Galina Kizima is the author of many techniques that facilitate the work of the gardener. Not everyone agrees with her approaches, but many elderly people gratefully use articles and books in practice, with the help of which many operations can be performed easier, and some can be skipped altogether. The approach to growing tomatoes is no exception.
Kizima's method of growing tomatoes concerns both the seedling stage and directly planting plants in the garden and caring for them. In many articles, her approach is described one-sidedly, only as the use of diapers when growing seedlings. But in fact, this is only part of a general technique based on making the roots of tomatoes grow inward, and not to the sides. It is with the deep location of the roots that plants try to get their own moisture and nutrition, and do not expect mercy from the owner. For this to happen, plants are already at a young age, from the very appearance of sprouts, put in a stressful situation, accustoming them to an independent struggle for existence. Unlike conventional agricultural techniques, the gardener does not nourish plants, but forces them to mobilize their internal forces, to get out of difficult situations on their own.
The advantages of Galina Kizima's approach to growing tomatoes are as follows:
It is for these advantages that many call Kizima's technology a technique for the lazy. However, there is a widespread belief that laziness is the engine of progress. And if we talk about elderly people, then we are no longer talking about laziness, but about an elementary lack of strength in order to use traditional technologies with a lot of watering, fertilizing, loosening, etc.
Galina Kizima is not shy about giving her books catchy titles
But the method is not without its drawbacks, for example:
The use of Galina Kizima's technology is useful not only for physically not very strong gardeners, but also for those employed at work who do not have the opportunity to often visit their summer cottages.
Best of all, Galina Kizima's method is suitable for determinate tomato varieties, and especially early ripe ones. Seedlings of indeterminate varieties when grown in diapers are prone to excessive stretching, which negatively affects, among other things, the formation of flower brushes. Early ripening varieties usually spend less time at home, require less soil and nutrition, so the use of such varieties in the Kizima method is preferable.
To understand the essence of Galina Kizima's method, it is worth studying it according to the primary sources, that is, to find her advice “in the first person”. It turns out that there is nothing complicated about them, all the necessary operations are familiar to one degree or another to most experienced gardeners. It is important not to sow seeds for seedlings ahead of time: the maximum period from sowing to planting seedlings in a garden bed is two months, and even less for early ripening varieties.
The beginning of the seedling stage does not differ from the traditional method. Seeds are prepared for sowing as usual (calibrated, disinfected, hardened), and then they are sown in a small box to a depth of 1.5-2 cm. In about a week, seedlings will appear, for 4-5 days the temperature is lowered to 15-18 aboutC. And then the features begin.
Ash is an excellent source of phosphorus and, especially, potassium
The amount of land required for this method is small
Seedlings grow in swaddling clothes until they are transplanted into the garden
For most varieties, with the correct course of events, a second pick is not required: in this form, they continue to grow seedlings up to planting in a garden, only watering it with fertilizers. If the seedling outgrows strongly, it means that mistakes were made, you will have to transplant it into ordinary containers with soil. If everything is in order, then, according to the Kizima method, the seedlings in diapers are not even hardened, and a couple of days before they are planted in the garden, they are not watered so that it can more easily get to the garden and do not break on the way.
If, upon arrival at the dacha, it is not supposed to immediately plant tomatoes in the garden, it is worth watering them. The soil, prepared in advance in the traditional way, shortly before planting, Kizima recommends watering well with Fitosporin and Gumi in order to disinfect and introduce additional organic matter. Further, the author of the technique advises to proceed as follows.
The water should saturate the soil very well in the holes.
Both hay and newspapers are used in mulching.
Soft materials are used for tying
After planting, you do not need to approach the plants for a long time at all until the stepsons appear.
According to Kizima's technology, throughout the season, tomatoes are never watered or fed, the soil is not loosened, the weeds are not pulled out (if there are too many of them, then they are only cut off and left in the garden). It is only important to form plants: this means the removal of stepsons and leaves located under the tied brushes. Tall bushes must be tied up as they grow (undersized ones can be left without care for a long time). Plants are sprayed monthly with the same composition as when planting seedlings.
When growing tomatoes in a greenhouse, some features must be taken into account:
Bottles - a simple device for autowatering
Thus, of all the care measures according to the Galina Kizima method, you only need to remove the stepsons and tie up the bushes (and if you choose the right variety, use the standard ones, then you don't need to do this either). And only in the driest regions when grown outdoors, you may need to water the plants 1-2 times. But there is no point in doing this superficially: if the seedlings were grown correctly, the roots will be at a great depth. And there, most often, there is water without irrigation.
