Fruit and ornamental trees and shrubs usually bloom in spring or summer. However, some plants may open flower buds in the fall or early winter. The reasons for inappropriate flowering of horticultural crops can be hot and dry summers, sharp fluctuations in air temperature, abnormally warm autumn, an attack of insect pests, as well as "hormonal disruptions", due to which the movement of sap inside the tree or its individual branches increases. However, the appearance of flowers on shrubs and trees is not always a deviation from the norm - for some plants, the time of flowering occurs at the end of autumn or the beginning of winter.
Blooming trees and shrubs on the eve of winter is not uncommon. Abnormal activity does not harm garden crops: at the beginning of the next season, they, as expected, will again please with their white, pink, yellow or crimson petals. If the individual branches on the tree dry up, then in the spring the affected plant will quickly recover.
Good afternoon, dear friends!
Among all the problems of gardening, not the least is the frost resistance of trees and shrubs. What it is? What does it depend on? Does it last all winter? Each garden owner is concerned about these and other issues, one way or another related to the winter hardiness of crops.
Among amateur gardeners, there is often an opinion that winter hardiness or frost resistance of plants - these are the temperature values that the plant can withstand without any negative consequences. That is, if the cherry withstood the frost of -35 ° C last winter, then the winter hardiness of this variety is -35 ° C. In fact, this is a broader concept and it implies the ability of plants to withstand not only frosts, but also thaws, and sudden jumps in temperature.
Frost is terrible for plants due to the fact that ice crystals are formed in their cells under the influence of low temperatures. In a situation where cooling occurs slowly, and then the thawing process also slowly proceeds, plant tissues retain their integrity. This is supported by the experiment of Soviet scientists carried out back in the 70s of the twentieth century. By freezing black currant shoots to -253 ° C and gradually thawing, they managed to maintain their full viability. In case of severe frosts and sharp warming, on the contrary, there is a danger of damage or death of trees.
The quality in question largely depends on the genetic characteristics of a particular tree or shrub variety. But that's not all. It is very important in what condition the plant met the winter. Strong, well-groomed specimens show much greater endurance to the whims of winter. If a tree weakened as a result of a disease or gave a very bountiful harvest in the fall, which required additional resources and strength, then its winter hardiness may significantly decrease. Insufficient feeding during the warm season can also have an impact.
In addition, different organs of the same plant react differently to the critical temperature. As for fruit plants, their roots are the most vulnerable. If the temperature drops below -10 ° C, then this is already a very serious test for them. Usually the roots cannot withstand such low temperatures. Of the aboveground organs, the kidneys show different resistance. Growing ones are more robust and hardy than fruit ones. Bark and wood differ in frost resistance. The inner tissue freezes more often.
The frost resistance of a particular tree crop specimen may vary during the cold season. Before winter, each plant undergoes a kind of hardening. At this time, resistance to low temperatures increases. After the tree has entered a dormant period, this quality continues to grow. By about the end of December, the plant reaches its peak of "winter sleep". This state is characterized by the maximum possible suspension of all life processes. By this time, winter hardiness also increases as much as possible. After that, frost resistance begins to decline steadily and slowly. If thaws occur during the winter, this decline is intensified. The more frequent and longer the thaw, the more significant the decrease in frost resistance of plants on your site. See you!
First of all, it should be noted that not every plant that has been subjected to repeated frosts needs to be rescued.
Here are some examples of garden crops that do an excellent job of coping with the cold on their own:
These plants bloom rather late, so their buds do not wake up during the thaw. In addition, most of the listed crops have a high resistance to frost, so they are not afraid of cold snaps down to -20 degrees Celsius.
Autumn fertilizers for the garden and vegetable garden
Thoughtlessly and haphazardly, what kind of fertilizers can be used for the garden in principle, and even more so those that are needed in the fall. Illiterate use of feed formulations can lead to very sad results.
So, for example, all nitrogen-containing complexes in the autumn in the garden are strictly contraindicated. After all, nitrogen stimulates the vegetative system for further development, which is fraught with the release of fresh shoots. They will not have time to mature and benefit the plant anyway, and they will take away valuable nutrients, depleting the reserve set aside for the winter. In the autumn, both in the garden and in the garden, mineralized compositions of the potassium-phosphorus direction, some types of organic matter, as well as a complex of various useful humate substances and microelements are appropriate.
The phosphorus components are responsible for the underground part - the root system, helping its growth and full development. In addition, they are directly involved in the saturation of plant juices with all kinds of sugary substances, complex amino acids and protein compounds. Potash fertilizers already affect the harvest itself, or rather, the accumulation of sugars in fruits, contributing to their normal ripening. Plant immunity and their ability to withstand negative factors are also dominated by potassium.
The composition of fertilizer mixtures should be specified for a certain type of garden and horticultural crops, since different plants consume a different set of nutritional components.
In the course of setting and forming the crop, large, abundantly fruitful garden crops waste a huge amount of all kinds of nutritious components. Autumn feeding is aimed at compensating for the spent and preparing the garden for winter. It is in the fall, before going to bed, that plant organisms lay flower fruit buds, and, consequently, the harvest of the future summer cottage season.
