into production. Biopreparations of the Extrasol-f group are especially widely used: agrophil, mizorin, rhizoagrin, azorizin, flavobacterin, each of which increases the yield and product quality of a group or several groups of agricultural crops (cereals, vegetables, table tubers, forage grasses, fodder roots, etc. etc.).
Bacteria, in addition to nitrogen fixation, secrete substances that protect vegetable, green and fruit crops from diseases, increase the starch content of potato tubers by 15-20%, increase the content of ascorbic acid by 20-50%, the disease infestation of plants and tubers decreases by 5%. 10 times. On lawn cereal grasses, the density doubles, and the chlorophyll content increases (by 30-45%).
Useful rhizosphere bacteria, inhabiting the root zone of plants (rhizosphere) and the surface of the roots, displace pathogenic bacteria (1 g of the preparation contains up to 10 billion bacteria).
They produce natural antibiotics, secrete growth-stimulating substances (analogs of auxins and heteroauxins) and vitamins, fix nitrogen from the atmospheric air (0.3-0.4 kg / day) and feed the plants with them, which is equivalent to the introduction of 6-8 kg of ammonium nitrate or 300-400 kg of manure per one hundred square meters.
In our experiments on buckwheat, during sowing, we introduced rhizoagrin - 0.3 kg / ha. The vegetation period of buckwheat variety Kazanskaya large-fruited in the conditions of the Leningrad region was 128-138 days in 2007 and 123 days in 2008. Flowering of plants and ripening of fruits continued until October 10-15. And the phase of budding and flowering begins in the North-West from the second decade of June.
If you sow buckwheat as a cover crop in the aisles of the garden under apple trees, between bushes of black and red currants, in flower beds, near paths as an ornamental plant, it will delight you with a white-pink carpet right down to the snow.
We mow buckwheat in the garden when apples start to fall, and in late autumn or spring, when digging, we embed plant residues in the soil. It was noted that the number of pests (slugs, Colorado beetles) becomes much less if the plantings are sown with buckwheat.
Buckwheat seeds are sold to gardeners in all specialized stores. It should be sown when frosts have passed, but in the spring of 2008 in our experimental field the seedlings were not damaged by frost even during the strongest frost on the night of June 6-7. Blooming buckwheat in the garden attracts bees, bumblebees and other pollinators, which is important for all crops grown in the garden.
For beekeepers, buckwheat sowing is simply a must. In 2008, I also added phacelia to buckwheat, which is not only a wonderful honey plant, but also a magnificent decorative flower, branching well and blooming until late autumn.
The highest yield of buckwheat seeds was obtained by us in 2007 on row crops (300 seeds per 1 m2) - 1.17 t / ha and stems - 2.69 t / ha of air-dry mass (total 3.86 t / ha) with the introduction of N60P60K90 ... Ash was also introduced - 0.95 t / ha, the bacterial preparation rhizoagrin - 0.88 t / ha. This is a good harvest for the Northwest. With wide-row sowing, the grain yield was lower and amounted to 0.61-0.74 t / ha. Fruit set was 20-28%.
The number of flowers on a buckwheat plant with wide-row sowing (150 seeds per 1 m²) is formed more - up to 784 pieces, and with a row sowing 325-507 pieces. In 2008, the weather conditions in terms of heat and moisture supply were significantly worse than in 2007, and therefore, in the development of buckwheat, a decrease in flowers to 325-454 pieces per plant was noted, and the yield of fruits was 0.22-0.76 t / ha. Fruit set in the control was 10-12%, and with the use of biological products 23-31%.
Our research and my scientific experience as a gardener allow us to recommend buckwheat as a cereal, melliferous, decorative and green manure culture in the North-West of Russia. And in traditional regions of cultivation, the possibilities of its use are simply unlimited.
candidate of agricultural sciences,
Associate Professor of the Department of Plant Industry, St. Petersburg State Agrarian University,
Compatibility of crops in the garden
Each crop in the garden has its own characteristics. One needs enough light, the other feels comfortable in partial shade. Also, the requirements for irrigation and the occupied area are different. The root system of plants is also different. In some plants, it goes deep into the soil, while in others, the roots are located at the surface of the earth. In addition, some plants have a detrimental effect on this or that pest. And if you take into account all the features of garden crops and combine them during planting?
Compatibility of crops in the garden will make it possible not only to rationally use the area for planting, but also to naturally protect plants from diseases and pests, to ensure correct growth and maturation of plants, thereby increasing the quality and quantity of the crop.
