Our gardening is located near Ladoga. I have a plot of six acres, like everyone else, so every piece of land is registered, but I want to grow vegetables, strawberries, fruit trees, berry bushes, and flowers ... I have to plan everything strictly. For example, I plant potatoes on my site by the piece. Therefore, for a very long time I was interested in the question: how to grow the maximum yield of tubers? I read a lot, tried many ways. The harvest was usually not very high. Finally I decided: why is it necessary to plant on the ridges? I'll do the opposite!
She began by very carefully digging up potatoes and selecting future planting material. 7-10 days before cleaningI cut off all the tops
... Then, when the potatoes are dug up, I leave the harvest near each bush. And only after that I look through the tubers obtained from each bush.
From the most productive I select potatoes the size of a chicken egg for seeds.
I rinse it in a weak solution of potassium permanganate, dry it, be sure to green it. Only then I lay out on the nets, in each of which I put a note with the name of the variety. After harvesting, I burn the weeds and tops. The site is now clean.
And after that I start doing the opposite! Of course, I want to say right away that this method is quite laborious, it cannot be applied over a large area, but those who plan every meter of the site can easily master it.
So, I dig a trench one and a half bayonet deep with a shovel. I put all the waste from the garden in it: the remains of the topsbeets
, flowers. You can add leaves from the forest, etc. When the trench is completely filled, I begin to make the next one after 75 cm. I dig strictly along the cord. The trenches are oriented from north to south. The next trench, like the first, is also covered with waste. So I gradually dig out the number of trenches I need. Everything is ready for the spring planting.
I take out the potatoes and put them in boxes with low sides - 4-5 cm. The potatoes have already begun to sprout, so I handle them very carefully. I put boxes on cabinets, window sills. By the time of moving to the dacha, the tubers lose their turgor a little, that is, they become a little shriveled. But on the other hand, they have wonderful sprouts - thick, green. There are many of them, and each is covered with pimples. It seems, put the tuber in the ground, and roots will grow out of them instantly.
On May 1 - 2, I take the boxes with tubers to the dacha and proceed to the second stage. I put a layer of earth into the boxes (it must be warmed up to 18 ° C), put a layer of tubers on it, cover them with a 20 cm layer of earth on top and again put a layer of tubers, which I also cover with earth. And so I put several layers. I make up the boxes on the veranda.
After 10-12 days, roots appear. The potatoes are ready to plant. By May 12-15, the land on the site is warming up, you can start planting.
In the trench I sprinkle a layer of waste with superphosphate,
and sprinkle with earth with a layer of 1-2 cm. Then I pour the trenches with a solution of copper sulfate (2-5 g per 10 liters of water). And already on this pillow I lay out the tubers at a distance of 25 cm from each other. I take them out of the box very carefully, because they have sprouted well and have lush "beards" from the roots. Having spread out all the tubers in the trench, carefully sprinkle them with soil with a layer of 3-5 cm with a shovel from its sides. This waste pillow will be both drainage, and heating, and fertilizer. And now the landing is over.
At first, the neighbors asked: "What is your whole plot in some kind of ditches?" I just chuckled. Seedlings usually emerge quickly and potatoes grow very well. The leaves on the bushes are dark green, the stems are powerful. During the growth, I spud the planting 3-5 times. Before each hilling, I sprinkle the ground with ashes. When the plants reach a height of 10-15 cm, I spray fromlate blight
a solution of copper sulfate (5 g per 10 liters of water). After hilling, my trenches turn into tall, pointed pyramids, and a dark green forest flaunts above them.
Many, seeing the landing, ask: what is it? They do not believe that potato bushes can be so beautiful. But now the plants are picking up buds, they will soon bloom, and I cut off all the buds, do not let them bloom. Let all the power go to the tubers.
And now the long-awaited harvest time is approaching. 70 days before, Icut off the tops
... Digging potatoes is a favorite pastime. And this is understandable: the harvest is excellent! Under each bush there are large, clean, healthy tubers. From each bush I collect from one to three and a half kilograms of potatoes. I planted 69 tubers. Having collected the crop, I was not too lazy to weigh it. It turned out thatgot 161 kilograms of tubers
When I dig, I try to be very careful not to cut the tubers, because they are located in several tiers. I remember the first time I planted potatoes this way, I started digging and was upset. My daughter and I dug up the first bush. Before us lay about ten tubers the size of a hen's egg. It's a shame how! And the daughter says: "Mom, dig more!" I dug deeper, and there was another tier with medium-sized tubers. The next tier contained large potatoes. I think I'll dig with a shovel. I deepened it and gasped - there were 5 large tubers at the bottom. We weighed everything together - three kilograms seven hundred grams from a bush. That's the harvest!
Then I made sure that the number of tiers depends on the number of hilling. They say you can't spud potatoes - you won't get a harvest. So I came up with the idea of digging trenches so that there was more land for hilling.
It would seem that in the past rainy summer, with this method of cultivation, the tubers should have rotted. But everything worked out well. During harvesting, the potatoes turned out to be clean, without any damage. And there were no voids or black spots inside the large tubers. Apparently, all the waste that was laid in the trenches in the fall played the role of drainage. And in a dry year, they retained moisture. The harvest was also good.