Experts recommend feeding seed-bearing (pears, apple trees, etc.) trees in the garden in late autumn as follows (for an adult plant):
For stone fruits (plum, cherry plum, cherry, etc.), the same dosages of potassium, phosphorus and organics work. But in addition, you should also add 20-25 g of calcium chloride to form a hard bone in the fruit. Otherwise, with a calcium deficiency, the ovary will crumble in the spring. To reduce acidity, 0.4-0.5 kg of chalk powder or dolomite flour is added to the garden soil.
Without waiting for autumn, at the end of summer, almost immediately after removing the last ripe berries in the garden, it is customary to thoroughly fertilize berry (black and colored currants, honeysuckle, raspberries, etc.) shrubs. They are usually brought under (m 2):
For strawberry plantings, the following options for autumn feed are relevant (for 10 liters of water, consumption of 1 liter per bush):
Chlorine has a very bad effect on garden strawberries, therefore, the introduction of potassium chloride in the autumn is contraindicated for it.
Autumn fertilizers for the garden and vegetable garden: application by digging
If everything is clearly clear with the need to apply correctly selected fertilizers for berry plantings and an orchard in the fall, then the situation is twofold with coniferous crops that perform a purely decorative function. Some gardeners allow only spring and summer feeding of conifers. The motivation is that as a result of late and already inappropriate feedings, fresh shoots are formed, which do not really have time to lignify and freeze in winter.
But sometimes in conifers the needles turn yellow or turn brown in the garden by autumn due to chlorosis caused by a lack of certain trace elements. Therefore, other gardeners claim that autumn fertilization will normalize the functioning of the root system. As a result, the necessary substances are better absorbed. There is a specialized fertilizer for conifers - Florovit, which promotes full ripening and lignification of shoots, and also increases the frost resistance of crops. It is used in the garden according to the instructions, but on average it is about 5-10 g for each meter of plant height.
Perennials that have completed flowering in the garden in late summer or autumn also need high-quality nutrition. An exhausted and tired plant will not be able to fully form flower buds, which are laid precisely in the late summer or autumn period. Florists can, at their choice, use any of the following compositions (for 10 liters of water, consumption of 2 liters per 1 m 2):
There is a need to transplant a pear to a new place, you need to know when to carry out this procedure so that the tree takes root as quickly as possible. Transplantation of the culture in question can be carried out in spring and autumn.
During this period, young pear trees are transplanted. To know when to start work, you need to observe the condition of the trees. When the snow has melted, but the buds are not yet swollen, it's time to start transplanting, that is, in early spring.
In the spring, young pear trees are transplanted
Autumn transplanting ensures active development of the root system. Before the frosts come, the tree will have time to take root, and with the arrival of spring, new shoots will begin to develop. Moving in the fall allows you to quickly adapt to new conditions and start the development process. If this period turned out to be warm and long, the plants later go into a dormant state. Therefore, the timing of the transplant falls on the end of October-beginning of November. Before the cold weather arrives, the tree will have time to prepare.
If the region is characterized by a mild climate, then mature pear trees can be transplanted in winter, in the absence of snow and temperatures around 0 околоС. In this case, the seedling is dug out with a large earthen clod in order to exclude shedding of the soil and damage to the roots. When transplanting in cold weather (-10˚C and below), freezing of the root system is possible.
If you need to transplant a pear, then one important nuance should be taken into account: the older the tree, the worse it tolerates this procedure. Trees at the age of 2–3 years are best tolerated to change the place of growth. Plants with vegetative stock show good results in survival rate. Such trees are able to restore the root system, which is laid down at the level of genetics.
Vegetative stock is a clonal stock that is obtained by propagation by cuttings or cuttings.
Young pears at the age of 2-3 years are suitable for transplanting
An adult tree that is more than 15 years old should not be replanted. This is due to the fact that the plant's root system is large and during the digging process, most of it can be damaged. The remaining roots will not be able to provide the tree with the necessary nutrition. Before proceeding with the transplant, you need to examine the tree for diseases. A good pear seedling should be flexible, with tough twigs and stems, and healthy bark without any blemishes or damage. When diseased areas are found, they are immediately removed.
Despite the fact that the pear is a thermophilic culture, picking up a zoned variety and planting it on time, you can grow a healthy and strong tree. The opinions of gardeners with regard to the time of planting differ, but adhering to the information presented, it will be easier to make a choice.
After the war, a new system of planting and growing gardens appeared in the USA, Canada, Australia, Japan. It has also been tested in our country, and people have become convinced of its effectiveness. It turns out that grasses just need to be allowed to grow under trees and in the aisles. Cover the garden areas with bluegrass and fescue, prevent them from forming impenetrable thickets, mowing, chopping and leaving where they grew. Mow 6-7 times per season. If there is a lot of rain, then more often (this is from personal experience). But mineral fertilizers should be applied anyway. Do not use manure at all, because crushed grass plays the role of compost (and mulch).
