A good harvest in the garden is the main task of both a competent agronomist and an ordinary amateur gardener who has a small area to work and grows potatoes, garden seedlings and grapes. To achieve this goal, you need to work hard, since each stage of the growing season of potatoes, seedlings and grapes lays down the percentage of the yield of the seed in the future. To obtain a high percentage of the yield, both on large plantations and small summer cottages, various mineral fertilizers are used, which stimulate the growth of crops, including potatoes, seedlings and grapes. Mineral agrochemical nitroammofosk today occupies a leading position among agricultural technicians of all levels. Consider what this top dressing is, and what the instructions for use are for the growth of the most popular crops.
The chemical composition of superphosphate called nitroammophoska is represented by the following formula - NH4H2PO4 + NH4NO3 + KCL. The formula encodes three components known to all: nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium.
It is this ratio that can favorably and quickly influence the growth of culture. Superphosphate release form:
It is customary to apply the agrochemical in the form of granules during the main sowing or pre-sowing work, but the mineral liquid is better suited for foliar feeding of both garden and garden plants. Nitrogen, as one of the three components, in this fertilizer is presented in an easily assimilable form, which makes it possible to use it for a wide range of agricultural crops. Phosphorus, as the main element of growth, is represented in three types of nitroammophos:
Such a triad of components allows phosphorus to be easily and quickly transformed into the form that is necessary for the nutrition of a particular plant. This is precisely what is explained by such a quick effect after applying a useful fertilizer.
Despite the high popularity of superphosphate among experienced agricultural technicians and amateurs of growing potatoes or seedlings, before using the tool, you should learn about the pros and cons of its use. Nitroammofosk, like any other mineral component, has both advantages and disadvantages. What are the advantages of using:
What unfavorable application of this type of fertilizer can bring:
All about the use of nitroammophoska.
Despite the fact that the composition always has the three above-mentioned components, its individual types are distinguished depending on the concentration of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Different brands of nitroammophoska with different ratios of components are necessary for more effective use of the product on different types of soil. Consider the fertilizer brands:
Depending on the type of soil and the crop being grown, you can independently choose a brand of an agrochemical with the right proportion of the main components.
The substance has an increased explosiveness, therefore the first rule for use is to avoid heating the granules of nitroammophoska. The optimal storage place is a brick or concrete building, where the average daily temperature does not exceed plus 30. The air humidity should not exceed 50%. Do not store superphosphate with other formulations. It is strictly forbidden to use heating devices and open flames near the storage area. The optimal storage period for top dressing is 6 months. For transportation, use land transport, and transport the substance both packed and in bulk.
If we talk about the types of soils and methods of using granules, then the best potato yields can be obtained from superphosphate on chernozems and alumina. The denser the soil, the longer it takes for the fertilizer to react. Therefore, on heavy soils, nitroammofosku fertilizer should be applied in the fall, and for light soils, spring feeding of seedlings is optimal.
Fertilizer nitroammofosk is used by farmers for more than a dozen years. At the same time, some are wary of such a composition, since feeding during the entire growing season is fraught with the accumulation of nitrates in the soil and plant tissues. However, if you stop fertilizing in advance, then the harvest is as "healthy" as possible. Fertilizer can be used with many crops. Fertilization chart for the most popular crops:
The fertilizer must be mixed with the soil around the trunk. This instruction is advisory in nature, since the exact dose of fertilization depends on the type of soil and the growing season of the crop. The use of such fertilizer on plantations and a small summer cottage saves money and time, since the concentration of the composition is quite high. Therefore, to feed even a large area, much less nitroammophoska will be required than other mineral fertilizers.
This video explains the best way to fertilize trees. Nitroammofosk is an excellent option for such purposes.
Nitroammophoska was widely used in agriculture almost half a century ago. During this time, its composition remained unchanged, all innovations related exclusively to the percentage of the active components of the fertilizer. It has proven itself in various climatic zones, the best results have been achieved in central Russia.
Farms and hobby gardeners spend a lot of effort to grow and harvest a rich harvest. Among agrotechnical measures, special attention is paid to plant nutrition. Fertilization provides crops with additional nutrition and, as a result, increases yields.
As a top dressing, both organic and chemical fertilizers are used, and the latter are produced in the form of single or multicomponent preparations. Each type of fertilizer has its own pros and cons and is successfully used for different purposes and crops.
One of the most popular and effective complex fertilizers is Nitroammofosk (NPK), which has proven its effectiveness in more than 40 years of use in agriculture.
Fertilizer Nitroammofosk is a mineral complex that includes three main elements vital for plants:
General fertilizer formula: (NH₄H₂PO₄ + NH₄NO₃ + KCL).
It should be noted that, unlike nitrogen and potassium, phosphorus is contained in fertilizer in three forms:
These combinations of elements ensure their complete dissolution in a nitrogen environment, their release from the inert composition and transition to a form that allows plants to easily and quickly assimilate nutrients from the soil.
The classic composition of Nitroammophoska (NPK) includes three elements in the same ratio 16:16:16, that is, each granule contains 16% nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus. Based on this, the amount of active substances assimilated by plants is 48% of the total mass, which exceeds the indicators of other complex fertilizers with a similar composition.