In the same wayI also grow early potatoes
... On April 15-20, I cover the beds with foil for a week. After a week, I spill the trenches with a solution of copper sulfate. After planting the beds, I cover them with foil again. If the weather is warm, I fold the film during the day, but close it again at night. I get the same harvest, but 2-3 weeks earlier.
Maybe someone will be interested in what varieties I grow. I have never been particularly fond of foreign varieties. there isgood selection of varieties
our selection. Many thanks to our breeders for this. Here are some that made me happy with a good harvest: Very early and early: Spring pink, Pushkinets, Bullfinches. Middle and mid-season: Detskoselsky, Elizaveta, Charodey, Shaman, Gatchinsky, Petersburg. Mid-late: Glow, Temp, Sotka.
If you get a very good variety of tuber, then you can quickly multiply it. I am using two methods.
The first way: green the tuber, germinate and plant in a large container. When shoots appear 5-7 cm high,they must be carefully cut off with a blade
, leaving a stump of 1-2 cm. Then immediately plant in peat pots, leaving the top of the head 1-1.5 cm on the surface, and water. The survival rate is 100%. Thus, from one tuber you get 10-15 pots of seedlings. Each seedling will produce 3-5 excellent tubers by autumn. The planting material is ready.
Second way: germinate the tuber so that there are long shoots. To do this, first hold it in a dark, warm place. When long shoots appear, transfer to twilight. Then gradually move the tuber towards the light. When the sprouts turn green, cut them off with a blade, leaving a stump of 0.5 cm. Then cut them into divisions so that each has one internode. You can get up to 30 divisions from one potato. Place them on a damp cloth. When the sprouts appear, plant them in pots. One tuber made 30 potato bushes. This seedling potato should be planted on June 10-15.
If the sprouts are frozen, they will not recover. Therefore, it is worth covering them at night with a film. When planting, the pots must be removed. This is how the plants develop better.
L. Kyzurova, gardener.
In the pictures: this is the kind of crop obtained when growing potatoes in a trench way.
Photo by the author.
Gardeners know. That the more efficient the method of growing potatoes is applied to a particular variety, the more starchy root crop will be harvested at the end of ripening. Many breeders, for the sake of experiment, approach the cultivation of potatoes wisely, and use different methods of growing potatoes in the same area, choosing according to the result and efficiency the one that gives the most productive results in growing potatoes in a separate area.
Omitting the traditional technology of growing potatoes using the planting hole method, which is used by all gardeners without exception, it is worth talking about other, no less effective and easy-to-use methods of growing potatoes, which are successfully used all over the world.
Growing potatoes using the Dutch technology is widely used by gardeners all over the world, and therefore it makes sense to listen to their experience and repeat it on your personal plot, especially since this method provides a high-yielding potato cultivation without special costs for chemicals. This method is also interesting in that it can be successfully applied, and is used in those countries where frosts can fall on the soil even in warm months, that is, in May and even at the beginning of summer. The peculiarity of the Dutch method of growing potatoes is that the sprouted tubers are planted not to the depth of a shovel, but to a depth of 10 centimeters, after which the sprouted sprouts are covered with soil, and after re-germination, they are covered with soil again. As a result, the same depth of soil cover over the tubers is achieved as with the traditional planting method, but the effectiveness of this method allows you to protect the tubers from possible frost and results in a 25-30% higher yield from the same varieties when using the traditional planting method.
For a long time, new methods of growing potatoes were invented, which gave unexpected results, in some countries they are the main ones. In our country, such time-tested and newest potato growing technologies have proven themselves well:
And of course, tips for growing potatoes are not complete without such interesting methods as growing in a bag, in a barrel, under straw and without hilling, which we will discuss in more detail.
To grow potatoes in open soil, they need to be well and properly cared for, and this should be started before the shoots appear. The site needs to be loosened and weeded in a timely manner, in this case, the root crops in the ground will get air. Before the emergence of shoots, the surface of the soil can be loosened with a rake. After the potatoes come up, you need to regularly loosen the soil surface between the rows, and this should be done every time it rains or the plantings are watered. Avoid crusting on the soil.
Taking care of potatoes is relatively simple: you need to water it in a timely manner, loosen it, remove weeds, huddle, feed and process it from harmful insects and diseases.
Before buds begin to form on the bushes, this crop does not need to be watered. However, as soon as the budding period begins, care must be taken to ensure that the soil on the site is moist all the time. Watering should be done only after the land on the site dries out to 60–80 mm. Watering should be done in the evening, while 1 bush takes from 2 to 3 liters of water. When the site is watered, you should loosen its surface.
Over time, the grown bushes will need hilling, for this, the soil should be shoveled under the base of the potato, capturing it from the rows. As a result, the area will look ridged, even if a smooth planting method was used. Hilled bushes will not fall apart, and they will also grow stolons more actively, and they contribute to the formation of the crop. You need to spud potato bushes at least 2 times per season. The first hilling is carried out after the height of the bushes is 14-16 centimeters, and the plants should be hilled again 15-20 days later before they bloom. It is easiest to huddle the bushes when they are watered or it is raining.
