Kidney currant mites - one of the main pests of currants - wake up very early, as soon as the temperature rises to 5-8 ° C, they crawl out onto twigs, crawl out of their hiding places, begin to feed and lay eggs. If not caught in time, then the currant bush can be completely affected by these mite buds.
What's bad about it: mite buds, as a rule, do not give any flowers and tassels, and if mites also spread, then they transmit such a dangerous viral disease as currant terry. His flower changes, it becomes with a large number of petals and he does not tie berries. It turns out that the bush is large, but stupid.
Let's see what the mite buds look like in the fall. Here is a twig, at the very tip it has a round bud, it differs from others, it contains more than one thousand ticks and laid eggs. This kidney must be removed. We'll find it yet. There are 3 of them at once, they are not elongated. They say that mite buds are like a cabbage roach when they start to bloom in the spring, but now they are just plump.
Be sure to take some kind of container with you, in no case do not throw it on the ground, they will calmly overwinter there, and then they will spread again through the plant. Further from here you need to put them into the fire, in no case do not throw them on the ground or in the compost.
What else can you do with currants? It has twisted twigs - these are branches that were infected with aphids and powdery mildew, here they have twisted leaves on them and they do not fall off. These twigs are still infected with aphids, eggs and powdery mildew spores can be laid, so we can cut it all off. Here is a good shoot and buds, and here is a curved one, we remove. Why? Because on this curved shoot, good strong shoots do not grow, they must be straight and even, neat, then something good will come out.
Such events can be held in the garden in November. And it's also a good idea to process currants and gooseberries against pests in the spring - see the video.
When growing fruit trees and shrubs, the gardener can face a variety of troubles in the form of diseases or pests of a particular plant. Some of them harm the bush itself, others also spread to the berries, but in any case, you will have to forget about the abundance of the harvest. In this article, we will talk about the most popular problems of currants and gooseberries, and how to recognize them and what you need to know about ways to overcome difficulties - you will learn further.
It should be delicious. Therefore, the tick never immediately sticks to the host's body, but for a long time and patiently searches for the most delicate skin, slowly moving upward. Given the difference in size between a tick and a person, the parasite has to travel long distances, so it may take several hours before the bite.
Ticks never immediately stick to a new host, but patiently look for a suitable place
If a person is well equipped - dressed in closed clothes and the parasite has no access to the skin, it will take much more time. The tick will be forced to climb higher and higher, in search of a possible loophole. He cannot bite through clothes. But on the other hand, it very easily finds all kinds of defects, holes, tears of fabric. And due to its small size, it easily penetrates through them, finding itself directly on the human skin. At this point, he is already very close to success. Only the vigilance and attentiveness of a potential host can prevent him.
Wearing the right outdoor clothing will protect you from tick bites
While walking in the woods, periodically inspect yourself and loved ones for ticks. This simple action will protect against an unpleasant bite, and possibly more serious consequences.
When choosing a bite site, ticks are guided by many factors. Since human skin is heterogeneous and different areas differ in temperature, degree of humidity, saturation of blood vessels, softness or roughness, acid-base balance, the mite faces a difficult task - to find exactly the place that is best suited for effective nutrition.
Most often, parasites choose:
But if for some reason it was not possible to get there, they also do not disdain lower-quality areas, such as the chest, abdomen, buttocks or even legs.
When biting animals, an important factor is also the inaccessibility of the chosen place for combing, gnawing or crushing the parasite during self-cleaning. Therefore, a tick can often be found:
That is, in those places where the tick can least of all suffer during the self-cleaning of the animal.
Ticks in the ear of an animal are common after a walk
Vitamins play a huge role in all vital processes of the body. They regulate metabolism, participate in the formation of enzymes and hormones, in oxidative reactions, and increase.
Vitamins play a huge role in all vital processes of the body. They regulate metabolism, participate in the formation of enzymes and hormones, in oxidative reactions, increase the body's resistance to various diseases, to the effects of toxins, radionuclides, low or high temperatures and other harmful environmental factors.
Vitamins are practically not synthesized in the body. Only a few of the B vitamins in small quantities are formed in the intestine as a result of the vital activity of microorganisms existing there. And also vitamin D is synthesized in human skin under the influence of sunlight, which, unfortunately, does not pamper us so often. The main sources of vitamins are various foods.
It is especially important to have sufficient intake of vitamins in the body during preschool age, which is characterized by the intensive development and formation of various organs and systems, the intensity of metabolic processes, and the improvement of the structure and functions of the central nervous system.
Children usually lack vitamins C, group B, as well as vitamin A and beta-carotene. This negatively affects the health of children, there is increased fatigue, lethargy, a slowdown in the pace of physical development, a weakening of immunological protection, which leads to an increase in morbidity, a protracted course of pathological processes.
Hypovitaminosis is aggravated by the presence of various chronic pathologies in children, especially from the digestive system.