Galina Kizima's method of growing tomatoes, like her other suggestions, greatly facilitates the work of the gardener, forcing the plants to get their own food and moisture on their own. In order for success to be guaranteed, it is necessary to choose the right varieties and avoid mistakes when growing seedlings and planting them in a garden.
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Galina Kizima comes from a small village in the South Urals. More than fifty years ago, she successfully graduated from the renowned institute and received the distinguished profession of engineer - physics. But after a while, she successfully retrained from a theoretical physicist to a practical gardener and did not regret a single day for her fully conscious choice. For half a century of observing the growth of noble cultures and endless experiments on her six hundred square meters, Kizima has adopted simple truths about gardening for herself. Today she shares her knowledge based on her personal experience with everyone who wants to comprehend the mysteries of simple truck farming.
How to use a hydrogel and not only in a greenhouse? In the evening, fill the crumb with water about 300 times more than the mass of the crumb itself. So, for 3 liters of water, you will need only 10 g (usually one sachet) of hydrogel. When planting, under each plant, you will need about half a glass of ready-made gel (that is, 100 ml), so this bag will be enough for you to plant 30 plants. When planting cucumber seedlings, if for some reason you are doing this, add half a glass of hydrogel directly into the hole and plant on it seedlings of cucumbers (or any other seedlings). If you do not grow cucumber seedlings, and this is reasonable, then after adding the hydrogel to the well, sprinkle it with 4–5 cm of soil on top and then sow the seeds. The fact is that if you put the seeds directly into the hydrogel, it will be tantamount to putting them in water for 5-7 days, and during this time they will take and rot in the water or suffocate from lack of air. The hydrogel can be dissolved not in water, but in a weak solution of mineral or organic fertilizers. In this case, at the same time, you will get rid of one more job - feeding the cucumbers. As an organic fertilizer (and at the same time healing the soil) I use a joint solution of Fitosporin and Gumi, and as a mineral fertilizer, either the organo-mineral fertilizer (OMU) of the Buisk plant of mineral fertilizers, or the powder fraction of the unique AVA fertilizer.
How to use a hydrogel and not only in a greenhouse? In the evening, fill the crumb with water about 300 times more than the mass of the crumb itself. So, for 3 liters of water you will need only 10 g (usually one sachet) of hydrogel. When planting, under each plant, you will need about half a glass of ready-made gel (that is, 100 ml), so this bag will be enough for you to plant 30 plants. When planting cucumber seedlings, if for some reason you are doing this, add half a glass of hydrogel directly into the hole and plant on it seedlings of cucumbers (or any other seedlings). If you do not grow cucumber seedlings, and this is reasonable, then after adding the hydrogel to the well, sprinkle it with 4–5 cm of soil on top and then sow the seeds. The fact is that if you put the seeds directly into the hydrogel, it will be tantamount to putting them in water for 5-7 days, and during this time they will take and rot in the water or suffocate from lack of air. The hydrogel can be dissolved not in water, but in a weak solution of mineral or organic fertilizers. In this case, at the same time you will get rid of one more job - feeding cucumbers. As an organic fertilizer (and at the same time healing the soil) I use a joint solution of Fitosporin and Gumi, and as a mineral fertilizer, either the organo-mineral fertilizer (OMU) of the Buisk plant of mineral fertilizers, or the powder fraction of the unique AVA fertilizer.
At the first pick, in no case do not cut off the bottom of the root, contrary to all advice. The tip of each root has a "scent" for water and food, and therefore will grow purposefully. The advice to shorten the root is given so that it begins to branch, that is, in the future, it begins to rummage around in search of food and drink. But this is something we do not need with you - let it grow down.
In order to preserve the roots growing downward, as well as create that very stressful situation, the first transplantation of seedlings (picking) must be done in a diaper made of film. To do this, cut from a new or old sufficiently dense film left over from greenhouses, the so-called diapers the size of a notebook sheet. They are will serve you for many years... After using them, you just need to rinse, dry and put them in a suitable box until next year, they will not take up much space.
For making diapers, an old film from a greenhouse is suitable.
Stick a piece of adhesive plaster on the upper left corner of the diaper (the roll you bought at the pharmacy will last you a lifetime). On it, write the name of the variety or just the number, and in the notebook, write down the name of the variety under this number. Now turn the tape over so that the sticker stays in the upper right corner, just on the other side.
