Cyclamen: growing from seeds, transplanting and reproduction, species, photo


Houseplants Published: 03 February 2012 Reprinted: Last edits:

Botanical description

Cyclamen (Latin Cyclamen) belongs to the Primroses family and has 20-55 species. The plant lives in Asia Minor, Central and Mediterranean Europe.
Representatives of the genus are herbaceous perennials. Tuberous root, thick. The leaves grow from the root and are attached to long stalks, are colored green, sometimes decorated with silvery patterns. The flowers are drooping, growing on long peduncles. Depending on the species, the flowering period is in the spring or winter.
Indoor cyclamen is quite easy to grow and it will bloom in an apartment for more than one year. But the plant has one feature - in hot conditions, the home cyclamen sheds its leaves and stops blooming, because in natural conditions, it blooms at low temperatures. To date, many varieties have been bred that make it easier to grow cyclamen at home.

Briefly about growing

  • Bloom: usually from late October to March.
  • Lighting: bright diffused light.
  • Temperature: in summer - from 20 to 25 ºC, in winter - from 10 to 14 ºC.
  • Watering: through the pallet: during flowering - plentiful: the substrate should be slightly damp all the time, after flowering is completed, watering is gradually reduced, and when the cyclamen leaves dry up, the substrate is watered only so that it does not dry through.
  • Air humidity: increased. It is recommended to regularly spray the cyclamen with warm water until buds appear, then stop spraying and place the flower pot on a tray with wet pebbles.
  • Top dressing: from the moment the leaves appear until the buds appear - once a month with a complex fertilizer for ornamental deciduous plants, and from the moment the buds appear, fertilizers for flowering indoor plants are used in the same mode.
  • Rest period: usually from May to July.
  • Transfer: annually in August-September, as soon as leaves appear from the tuber.
  • Substrate: 2-3 parts of leafy land and one part of humus, peat and sand.
  • Reproduction: seeds, tubers.
  • Pests: cyclamen mites, grape weevils.
  • Diseases: gray rot and problems arising from poor care and improper housing conditions.
  • Properties: poisonous juice of cyclamen tubers can cause vomiting, diarrhea and cramps!

Read more about growing cyclamen below.

Photo of cyclamen

Cyclamen care at home

Lighting

The optimal location of the cyclamen plant for full development is windows on the east and west sides. Since the plant does not tolerate direct sunlight, it is advisable to place the plant away from the window when located on the southern windows or create diffused lighting. On the northern side of the world, the plant will not be enough for full development and flowering.

Temperature

A temperature of 10 to 14 ° C in winter will allow the cyclamen to develop normally and bloom profusely. In summer, temperatures can range from 20 to 25 ° C.

Watering cyclamen

The water should be soft, a couple of degrees below the temperature in the room, and it should be allowed to stand a day before watering. When the plant blooms, water it abundantly, making sure that the soil does not dry out and does not become waterlogged. It is best to water from a pallet so that water does not get into the core, on the tuber and on the cyclamen buds. Excess water from the pallet must be drained 2-3 hours after watering. When the plant has faded, watering is reduced, and after the leaves dry up and the tubers are exposed, they are very rarely watered.

Spraying

To increase the humidity, the plant must be sprayed with settled or rain water, but only until the cyclamen buds. When the buds are tied on the plant, spraying is stopped, and instead the pot with the plant is placed on a tray with damp pebbles or peat, preventing the bottom of the pot from touching the water.

Top dressing of cyclamen

It is necessary to feed cyclamen at home with organic or complete mineral fertilizers from the moment the leaves begin to appear until the beginning of flowering. The tuber can rot from excess nitrogen fertilizers.

Dormant period

When the plant begins to lose foliage, a dormant period begins. Watering needs to be reduced, and with complete exposure of the plant, practically stop. The room where the home flower cyclamen stands is regularly ventilated, and it is better to take the plant out to the balcony closed from the sun. In August-September, the cyclamen plant is placed in a bright place and they begin to gradually increase watering. It is possible to store cyclamen in room conditions in another way - after the end of flowering, watering is reduced, and after the leaves have completely fallen off, the pot is turned over 90 degrees and stored so until the end of summer - early autumn.

Bloom

Indoor cyclamen can bloom for up to 15 years in a row, and produce about 70 flowers every year. Faded flowers need to be pinched off near the tuber along with the pedicel - you cannot cut it off - and sprinkle the place of rupture with charcoal powder.

Cyclamen transplant

Home cyclamen is transplanted in August-September, as soon as leaves begin to grow from the tuber. The pot is chosen wide, and the soil mixture should be loose, with an acidity of 5.5 to 6 and consist of two to three parts of leafy soil and one part of peat, sand and humus. Another soil option is leafy, humus soil and sand (4: 2: 1). If the pH is above 6.5, then the risk of cyclamen disease with fungal diseases increases. Rotting roots must be removed and healthy ones should not be damaged. From 1/3 to 1/2 of the tuber should be above the substrate, which will allow the plant to bloom more abundantly. There must be good drainage at the bottom of the pot to avoid root rot.