Most often, hypovitaminosis develops as a result of violations in the organization of nutrition - with insufficient inclusion in the diet of fresh vegetables and fruits, dairy products, meat, fish. Of great importance are violations of cooking technology, improper processing of products, as a result of which there is a significant decrease in their vitamin value.
For the purpose of prevention, it is necessary to regularly include a sufficient amount of foods, which are the main sources of vitamins, in the diets of children.
The main sources of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) are various vegetables, fruits, berries, herbs, and potatoes. Unfortunately, during storage, the content of vitamin C in foods decreases markedly, for example, in potatoes. Vitamin C is better preserved in an acidic environment (sauerkraut), as well as in canned foods stored without air access (salted vegetables, herbs).
Vitamin B1 (thiamine) is of great importance for the normal functioning of the digestive and central nervous systems, takes an active part in metabolic processes.
With its lack in the body, increased fatigue, muscle weakness, irritability, and decreased appetite are noted. It is noted that vitamin B1 deficiency develops as a result of insufficient content in the diet of vegetable oils, which are the main sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids.
Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) plays an important role in carbohydrate and protein metabolism, promotes energy production in the body, ensures the normal functioning of the central nervous system, promotes better absorption of food, and maintains normal skin and mucous membranes.
With a lack of this vitamin, a drop in body weight is noted, weakness develops, the skin becomes dry, cracks and crusts appear in the corners of the mouth ("seizures"). With a pronounced deficiency of vitamin B2, inflammation of the mucous membrane of the eyes (conjunctivitis) and the oral cavity (stomatitis) may develop.
The main sources of vitamin B2 are dairy products, meat, offal, eggs, brewer's and baker's yeast.
It actively participates in protein and carbohydrate metabolism.
Supports the digestive system in good condition, heals the skin.
Lack of vitamin can manifest itself in drowsiness, depression, dental caries and bad breath are also possible.
Increases immunity, normalizes the functioning of the nervous system. Improves fat metabolism in atherosclerosis, increases urination. Lack of vitamin can cause seborrhea and dermatitis.
Vitamin A (retinol) is necessary to maintain normal vision, growth processes, and good condition of the skin and mucous membranes. It is directly involved in the formation of visual purpura in the retina, a special light-sensitive substance. Vitamin A plays a certain role in the development of immunity.
With a deficiency of this vitamin, visual acuity at dusk first of all decreases, the so-called "night blindness" develops in children, growth retardation, a decrease in resistance to infectious diseases are noted.
The richest in vitamin A are fish oil, butter, offal, egg yolk, cheese. Vegetable products contain carotene, from which vitamin A is produced. Carotene is rich in green parts of plants, as well as orange and red vegetables and fruits.
The role and importance of vitamin D, sources of vitamin.
Vitamin D is found in fermented milk products, cottage cheese and cheese, vegetable and butter, raw seafood yolks, fish liver - especially halibut and cod in fish oil, herring, tuna, mackerel, mackerel. Oatmeal, potatoes, parsley, as well as some herbs - dandelion greens, nettle, are also sources of vitamin D. Vitamin D can be synthesized in the body under the influence of sunlight. It is the sun that is the main stimulus for the production of this vitamin in the skin. When the body gets enough sunlight, enough vitamin D is produced, but certain conditions are necessary for this. For example, the time of day matters: in the morning, after sunrise, and in the evening, at sunset, vitamin D is produced more actively by skin color and age: in fair skin, more vitamin D is produced, and with age, the skin synthesizes it less and less.
Why do we need vitamin D and what does it do for our body? Its main task is to help the body absorb calcium so that our bones and teeth form correctly and are healthy. The strength of our skeleton and the correct shape of our bones depend on the content of vitamin D.
This is especially important for women, as they lose more calcium than men when carrying and breastfeeding children. If a woman does not have enough vitamin D, then with age she develops osteoporosis - a very dangerous disease in which the bones become thinner and become fragile. The normal functioning of the thyroid gland, blood coagulability, the state of the membranes that protect nerve cells also depend on whether our body normally receives vitamin D. Otherwise, immunity weakens, heart function is disrupted, blood pressure becomes unstable, diseases such as multiple sclerosis, leukemia, ovarian and prostate cancer. We need vitamin D daily, from 5 to 10 mcg. Unlike other vitamins, vitamin D is required more by children than by adults: during the period of active growth, its daily intake may even be more than 10 μg.
Finding vitamin PP in foods is as easy as shelling pears. It is found in the following foods: carrots, broccoli, dates, cheese, cornmeal, peanuts, milk, potatoes, wheat germ, tomatoes, and whole grains.
Vitamin PP is also found in many herbs: burdock root, dandelion leaves, raspberry leaves, fennel, chamomile, fenugreek, nettle, parsley, myta, sage, sorrel - all these herbs are rich in vitamin PP.
Promotes the normal functioning of the nervous system and mucous membranes, heals the skin. Participates in the regulation of carbohydrate, protein and water - salt metabolism, normalizes blood cholesterol levels, increases the acidity of gastric juice, dilates small blood vessels. Lack of vitamin A can cause dryness, inflammation and roughness of the skin, as well as flaking.