Horticultural crops require the listed components at different growing seasons. It is these substances that give plants strength for growth, increase disease resistance and yield. The fertilizer is suitable for almost all agricultural and horticultural crops, flowers and indoor plants, therefore it is popular with farmers and summer residents.
Nitroammophoska is produced in the form of small round granules of white-pink color in packages of different packaging. The shelf life of products is 6 months.
Fertilizer Nitroammofosk is available in several varieties. The composition 16:16:16 can be considered "classics of the genre". However, it is not suitable for all soils, and different plants may need a different ratio of components. Therefore, formulations have been developed with different proportions of active elements. This gradation is convenient for use in different regions of the country, where soil characteristics differ significantly from each other. In any varieties of Nitroammofoska, the total amount of nutrients available to the plant does not exceed 51%.
For example, in the Voronezh region, for chernozem soils, compositions with NPK content are used in the proportion of 15:15:20, 8:24:24, 13:13:24. Each of them has increased the amount of potassium required by local soils. It is this ratio of nutrients that allows you to harvest good yields.
Attention! When choosing Nitroammofoska in a garden center or a specialized store, look at the percentage of active substances in the fertilizer. Make sure it's right for your region.
The use of complex mineral fertilizers has a number of advantages. Despite the negative attitude of organic crop advocates towards "chemistry", chemicals are very beneficial, and their effectiveness overcomes possible disadvantages.
Benefits of using Nitroammofoska:
One of the main advantages of Nitroammofoski can be safely called an affordable price. So, at the beginning of 2017, the cost of fertilizer was 22-38 rubles. per 1 kg or 19-22 thousand rubles. per ton, depending on the proportional ratio of active substances, manufacturer and delivery region.
Among the disadvantages, one can note the relatively short shelf life of the fertilizer. To avoid losses, you need to correctly calculate the required amount of funds that will be required for feeding during the season, and not to buy "for future use".
Nitroammophoska is a flammable substance that can ignite if not properly stored or transported. To prevent this from happening, you need to follow certain rules:
Important! Supporters of organic fertilizers in the debate about the benefits and dangers of fertilizing often point out that chemical drugs contribute to the accumulation of nitrates in the soil, which then, along with the harvest, go to our table. In fact, if you follow the rules of agricultural technology and apply complex fertilizing in strict accordance with the instructions, without exceeding the dose and number of dressings, this side effect is reduced to zero.
Nitroammofoska is a fertilizer, the use of which is equally effective for feeding fruit trees and shrubs, vegetables, grain crops, root crops, sunflowers and corn, flowers. It is introduced into the soil when digging a site before planting, as the main fertilizer during the period of plant growth, and is also used in dissolved form for foliar feeding of horticultural crops.
When applying fertilizer, it is imperative to take into account the type of soil - the higher the density of the soil, the longer the chemical elements penetrate into the lower layers. And although Nitroammofoska has proven itself equally well on chernozems, alumina and sandy soils, agronomists recommend enriching heavy clay soils in autumn and light soils in spring.
Fertilizer Nitroammofosk, instructions for the use of which is attached to each package, must be applied to the soil in strict accordance with the recommended standards. Cost rates depend on the composition and nutritional value of the soil, the presence of additional irrigation, the growing season and other determining factors. Here is an approximate consumption of fertilizing for crops:
These norms are used mainly by farmers and large agricultural associations. Summer residents will be more interested in information regarding their small plots. Approximate consumption of Nitroammofoska per 1 sq. m. is:
It is worth noting that Nitroammofosk can be added to the soil in different ways:
Dry granules are scattered on the ground and mixed with it, then watered with water on top if the soil is dry. If the soil is fairly damp, no additional watering is required. Nitroammofoska is sometimes mixed with organic fertilizers (for example, humus) immediately before applying to the soil.
Important! Nitroammofosk applyu and for foliar feeding of plants, grown in summer cottages. To do this, the granules are diluted with warm water (1-2 tablespoons per 10 liters of water), the solution is poured into a spray bottle and the plants are sprayed with it, choosing for this evening time or a cloudy day. After this treatment, the plants must be watered.
The use of Nitroammofoska has a beneficial effect on various horticultural and agricultural crops. Thus, tomatoes acquire resistance to stem and root rot, scab and phytophthora. However, plants need to be fertilized no more than twice during the growing season. For the first time, fertilizing is applied on the 14th day after planting seedlings in open ground, choosing the basic composition NPK 16:16:16. The second time tomatoes are fertilized during the formation of the ovary, using Nitroammofoska with a high potassium content - it is this element that stimulates the production of vegetable sugar, due to which the fruits acquire a sweeter taste.
Each summer cottage has at least a small piece of land set aside for flowers. To make their flowering last longer, you cannot do without additional nutrition in spring and autumn. For this, Nitroammofosk is also useful, and you can fertilize flowers both at the root and on the leaf, using a solution of 2 tbsp. l of fertilizer and 10 l of water.
The same proportion is suitable for grapes, which, despite their southern "character", with a skillful combination of organic fertilizers and "chemistry" are successfully grown in central Russia.