Cyclamen seeds

To get cyclamen seeds at home, you need to transfer pollen from the flower of one plant to the flower of another with a soft brush. If there is only one cyclamen, then the pollen is transferred from one flower to another. For greater efficiency, this procedure should be done on a clear morning and repeated several times. It will also not be superfluous at this time to feed the plant with a fertilizer solution (1 l of water, 1 g of superphosphate and 0.5 g of potassium sulfate). So that the similarity of the seeds does not decrease, they do not need to be narrowed after collection. The quality of purchased seeds depends on their batch.

Growing from seeds

Cyclamen seeds are sown at the end of August. The seeds are poured with a 5% sugar solution and the floating seeds are discarded. Only seeds that have sunk to the bottom are suitable for planting. After that, the seeds are soaked in a Zirconium solution. The seeds are spread on top of a moistened soil mixture (1 to 1 peat and sand or 1 to 1 vermiculite and peat), after which they are sprinkled with a centimeter layer of the same substrate. The container is covered with an opaque plastic wrap, the soil is periodically moistened and aired, and the temperature is kept strictly at 18 to 20 ° C. Cyclamen seedlings should germinate within 4-6 weeks, after which the film is removed, the temperature is reduced to 15-17 ° C, and the container is placed in a bright place without direct sun. After the appearance of small nodules and 2-3 leaves, the seedlings dive into pots with a substrate of 4 parts of leafy soil, 2 parts of peat and 1 part of sand. The nodules, unlike adult tubers, are completely covered with earth. After a week, it is advisable to fertilize the seedlings with flower fertilizers diluted in half. At the end of spring, they are transplanted into separate pots, and young plants should bloom for about 15 months.

Virulence

The juice of tubers and other parts of Persian cyclamen contains toxic substances that can cause convulsions, diarrhea and vomiting.

Healing properties

Infusion of cyclamen helps in neuralgia, colic and digestive disorders, rheumatism and flatulence.

Diseases and pests

Cyclamen leaves turn yellow. Leaves from watering with too hard water may turn yellow, while the petioles will not change color.

Cyclamen is rotting. With poor drainage, the water will stagnate in the pot, which will lead to rotting of the tuber.

Cyclamen roots rot. With excessive watering, leaf stalks and peduncles begin to rot, after which the plant dies.

Cyclamen leaves fall. Leaves turn yellow and fall off if the air temperature is too high and the humidity is low.

Gray rot on cyclamen. It suffers from gray rot if the cyclamen is kept at a low temperature without ventilation.

Cyclamen pests. If the plant is affected by a cyclamen mite, then it must be destroyed. Symptoms of damage: the leaves do not grow to their normal size and change shape, the peduncles are bent, the buds bend, and the flowers wither.

The grape weevil also feasts on cyclamen. As a result of defeat, the stems break and die. You need to check the soil for the presence of weevil larvae.

Views

Cyclamen europaeum

This species is distinguished by the absence of a dormant period - the leaves do not fall off. The leaves are small (up to 4 cm in diameter). The flowers smell nice, pink, up to 2 cm long. This species suits the year-round temperature around 20 ° C and 30% humidity. The plant should not be exposed to the sun. It grows best in the substrate: one part of sand and two parts of humus, leaf, turf and peat. This species is propagated mainly by dividing the tuber.

Cyclamen persicum / Cyclamen persicum

Rhizome is a tuber with roots on its lower part. The leaves grow in a rosette at the top of the tuber, leathery to the touch, bluish or dark green in color with a silvery pattern. Flowers in different varieties are both large and small, lilac, pink, white, red, purple.

Literature

  1. Read the topic on Wikipedia
  2. Features and other plants of the family Primroses
  3. List of all species on The Plant List
  4. More information on World Flora Online
  5. Indoor Plants Information
  6. Information about medicinal plants

Sections: Houseplants Beautiful flowering Medicinal plants on C Primroses (Primrose)


Cyclamen care

Cyclamen: growing and care at home. As a forcing plant, Persian cyclamen will decorate any room in late autumn and winter, during its flowering period, from October to May, depending on the variety.

For flowering specimens, the best place is a well-ventilated and lighted window without a heater. The optimum temperature during flowering is 12-15 degrees. High temperatures shorten the flowering period. During flowering, watering should be regular, but careful, with soft water. Humidity is moderate. Do not allow the earthen coma to dry out and the ingress of water on the tuber. During the rest period, watering is reduced, trying not to bring the substrate to complete drying, there is no special need for nutrition.