Proper culinary processing of food is of great importance in the preparation of various dishes. Its main goal is to strive to make food digestible, tasty, and at the same time preserve the nutritional and biological value of the products used as much as possible.
Milk and dairy products are most often used in baby food. Therefore, you need to be especially careful when processing them. To maintain its high biological value, milk should not be subjected to prolonged and repeated boiling, during which vitamins are destroyed and proteins are denatured - they become difficult to digest. When preparing cereals, vegetable purees and other dishes that contain milk, it is used raw, added to well-boiled cereals or vegetables, and brought to a boil.
Cottage cheese in baby food is consumed only after heat treatment, which is carried out immediately before feeding the children, in order to avoid reheating. Cooking curd dishes in a water bath ensures better preservation of nutrients.
Frozen meat should be thawed at room temperature. Thawing in warm water is unacceptable, as this results in a significant loss of meat juice. The meat is boiled over low heat, as when boiling strongly, its proteins become denser and become difficult to digest. Minced meat should be cooked just before cooking, which should also be done shortly before feeding children to avoid reheating food.
It is better to use fish in the form of fillets, it is easier to process.But you can take any lean river and sea fish. Frozen fish (fillets) are thawed at room temperature, and small river fish - in cold salt water (for 1 kg of fish 2 liters of water and 15-18 g of salt).
Heat treatment of fish should not be long. Small pieces are boiled for about 10 minutes, whole fish weighing 300-400 g - 20-25 minutes. When cooking, fish is placed in boiling water and then boiled over low heat.
Eggs are very nutritious. Eggs of the spring-summer season are especially useful, when chickens spend most of the day outdoors and receive a lot of vitamins. Before heat treatment, eggs must be thoroughly washed in water with salt, since their shells are contaminated, including pathogenic microbes.
Vegetables are the main carriers of vitamins and minerals and therefore should be widely used in baby food. However, when cooking them, it is especially important to follow the technological rules. Before cooking, vegetables must be thoroughly washed (if they are heavily soiled, they are washed with a brush in several waters). Almost all vegetables should be peeled (only tomatoes, young cucumbers, radishes are not peeled). The peel must be removed with a thin layer, since it is in the outer parts of the fruit that the maximum amount of vitamins and minerals is contained. The peeled vegetables are washed again in running water. If vegetables are eaten raw, scald them with boiling water. Peeled, and even more so, chopped vegetables cannot be left in water for a long time (no more than 2 hours), since in this case vitamins and minerals are washed out and the product largely loses its beneficial properties.
To preserve the maximum amount of vitamins, peeled vegetables are best steamed. To prepare salads or vinaigrettes, washed vegetables in a peel are boiled under a lid in such an amount of water that it slightly covers them. So, potatoes, cabbage, carrots are boiled for no more than 25-30 minutes, beets - 1-1.5 hours, sorrel, spinach - only 10 minutes. When preparing puree, vegetables are rubbed hot, then immediately mixed with hot milk and brought to a boil.
Fruits and berries are best given to children fresh, but you can cook compotes, jelly from them, add to cereals. For use, raw fruits and berries should be carefully sorted out, rinsed in running water, if necessary, peel the skin (as thin as possible). This should be done immediately before feeding the children, since when peeled and chopped fruits are stored in the air, the amount of vitamins, especially vitamin C, sharply decreases in them.
To prepare compotes or jelly, juice is squeezed out of fruits washed and scalded with boiling water, the pomace is dipped in cold water and boiled (the juice is stored in a sealed container in the cold). The cooked pomace is strained, part of the broth is cooled, starch is diluted in it, with which the boiling broth is brewed. Squeezed juice is added to the finished jelly.
Dried fruits are used mainly for the preparation of stewed fruit or jelly, as well as additives to cereals. To do this, they are sorted out, thoroughly washed, poured with cold water and brought to a boil, after which they are insisted for 2-3 hours.
All grain products must undergo thermal processing, since the starch contained in them in raw form is not digested in the gastrointestinal tract. Semolina porridge is cooked for 10-15 minutes, rice and millet porridge - up to 40-60 minutes, buckwheat - 1.5 hours, pearl barley - 2-2.5 hours.
Before heat treatment, the cereals should be sorted out, rinsed in warm water (rice and millet in several waters). Only finely crushed cereals (semolina, corn, wheat) are not washed. Buckwheat can be lightly fried in a pan.
When preparing milk porridges, the cereals are first boiled in water (or half-and-half with milk), then hot milk is added and brought to a boil.
Pasta is immersed in boiling salted water, boiled until tender, then thrown into a colander and washed with hot boiled water. During cooking, pasta absorbs a lot of water, so they must be cooked in a large volume of water (for 1 kg - 3-4 liters).
Signs that appear with a lack of vitamins in children:
- increased susceptibility to infectious diseases
- children lagging behind in growth and development
- decreased emotional activity, lethargy, irritability