Inexperienced summer residents confuse Nitroammofoska with other fertilizers similar in composition to it. The most common analogues:
This drug is often mistaken for Nitroammofosk, although the difference in their composition is significant - Nitroammophos does not contain potassium, therefore its use is limited and not always advisable.
Fertilizer, in addition to nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus, contains two more elements - sulfur and magnesium, while the amount of sulfur is at least 14% of the total amount of active substances. Ammophoska can be used indoors (hotbeds, greenhouses).
Almost exact analogue of Nitroammofoska. The nitrogen contained in its composition in nitrate form is quickly washed out of the soil, therefore, the period of exposure to the substance on plants is limited.
A three-element mineral complex containing the same basic active ingredients as Nitroammofosk. The proportional ratio of trace elements varies depending on the brand of fertilizer.
Each of the above can be used as a source of additional nutrition if its composition meets certain soil characteristics and plant requirements.
Fertilizer Nitroammofosk is an indispensable tool for farmers and gardeners. The composition of three important elements (nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus) provides sufficient nutrition for any horticultural and agricultural crops. The release of varieties of fertilizers with different percentages allows you to choose exactly the composition that is suitable for a particular type of soil and crops. However, when applying to the soil, you must strictly adhere to the instructions in order to avoid the accumulation of nitrates. Compliance with simple rules for storage and use will allow you to safely use the fertilizer and get a generous harvest.
The interference of chemistry in the production of a particular product is always noticeable. All of these stimulants have both positive and negative effects. Nitroammofosk is a potent chemical that can cause death for some horticultural crops.
The main and only criterion for the classification of nitroammophoska is the ratio of its components (nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium). Choosing the right ratio will have a beneficial effect on the quantity and quality of the crop. When choosing, you need to be guided by the composition of the land on which the processing is supposed to, as well as climatic conditions. For example, some horticultural crops require more phosphorus than potassium and vice versa.
The classic type of fertilizer - NPK 16:16:16 - the numbers show an equal percentage of the constituent elements. The total amount of nutrients in this case is 48%.
This type of nitroammophoska is used almost everywhere and is suitable for both pre-sowing and post-sowing fertilizing. It is easy to find in stores and can be bought absolutely in any part of the Russian Federation.
But each separate region of the Russian Federation, in addition to the classic type of stimulant, also has modified ones. This is due to the different characteristics of the soil and climate and allows you to individually prepare fertilizer for specific areas - in one area you can find something that is not found in others.
For some districts (for example, Voronezh), the amount of potassium must be increased in order to obtain a larger crop. The production of the company OJSC "Minudobreniya" is doing just that. They produce the same nitroammofosk, but in a different percentage. This is how NPKs arose 15:15:20 13:13:24 8:24:24.
JSC "Nevinnomyssky Azot", which is located in the city of the same name, produces agricultural chemicals of the "C" class. Moreover, it provides a wider choice in a combination of percentages: 10:26:26 10:10:10 20:20:20 15:15:15 17:17:17 17: 1: 28 20: 4: 20 and others.
The price range of fertilizers is set in accordance with such factors as: composition, cost of raw materials for production, transportation costs. For NPK 16:16:16, the price is about 10 thousand rubles. per ton.
As a rule, nitroammofoska is applied dry when digging a vegetable garden. A small dose of fertilizer can be added to the seedling hole. For loose soils, application is carried out in the spring, for heavy clay soils - in the fall (due to the long absorption). The standard portion for digging for NPK 1: 1: 1 is 30–35 g per 1 m 2.
Further, the mineral complex is used by watering, spraying or sprinkling the soil. The timing of the introduction depends on the purpose. Usually, gardeners carry out fertilizing with the NPK complex in several stages:
After applying any kind of fertilizer, the soil should be well moistened. Feeding can be done before rain.
So that the crop does not accumulate harmful substances, NPK feeding is stopped 3 weeks before harvesting. Autumn digging of the soil with the addition of nitroammophoska will prepare the plants for wintering. But there should be soil between the roots and the granules.
Nitroammophoska belongs to the group of explosive substances, therefore it is important to avoid overheating during storage, transportation and use. The complex can be stored exclusively in cool rooms made of brick or concrete. The ambient temperature should not exceed 25 degrees, and the air humidity level should not exceed 45-50%.
In the room where the nitroammophoska is stored, it is not allowed to use an open flame or any heating devices. NPK cannot be stored for longer than 6 months. After the expiration date, it largely loses its nutritional properties, becomes fire and explosive. Transportation of nitroammophos is allowed exclusively by land transport in bulk or packed. You can only buy a nitroammophoska made in strict accordance with GOST 19691-84.
The use of nitroammophoska has a beneficial effect on the qualitative and quantitative parameters of fruiting. The main components of this nutritional complex activate biochemical processes in plant tissues, thereby accelerating the growth of green mass and increasing the number of fruits.
The drug makes the seedlings resistant to fungal diseases, in addition, the introduction of nitroammofoska can scare off many pests, for example, a bear.
In the next video, you are waiting for top dressing of grapes at the root in the spring.