Pour 1 tbsp on the upper left side of the diaper. a spoonful of prepared and moistened seedling soil, carefully transfer the seedling to it (remove it with a tablespoon). Pour 1 more tbsp on top. spoon of soil. Cotyledon leaves should be at the very edge, and above - 2-3 true ones. Bend the bottom edge of the film in the same way as a baby is swaddled (leaving some freedom for the legs), and, holding the soil with the seedling with your hand, begin to roll up the cylinder, rolling it to the right. Put on 2 rubber bands and close together all the seedling rolls in a container large enough for the plants to stand upright.
Picking seedlings into a film diaper with 2-3 true leaves
When the seedlings have 4-5 true leaves, unfold the diapers, add another 1 tbsp under the roots. spoon of soil and wrap again, but without bending the bottom edge. Put on the rubber bands and, holding the bottom of the soil so that it does not fall out, re-roll the rolls in the container.
Picking seedlings with 4-5 true leaves
Before planting any vegetables, you need to properly prepare the soil. Kizima believes that there is no need to interfere with nature. She herself creates all the conditions for excellent growth.
As a result of this approach, Galina developed a special land use system without much difficulty. She removed the most laborious jobs:
All this is done by nature itself. The root system of plants, according to Kizima, requires fresh humus. It is obtained as a result of rotting of last year's plant debris. Rotten compost and humus are a strategic fertilizer reserve. It will give new strength, new opportunities for growing strong green mass. This is the cycle of organic matter in nature, which must not be disturbed.
Nature does not allow empty, bare soil, so as not to collapse from the sun and wind. Genuine fertility is created by the huge number of microorganisms that live in the earth. All green mass should be raked under the plants. Never throw away or incinerate anything.
The only thing that can be done is to process plant residues with biological products from autumn. There will be no pathogens on them and under them. In late autumn, plant stems will fall and cover the ground. This will also retain moisture after the snow melts.
Galina Kizima has a number of innovations that facilitate gardening work and lead to an increase in the yield of vegetables. She conveys her experience in popular books. There is a very simple technique for growing potatoes, developed by this author.
Everyone knows that usually planting potatoes turns into a deep digging of the soil with the simultaneous burying of seed tubers into holes. According to the Kizima method, digging is not used at all: the tubers are laid out on the surface and covered with a fertile mixture, often just compost.
Galina Kizima is the author of many popular books for "lazy" gardeners
There are no fundamental restrictions on the choice of varieties for planting by the considered method. It is known that there are very different varieties in terms of ripening. For example, early (Lark, Vega, Bryansk early, etc.
) are ready for harvesting already two months after the emergence of seedlings, for mid-early (Nevsky, Charodey, Fakel, etc.) it takes 70-80 days, and late-ripening (Bryansk red Atlant, etc.)
) are ready for harvest so late that they are not grown at all in the northern regions.
It is optimal to plant several varieties with different ripening periods, alternating them in rows. At the same time, in the middle lane, it is better to use the earliest and mid-season varieties, in the north - early and mid-early ones.
Any tubers are prepared for planting in a month and a half. The best seed potatoes are about the size of a chicken egg.
In addition to the usual germination carried out in the sun, the author of the method advises making a transverse incision on the tuber a week before planting.
Sprout tubers using conventional technology
As with conventional cultivation, potatoes are planted with sprouts a few centimeters in size. As usual, the site is chosen sunny: potatoes can grow in partial shade, but the yield drops sharply.
According to the method of Galina Kizima, the site does not need to be dug up or fertilized before planting: the potatoes can be laid out directly on the weed grass. Immediately before planting the tubers, a plot is marked out: the rows are organized at distances of 40-50 cm from one another.
It is better to alternate varieties in rows, the potatoes themselves are laid out 25 cm from each other (in a checkerboard pattern). The landing process is simple.
Before planting, you can sprinkle the ground with ashes.
Sprinkle the tubers with dry grass or hay so that they are reliably sheltered from sunlight, after which they temporarily cover the bed with non-woven material.
Straw, hay, and even fresh cut grass are suitable as shelter.
With the arrival of real heat, they remove the covering material and sprinkle the bed with ready-made compost. Subsequently, both ready-made compost and what should have gone into the compost heap are periodically poured over it: mowed grass, pulled out weeds, tops, small twigs, food waste, etc.
Outwardly, it looks like a very thick layer of mulch.
Potato care, therefore, consists of watering in dry, hot weather and adding organic materials that cover the tubers. Flowers are cut off almost completely: several pieces are left as signal ones. When they wither, you can try young potatoes. To do this, carefully move the compost apart and select the right amount of the largest tubers, after which the backfill is corrected.