The indoor plant cyclamen does not tolerate an excess of mineral salts in the soil, therefore, mineral fertilizers are applied to soil mixtures for young plants in minimal quantities. But if the plant is pale, then once every two weeks it should be fed with liquid fertilizer, starting with the growth of leaves and until budding. During flowering, no more than once a month with a weak solution. After flowering cyclamen stop feeding.


Conditions for disembarkation

Create a suitable environment on the site.

Location selection, lighting

Dubrovnik loves light. The bigger, the better. It will also tolerate light shading without problems. But in the shade, the perennial shoots will stretch out, and the flowering will not be so abundant. For greenery, protection from drafts and strong winds is also important.

In nature, Dubrovnik grows on sands, rocks, rocky surfaces. In the garden, he will also need a light, lime-rich soil with excellent drainage. Nutritional value is optional. The culture will normally take root without an abundance of useful microelements. But for its overall health, rapid growth and lush flowering, experts still advise fertilizing when planting: 5-7 kg of organic composition per 1 sq. m.

Some undersized species are sometimes grown in tubs. In this case, the plant is more demanding for the composition of the soil. It is necessary to use a nutritious soil with the addition of peat (2: 1). Also, when planting, add 30 g of mineral fertilizer.

Temperature and humidity recommendations

In the open air, the oak tree grower can endure any heat. A perennial plant is also tolerant to cold. Different species hibernate at temperatures down to -15 o C. In the windy continental climate of the middle zone and neighboring regions, it is better to protect the southern culture for the winter with a light cover: spruce branches, fallen leaves. There are no moisture requirements.


Cultivation of aubriets from seeds

Seed propagation for this type of plant gives rather high shoots. However, it is best to take advantage of growing seedlings, which can then be transplanted, as sowing seeds directly into the soil can cause the variety to split. In this case, it is possible to expect the beginning of flowering of the aubrieta only in the spring. The seeds are sold in shops selling garden products.

Sowing is best done before the onset of the spring thaw. This time falls around the end of February. They are sown in small pots, which are filled with a mixture of peat and humus. From these containers, then young seedlings will be planted in open ground. Before planting, the soil is pre-moistened, then seeds are placed on its surface, which are sprinkled with a small amount of sand. It also needs to be watered on top. The planted crops are covered with a protective film. In order for the seeds to start germinating, it is necessary to maintain a constant temperature, which should be between 18 and 21 degrees.

Seedling care rules

As a rule, sowing seedlings from seeds is time-consuming and must be looked after with great care. Do not forget to air and water every day. The first shoots begin to appear after a few weeks. As soon as the green leaves become visible, you can remove the protective film. Try not to overflow the seedlings, as the aubrieta does not tolerate excess moisture. If you feel that the seedlings are not yet fully matured for transplanting and are not developing enough, then the plant can be fed. For these purposes, a mixture of mineral fertilizers diluted in low concentration is used.

Aubrieta is difficult to take root during transplantation and most often dies. In this regard, a flower grown at home on a windowsill is not suitable for picking. If there is a desire to completely eliminate the intermediate transplanting of seedlings, it is necessary to sow seeds for seedlings in different pots.


Diseases and pests

In apartment conditions, jacaranda can be attacked by: aphids, whiteflies, scale insects and spider mites.

A small whitefly midge signals its appearance by green larvae on the underside of the leaves. They suck the sap from the plant, which provokes yellowing and foliage. In the fight against them, insecticides, applied twice a week, help; it is advisable to collect the larvae by hand.

Aphids also damage the leaves and cause them to curl. Young shoots are also damaged by aphids. Damaged leaves and young ones become sticky. If the plant is not badly damaged, you can do with soapy water, otherwise Fitoverm, Deris are used.

When a spider mite is affected, the thinnest cobweb appears on the underside of the leaf. The main reason for the appearance of a tick is a lack of moisture in the air. Jacaranda is treated with insectoacaricides, air humidity is maintained in the room, leaves are sprayed.

If the tree is not given proper attention, it can get sick.

  • Dry air, soil, cold and drafts will cause the leaves to curl and turn yellow.
  • Soil deficient in iron, sulfur and zinc can lead to leaf chlorosis.
  • Drainage of the soil is required, do not get carried away by overflow - this leads to root rot.