Application of mineral fertilizers in a turfed garden. Photo from the site clanki.kupimprodam.si
What is the effectiveness of the sod-humus system: such a garden is simple, cheap to maintain. And its yield is great. The roots of trees grow freely in the same soil layer of 10-15 cm, which was previously inaccessible due to plowing. So it turned out the expanse for soil animals. In such a garden, all the earth remains in place, the rains cannot wash it away. The yield increase (compared to other planting systems) reaches 20%! There are fewer scab-affected trees. The carrion is unbreakable and can be used for recycling.
The carrion is being recycled
The winter hardiness of apple trees does not decrease, their own biological rhythm of growth and development of trees does not change. Almost natural farming.
This unpretentious plant grows in nature as an annual and perennial herb with white, red, pink flowers.
The north is known for its beneficial qualities. It contains vitamins and minerals that our body needs. Many peoples use the herb in different forms. It is dried for making seasonings, flour additives. Fresh clover is used for making salads. In the Caucasus, they eat pickled flowers of the plant. This herb is an excellent honey plant, flowers are pollinated by bees and bumblebees. The honey produced by bees from nectar and clover pollen tastes great. This grass is an important part of the livestock feed base.
Here are the most unpretentious plants that I managed to grow from cuttings on my site. Separately, it should be noted that various root formation stimulants may not be used at all for these plants. The main condition for success here is timely watering, mulching and shading of plants.
If possible, then the best result can be achieved by preparing a full-fledged cuttings with a root system during the season. And for this you just need to find good-natured neighbors who will suddenly forget about all their affairs and, with undisguised joy and trepidation, will rush to grow for you everything that you have noticed with them.
Therefore, I wish you all the best in your experiments on growing seedlings from cuttings!
How long ago it was! We are talking about the now banal forsythia. At work, a ticket to a sanatorium was on fire in very early spring, the lot fell on me. and then ... morning, near the entrance "the sun" is bright or "golden rain" ... I was stunned, asked the workers of the sanatorium, and in the evening I was gnawing furtively, then I saw how it was cut off, but I picked up those cuttings ... the forsythia was already fading, so sniff there was no time
Now all this can be bought, in Belarus there is a lot of it, and there is even a white one - abelliophyllum, smelling strongly of almonds, so I really want to buy it, until I succeeded
Photos from the Internet
But your remark about juniper is wrong. Everywhere we are talking about a cut cuttings or a branch of any of the above plants. These words that you cited about the juniper, namely, “having buried an“ old ”branch with a few internodes in the ground,” I did not write in the article. Where did you see them?
My words about the juniper have a different meaning - "for blackening it is necessary to choose twigs that are laid as far as possible below the ground or lying on the ground, so as to draw out the future."
And to dig in is in conclusion: for someone it is simply the most reliable option, if he does not want to engage in cuttings. That is, it is safer, of course, to make layering. But this is not always possible (Sofia in the Crimea, for example, did not think to make a cut). The method is excellent and also proved to be excellent.
Olga, I will continue the discussion, prepared branches - I mean already cut selected branches. And the branches rooted most well, which near the bush are located near the ground or on the ground lie under their weight, because almost always on them there are already formed small round or cone-shaped outgrowths (I do not remember exactly how scientifically they are called), from which future roots will develop. The branch is cut off and buried, most of it is located underground, and the tip part and long young shoots along the length of the branch that have grown over the year remain above the ground. Those. those that are long enough to be above the ground when the branch is angled. The key to success is abundant watering and shading.
In this case, it is logical to plant the entire cut off branch at once. You can plant 2-3 in one place, directing them in different directions from the center of planting, if you are afraid that one may not take root.
But if you set yourself the goal of planting not a branch, but a stalk, well, please, you can cut off, for example, the tip and bury the stalk completely underground almost horizontally, leaving only young branches above the ground. The result will be the same as with the whole branch, there is no difference, except that the branch should also stick out, so the branch is planted at an angle. With the photo I confused you, apparently, it shows an already mature bush.
It is possible, and as you suggested, I quote: "... if you need to make a whole selection with thujas, then it is better to break it by cutting - when you start from the mother's day one millennium. What's the difference? This is the same branch, only I plant a perennial one so that you can get a bush faster, and you plant a one-year one. And so we are both talking about cuttings, and at the same time we are both planting branches. At the same time, the very meaning of both the methods proposed by you and me is exactly the same. Is that with babies with a heel you have to "lisp", and with a branch you do not need to worry whether it will take root or not. In the branch itself, there is already a supply of vitality for the first time, you just need to help it.
Thuja is propagated with a heel, because, in comparison with juniper, cut off whole branches of thuja are not easy to root. If my thuja so easily took root with a branch, I would have multiplied and exchanged with someone long ago. Therefore, they take babies with a heel. And another way is to cover it with clay or earth with sand and get a layering.
So I look at a grape bush and think: let me cut off and plant a three-year-old vine at once! I take a pruner, cut it off: so, one-year-old, two-year-old, here it is, a three-year-old vine, and on it a two- and one-year-old bargain. Soooo ... Chick! Wow, what a long stalk turned out, a whole branch almost ... But I wonder what I have, a stalk or not a stalk? Well, I planted it. Three years later - wow, signal bunch, hurray! So what did I grow a grape bush from?