Considering the fact that not everyone at home has many free window sills for growing tomato seedlings, Galina Kizima, the author of numerous methods of agrotechnical development, proposed a completely new technology - growing seedlings in diapers or in Moscow style. So you can get strong seedlings not only of tomatoes, but also of peppers, and cabbage, and cucumbers and even flowers.
This method is ideal when it is necessary to prepare a decent amount of tomato sprouts for the summer cottage, and there is not enough space for these purposes.
The principle of growing seedlings in "diapers", as suggested by Galina Kizimova, is that the container - pots, cassettes, tablets or glasses, replaces the non-woven material in which the earth with seeds is wrapped.
Taking into account the fact that each seed has enough soil for development, there is enough space for the sprouts to grow, while the film (namely, it is often used as a diaper) reliably retains moisture, we get just an indicative view of tomato seedlings or any other crop.
These will be strong, healthy, absolutely viable seedlings, while the pick is carried out with minimal damage to them.
Growing seedlings in a diaper
In order to choose one or another method of growing seedlings, you need to figure out what it is interesting for and what potential risks there may be.
Galina Kizima describes the following advantages:
There are a lot of pluses, but there are also a lot of minuses, moreover, they are significant enough not to pay attention to it:
Growing seedlings according to the method of Galina Kizima is recommended for cold-resistant plants, which do not even have to dive in the future - they unrolled the roll and planted one by one in the beds or greenhouse. Heat-loving plants necessarily dive into separate containers, which is not suitable for all crops.
The key feature of the unique method is that tomatoes, after being transferred to the beds, grow without water. First, the gardener needs to cut off all the lower leaves.
Before that, make an oval hole so that the sprout can enter it up to half. 5-8 liters of compost, a glass of wood ash and a pinch of potassium permanganate are poured there. Stir directly in the hole and pour in a whole bucket of water.
As soon as the water is completely absorbed into the hole, PLACE the sprout with its tops to the north.
Seedlings are planted in an oblong hole with the crown to the north
Next, a seedling is buried, the crown is tied to a peg at a right angle, a bucket of water is poured in and that's it. This completes the entire introduction of moisture.
The main principle of G. Kizim is the minimum of actions and the maximum of results. During her work, she has developed many techniques that are united by a common idea - a garden without worries.
VIDEO: A vegetable garden for a bummer who does not dig
There are 2 main ways of growing seedlings in a diaper:
Most often, this method is used for growing tomato seedlings, for which a seed fund is prepared in advance in the usual manner. This means that first the seeds are calibrated, then disinfected, soaked in growth stimulants (Epin, Fitosporin, aloe juice, etc.) and then sent for 2-3 days to awaken.
Awakening consists in immersing the seeds in a napkin moistened with warm water for 2-3 days under the bag until they hatch. As soon as the first loops of sprouts appear, you can start growing seedlings according to the method of Galina Kizima.
VIDEO: Garden without hassle. How to sow seeds for seedlings
For clarity, the procedure is shown
It is best to do this for hydroponics, but subject to the rules of watering and temperature, soil mixture is also suitable.
Roll spinning process
VIDEO: Galina Kizima: 10 principles of getting a good harvest
Toilet paper is used as a substrate. It absorbs water well, we give it away easily, the seedlings grow, albeit with a weak root system, but generally strong and viable.
Moscow method of growing tomato seedlings (Galina Kizima)
Tomato seedlings according to Galina Kizima's method should be treated with mineral fertilizers. As soon as 3 real leaves have grown, the rolls need to be removed, add another spoonful of soil.
To determine if the soil has enough moisture, you need to insert your index finger into the roll, if it is dry, the soil is dry and requires immediate watering. If the finger is wet, then you do not need to water for 2 - 3 days.
VIDEO: Growing tomatoes without watering
Another method of growing tomatoes in diapers is without the use of soil, in hydroponics. When it's time to sow the seeds, cut the foil into strips 10 cm wide.Place toilet paper on top and moisten slightly.
Hydroponics instead of nutrient soil
After that, step back 1 cm from the top edge and carefully line all the seeds in a row. Then, on top, all this is covered with another paper and a piece of film. Next, we turn it all up into a roll, put it in a container and pour water. We do this so that the bottom edge of the paper sinks into it by 2 cm. The water will keep the paper constantly moist and the seeds will sprout soon.
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Put a bag with holes on top of the container with the plant, remove the plantings in a warm place, for example, to the radiator. Every day you need to ventilate the seeds by opening them for a few minutes and removing condensation.
This option for growing seedlings requires feeding the sprouts, as soon as the sprouts are noticed, it is necessary to water them with a liquid agent based on humic acids. In this case, the concentration of the solution must be lower than that indicated by the manufacturer. After the appearance of the first leaves (excluding the cotyledons), the seedlings must be fed again.