If you place crops correctly on your site, then even in the conditions of non-black earth and a small plot it is possible to get a decent harvest from the garden. The compatibility of crops in the garden is practiced with mixed and compacted crops. Cultures must be selected taking into account their mutual influence on each other.
B azilik gets along well with peas and kohlrabi, but does not like the neighborhood with a cucumber.
B aklazhan I agree to be adjacent to green annual herbs, onions, beans, peppers, bush beans, spinach, thyme, amaranth. Fennel and peas are not suitable for eggplant neighbors most of all.
Used vegetable feel great with peas, cabbage, potatoes, corn, carrots, nightshades, parsley, rhubarb, radish, cucumber, beetroot, garden savory. Onions, fennel, garlic and pumpkin are incompatible with beans.
Gorokh will be glad to be next to white cabbage, watercress, sweet corn, potatoes, carrots, aromatic herbs, spinach and lettuce. And on the contrary, he will not be happy with onions, tomatoes, beans, garlic, zucchini.
Horck perfectly compatible with cabbage (white cabbage, Brussels sprouts, kohlrabi, cauliflower), peas, radish. Other plants in the garden will also suit mustard as neighbors.
D aikon, for example, he does not like neighbors at all and he himself is not suitable for neighbors!
D ynya compatible with sweet corn, pumpkin, zucchini, radish. But it does not get along well with onions and potatoes.
And ssop medicinal with crops in the garden is bad friends.
K abachok grows well next to tomato, beet, onion, corn, melon, pumpkin, borago, nasturtium. poor neighbors for squash are potatoes and cabbage.
Cabbage white cabbage feels great next to dill, celery, onions, garlic, lettuce, potatoes, cucumber, radishes, beets, beans, spinach, mint, nasturtium, marigolds, and is not friendly with tomatoes, carrots, beans and curly beans and peas.
Broccoli compatible with potatoes, onions, carrots, parsley, cabbage salad, beetroot, celery, sage, chard, marigolds. Broccoli does not get along well with tomato and beans.
K apusta kohlrabi will be glad to be next to onions, cucumber, aromatic plants, radishes, lettuce, beetroot, peas, fennel, spinach. Bad neighborhood with tomato and beans.
Leaf kapusta gets along well with all plants in the garden, but especially with late white cabbage and potatoes.
K apusta savoy does not get along well with all the crops in the garden.
Cauliflower will feel comfortable with potatoes, cucumber, salad, celery, beans, beans, dill, hyssop, mint, nasturtium, sage. Neighborhood with tomato and strawberry will not work.
K artophle will get along well with beans, corn, cabbage, horseradish, eggplant and onions, beans, calendula, corn, onions, radishes, radishes, garlic, but absolutely will not tolerate the neighborhood of tomato, cucumber, pumpkin, sorrel, fennel.
K ress salad will be glad to be next to radishes, but other plants in the garden will not interfere with him.
K Ruknek and L Agenaria love to grow up alone.
To corn will be supportive of peas, zucchini, late white cabbage, potatoes, cucumber, pumpkin, beans, beans, salad. It gets along poorly with beetroot and fennel.
Leek good neighbor for onions, carrots, celery.
Bulb onions compatible with Brussels sprouts, carrots, lettuce, beetroot, cucumber, tomato, chicory salad, savory, potatoes, strawberries. Will feel bad next to peas, radishes, beans, beans, cabbage, radish.
M ayoran garden compatible with carrots, but will not tolerate cucumber next to it.
Carrot it is good to plant next to tomatoes, peas, broccoli, leeks, onions, cucumbers, parsley, radishes, lettuce, beetroot, sage, spinach, radish, celery. Incompatible plants for carrots are dill, anise, fennel, cabbage, beet Swiss chard.
About gurtsy very well planted with peas or late white cabbage, sweet corn, onions, carrots, radishes, lettuce, dill, beans, garlic, fennel, but they should not be planted next to potatoes and aromatic herbs. Tomatoes, sage, asparagus, zucchini, rhubarb, turnips, and leeks will also be bad neighbors.
P asternak is friendly with salad. But his friendship with onions and garlic fails.
P attison prefers solitude, he does not like anyone's neighborhood.
P eretz compatible with eggplants, tomatoes, basil, carrots, lovage, marjoram, oregano, onion. Will not be too happy with dill, fennel, cucumber, kohlrabi.
Sheet p etsrushka will gladly share a bed with basil, onions, cucumbers, asparagus, tomatoes, beans, carrots. Will not be too happy about the head salad.
R even makes great friends with peas, cabbage, radishes, lettuce, celery, beans and spinach. But he will not be happy with turnips, potatoes, cucumbers, carrots, radishes, beets, tomatoes and onions.