For feeding this culture, organic matter is used, namely: a solution of chicken droppings or slurry. If necessary, the plants are fed with a solution of mineral fertilizer. But before you start feeding, you should think about what the composition of the soil is and how much fertilizer was added to it before planting the potatoes. Try not to disturb the nutrient balance of the soil, remember that applying a very large amount of fertilizer will have an extremely negative effect on the quality of the crop.
Presowing seed preparation before planting consists of many techniques, combining which gardeners get friendly shoots and high yields in the fall. Therefore, planting seeds begins with processing by methods that are known to most gardeners: selection and calibration, disinfection, bubbling, vernalization, warming, etc.
Potatoes are often called the second bread. This is because it ranks second in our diet.
Potatoes contain starch, proteins, fats and all kinds of mineral salts and vitamins.
Potatoes also have medicinal properties. Potato juice helps with constipation, gastritis, gastric ulcer, lowering pressure, and hypertension. It also helps with burns, eczema.
In Russia Potatoes began to be used relatively recently - no more than 200 years ago.
The peculiarity of potatoes is to form tubers. On the tuber there are eyes, which are buds formed in the axils of underdeveloped leaves. Most of the eyes are located at the top of the tuber, the least of all is the umbilical part attached to the stolon.
Potatoes have fibrous roots and are located at a depth of 20-25 cm. Potato tubers germinate at a temperature of 7-10 ° C, best of all at -16-18 ° C. Potatoes cannot stand frost even at -1 ° C, the tops die.
Potatoes are propagated with cut or whole tubers, that is, in a vegetative way.
Growing potatoes is not an easy task. There are many factors to consider. For example, the soil should be light, sandy, buildings or trees should not shade the site.
There are many varieties of potatoes. By ripening potatoes subdivide late ripening, mid-late, mid-season and on the early maturing... Seeds need to be renewed periodically, especially in the southern regions. Since, in hot and dry climates, potato tubers degenerate very quickly.
At the same time, due to careful preliminary pre-winter soil preparation, there are few weeds in the aisles. Therefore, the subsequent hilling of the ridges after planting is reduced to a minimum - no more than 1-2 times a season, and even then only in order to loosen the soil along the ridges. My experience shows that it is better to huddle the potatoes just before flowering, when the flower stalks have formed. After all, by this time the surviving weeds are just growing up, and therefore, together with hilling and loosening, you can
remove them quickly and effortlessly. To protect the plantings from the Colorado potato beetle, wireworm and moles, as well as for additional fertilization of the soil, I plant black beans in one line along the entire perimeter of the potato plot, which grow there until harvest. After digging out the potatoes, I cut the stems of these plants, grind them, put them in compost or embed them in the soil under warm beds for cucumbers. I think it will not be superfluous here to tell a story about harvesting potatoes.
This work is now also taking place in a lightweight mode for me. Since the roots with potatoes are mainly located in the tops of the ridges, only a small digging is enough for me so that the tubers are outside and they can be easily collected with minimal effort (photo 4).
A good harvest of any crop is impossible without a regular crop rotation. Therefore, as my many years of experience in gardening have shown, on the day of harvesting potatoes (while the soil remains loose), without any plowing, plant the plot with siderates. The best option, in my opinion, is rye, or even better, mixed with peas. I just scatter the seeds over the surface of the earth and then level everything with a rake.
Over the past 25 years of cultivating the land, I have already developed my own four-field crop rotation system. I divided the entire plot that I have allocated for a vegetable garden into four plots, where I alternate the cultivation of all the necessary vegetable crops (photo 5).
One of them, for example, is allocated for the same potatoes, the second is for onions and garlic, carrots and beets, the third is for cucumbers, zucchini, peas and beans, and the fourth is for strawberries (I grow tomatoes and peppers separately, in a greenhouse) ... Therefore, the next season, after harvesting potatoes on the plot where the potatoes were, I plant crops from the "second field". Then all other landings are sequentially alternated according to the worked out scheme. This better preserves the fertility of the soil, although before each next planting of potatoes and other vegetables, I regularly, in the spring and autumn, add organic matter. After all, the traditions of agriculture and the laws of nature have not yet been canceled.
© Author: Yuri Vasilievich KOROTKOV. Moscow
If it is possible to use tires from wheels, then they will also make an excellent vertical potato bed. You can immediately install several pieces one on top of the other, or build such a "leaning tower" gradually, as the potatoes grow.
First, you need to dig up the soil along the diameter of the wheel, add fertilizer or compost to the soil. Then the potatoes are planted with their eyes up. Now you need to put a tire around it and fill it to the top with light soil.
When the seedlings grow to a height of 15 cm, the second is placed on top of the first tire. The earth is also poured into it, this will simultaneously be "hilling".
You can stop at this, but it is better to use 1-2 more tires and also add earth as the potatoes grow. The harvest will certainly delight you.
If it is possible to use tires from wheels, then they will also make an excellent vertical potato bed.