This process for tomato seedlings is painless - we take a roll out of the container, carefully examine where the roots end at the sprout, pinch a 2 cm root.
After that, we unfold the roll, remove the layer of film, tear off the sprout along with the paper and place it in a separate container with earth.
The rest of the paper will quickly decompose in the soil, the roots will be intact, not tangled and not damaged.
Among the advantages of this method of growing seedlings, it is worth noting the following:
Before planting seedlings in a permanent place, it must be prepared. Dig holes of such a size that the tomato seedling, along with the lump, will fit there. It is advisable to add a spoonful of superphosphate to the wells.
Transfer to beds for early maturing varieties - after 50 days, late maturing - 60 days
The transplant process is best done in the afternoon, after the end of the frost period. If you are planning to plant in a greenhouse, then the tomatoes do not need to be hardened.
If during the dive you did not cut off the lower tip of the root, then you can not water and fertilize the tomatoes all summer long (Kizima's advice).
After planting the plants from the diapers into the ground, it is advisable to wrap the stem with a little earth and mulch with black and white newspapers.
Such actions will not allow moisture to evaporate into the air, the water will go down to the roots of the tomato, which in turn will begin to develop intensively.
If we talk about watering, then it is best to combine it with subcortexes, do it no more than once every 2 weeks. The fertilizer dose is applied 2 times less than recommended by the manufacturer. You need to pour water under the root of each bush.
You can build drip irrigation using a special hose with holes or placing plastic bottles (make several holes) with a solution in the ground between two tomato bushes.
The importance of this stage can hardly be overestimated. Tomato seedlings grown according to the Kizima method must necessarily receive the necessary set of nutrients and trace elements.
The first time the fertilizer is applied 10 days after the pick. For this, a mullein (1 liter) is bred in a bucket of water and carefully introduced with a watering can with a thin spout into the root zone.
Fertilize each bush separately no more than 3 times per season
For the second time, you will need already nitrogen-phosphorus ready-made compositions, which are diluted according to the instructions and added once.
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For the third time, organic matter is added again and wood ash is added. It is designed to reduce the acidity of the soil and at the same time will act as mulch.
VIDEO: Advice from Kizima. How to use ash correctly?
For germination of seedlings in a city apartment, determinant varieties or hybrids are best suited. You need to sow seeds no earlier than mid or even late March. The maximum amount of time a seedling can spend in a diaper is 45 days.
For indeterminate tomatoes, this method, which Kizima recommends, is not suitable. Since in the process of growth, the formation of brushes is disturbed in plants, it can subsequently branch into 2 - 3 processes.
When the seedlings are transported to the dacha, they get a lot of stress, especially if it is associated with changes in temperature and humidity. In this connection, as soon as you are about to move your mini-garden, sprinkle the plantings with the Healthy Garden remedy, which protects against stress and negative environmental influences.
Growing tips also apply to the well-being of the plants. Be sure to examine them for disease or lack of nutrients. Leaves are the first indicator:
Tomatoes are healthy vegetables that contain an incredible amount of salts, vitamins, organic acids. Tomatoes can be used raw and processed, they are low in calories, have a good effect on the work of the heart, gastrointestinal tract and the hematopoietic system.
Despite the fact that the tomato was brought to us from another climatic zone, the plant has perfectly adapted to new conditions, a wide variety of varieties allows you to grow a good harvest even in the northern regions of the country.
Despite the fact that Galina Kizima talks about the secrets of growing tomato seedlings, this method is also suitable for the following crops:
Someone will also name sweet peppers, but we disagree with this statement. Bell peppers are one of the few crops that do not tolerate close proximity to neighbors. If the leaves come into contact with each other, they will soon begin to fade, the ovary will deteriorate and the culture as a whole will be suppressed. Therefore, it is best to plant bell peppers in separate containers so that there is enough space around.
All other crops, including such capricious ones as strawberries and wild strawberries, grow perfectly according to the Galina Kizima method and perfectly tolerate the procedure for transshipment into open ground or greenhouse beds.
For a start, a quarter of an hour is enough, if the weather permits, and later this time is brought to several hours - ideally, leave it all night a day before transshipment.
The main thing is the correct choice of seed, an easy way to grow seedlings using a diaper method and a minimum of synthetic fertilizers. G. Kizima's book describes in detail how to sow, care for seedlings in order to get a bountiful harvest with little effort.
VIDEO: Kizima: Tomatoes. How to plant and grow tomatoes?