R edis friends with cabbage, carrots, turnips, lettuce, tomato, beans, beans, fennel, spinach, zucchini, pumpkin. It will not suit its neighborhood with onions, beetroot chard.
Radish-beets, spinach, carrots, parsnips, cucumber, pumpkin and tomato (plant without thickening), and enemies are hyssop, onions, fennel.
Repa feels good next to onions (all types), beets, spinach, celery, lettuce, bush beans, dill. It is important to plant the plants in the garden bed freely. Turnips will be uncomfortable next to potatoes.
From alatu suitable neighbors such as: cabbage, carrots, beets, dill.
From the eyelid gets along well with all cabbage, onions, carrots, cucumbers, lettuce, zucchini, garlic, beans. Bad neighborhood with potatoes, mustard.
With eldress compatible with white cabbage, cauliflower, kohlrabi, onion, tomato, beans, cucumber, spinach. Celery is not compatible with head lettuce, potatoes.
From parge grows well next to basil, parsley and tomato. Bad neighbors for asparagus onions of all kinds.
Tomatoes (tomatoes) will grow well with basil, cabbage, all onions, parsley, radishes, radishes, lettuce, asparagus, beans, garlic, beans, corn, carrots, spinach. Bad companions for tomatoes are peas, potatoes, kohlrabi cabbage, garden quinoa, cucumbers, turnips, dill, fennel.
Pumpkin perfectly coexists with zucchini, squash, melon. Pumpkin will not be happy only with potatoes.
Fasol common grows remarkably next to peas, cabbage, potatoes, corn, carrots, nightshades, parsley, rhubarb, radish, cucumber, beetroot, garden savory. Onions, pumpkin, garlic, fennel do not get along well with common beans.
Fasol bush compatible with cucumber, potatoes, cabbage, head lettuce, turnip, radish, radish, rhubarb, celery, spinach, tomato. Not a very good neighborhood will be with asparagus, curly beans, zucchini, fennel.
X ren goes well with potatoes.
Ts ikoriy salad will accept onions, carrots, tomatoes, fennel well.
H aber garden compatible with watercress, onions, parsley, tomatoes, beans, dill, spinach. A cucumber will not work as a neighbor.
Garlic willingly make friends with carrots, cucumbers, parsley, lettuce, tomatoes, beets, celery, beans. Garlic will not grow comfortably next to peas, cabbage, beans.
Sh pinat compatible with such crops: cabbage (all types), potatoes, carrots, turnips, garden strawberries, beets, beans, tomatoes. Zucchini, asparagus, fennel do not coexist very well with spinach.
For convenience, use the table of compatibility of crops in the garden:
Crop compatibility chart
Another important aspect when selecting components for mixed crops in your area is:
Onion scares off spider mites
M akhorka for cabbage fly
Garlic and alder cruciferous fleas won't like
n omidora have a bad effect on copperhead and moth
Celery apach scares away cabbage fly.
For this, gardeners and gardeners often use infusions.
The drug from chamomile inflorescences scares away and even destroys many pests of the garden.
To prepare the preparation, the chamomile inflorescences are collected and dried. Then they are ground into powder, mixed with an equal amount of road dust.
For spraying take 200 gr. powder, stir in a small amount of water and add water to the norm of 10 liters. This drug is absolutely harmless, and it can be used to process various crops even before the harvest itself.
Against aphids and spider mites, which greatly harm cucumbers and cabbage, plants are sprayed with infusion of potato tops.
In order to prepare such an infusion, we need 1.2 kg of crushed mass. Insist 2-3 hours in 10 liters of water and filter.
For the same purpose, you can use:
ABOUTcreature of stepchildren and tops of tomatoes.
To do this, take green mass at the rate of 40 grams per 1 liter of water and, crushing, boil over low heat for up to 30 minutes. One glass of the broth obtained in this way is enough for 1 liter of water. Add 30 grams of soap or washing powder to the finished broth and spray the plants.
An infusion of onion husks, chamomile, tobacco, garlic, yarrow, horse sorrel roots and dandelion leaves also helps against aphids and ticks.
We will tell you more about pests and crop compatibility in further publications.
The first day of the week is favorable for planting tomatoes, cucumbers, onions, peas, eggplants, cabbage.
In addition, the lunar calendar allows you to plant dill and basil on Monday.
As for the owners of garden plots, they can devote this day to planting apple trees, plums and currants.
March 22 is a good day for watering, loosening the soil and using fertilizers. However, it is not worth using "chemistry" to fight plant diseases. You should also refuse to prune trees.
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