Brief description of cultivation

  1. Bloom... It starts in the last winter weeks and lasts approximately 30 days.
  2. Illumination... Needs bright, but diffused light, the duration of daylight hours is about 12 hours.
  3. Temperature regime... In winter - 14-18 degrees, and in summer - 18-28 degrees. Make sure that the temperature in the room where the flower is located is not less than 10 degrees.
  4. Watering... Bottom watering is recommended. During the growing season, it should be moderate and carried out immediately after the top layer of the potted substrate has dried. In winter, it is necessary to water the flower only after the soil mixture dries out by 1/3 of the depth.
  5. Air humidity... It grows well with the air humidity usual for living rooms. However, on hot days, it is recommended to systematically moisten the flower from a sprayer with lukewarm water.
  6. Fertilizer... In the summer and autumn (during the formation of buds), it is necessary to feed the bush once a week, for this, fertilizer is used for succulent plants and cacti. You can feed the Kalanchoe with organics no more than 1 time in 2 weeks.
  7. Pruning... When the bush fades, all flower stalks are removed.
  8. Dormant period... It begins immediately after flowering and lasts approximately 30–45 days.
  9. Transfer... This procedure is carried out only when necessary when the root system becomes too crowded in the pot. The flower is transplanted at the beginning of the growing season.
  10. Soil mixture... For growing crops, you can use a ready-made soil mixture intended for cacti and succulent plants. A substrate consisting of leafy and soddy soil, sand and peat (2: 4: 1: 1) is also suitable.
  11. Reproduction... By cuttings and seed method.
  12. Harmful insects... Mealybugs, scale insects, spider mites, aphids.
  13. Diseases... Powdery mildew, late blight, gray rot, stem rot, annular leaf spot.
  14. Properties... Such a plant is medicinal. It has antimicrobial, hemostatic, anti-inflammatory, wound healing and disinfectant properties.


Diseases and pests of cyclamen

Fusarium wilting

Fusarium is a fungal disease caused by the fungus Fusarium, under its influence, the vascular system and plant tissues are affected. The disease has several names: "drying out", "core rot", "dry rot".

With fusarium wilting, damage and death of plants occur due to a sharp violation of vital functions due to clogging of blood vessels by the mycelium of the fungus and the release of toxic substances by them. The pathogens persist for a long time in the soil and on plant debris, and enter plants through the root system and the lower part of the stem.

Symptoms: Outwardly, the disease manifests itself in the yellowing of the leaves, which begins from the tops. Often, yellowing and wilting of leaves occurs on one side of the plant. The second side of the cyclamen can continue to grow, but it is difficult to wait for good flowering from such a plant. The fungus enters the plant through young roots and spreads through the tuber. The affected tissues are destroyed, the general appearance of the plant deteriorates. On the cut of the tuber, the affected vascular bundles are visible.

Control measures: watering plants under the root with foundationol (0.1%), spraying the aboveground mass with topsin-M (0.1%).

Wet rot

This is a very dangerous bacterial disease. Caused by the pathogen Erwinia.

Symptoms: the disease begins with the fact that the plant suddenly withers, the leaves and flower stalks hang from the pot, an unpleasant putrid smell appears from the infected tuber. Cyclamen roots also begin to rot. The bacterium enters the plant through cracks and wounds on the tuber or vegetative organs. Often, cyclamen infection occurs in places where leaves or peduncles are torn off. The source of infection is contaminated water or a diseased plant. The appearance of the disease is facilitated by warm and humid weather in summer when cyclamens are kept in the garden, on the balcony, on the loggia.

Control measures: does not exist, cyclamen must be destroyed in order to prevent disease of other plants.

Gray rot

Botrytis cinerea infects plants that are weakened due to poor positioning, and is especially dangerous in damp and cold air. Spores of the fungus are spread by wind and water. Infection occurs at high humidity, high density of cyclamens and at cold night content. Improper watering, water ingress into the “point of growth” of leaves and buds contributes to the development of this disease in the plant.

Symptoms: gray mold appears on the leaves and stems of cyclamen, which takes off with a strong movement of air, the affected parts of the plant darken and die off. Peduncles are especially susceptible to this disease. Cyclamen leaves turn yellow and die.

Control measures: Carefully remove the affected plant parts. Ventilate the area, but avoid drafts. Spray cyclamen less often, water less (preferably in the morning, so that the soil has time to dry out during the day). The diseased plant is treated with a systemic fungicide.

Root rot

Root rot is caused by various fungi (Rhizoctonia solani, Ramularia cyclaminicola), pathogens living in the soil. The disease occurs when cyclamen is planted in ordinary garden soil that has not been steamed. The disease often attacks young cyclamens, slowing their growth.

Symptoms: dark, non-viable areas appear on the roots of young and adult cyclamens. Symptoms appear on the leaves, as if they do not have enough chlorophyll: the leaves turn pale, as they lack nutrition due to damaged roots.

Control measures: use only sterilized soil for planting cyclamens. If the cyclamen is sick, try spilling the soil with a systemic fungicide. But this measure is not always effective. It will most likely fail to save a young cyclamen. You may need to break up with your pet. You can try to save an adult cyclamen. It must be removed from the pot, rinsed and damaged roots removed, then treated with a fungicide and planted in a steamed earth mixture.

Anthracnose

Caused by a fungus of the genus Gloeosporium. It is a soil fungus that harms cyclamens during flowering. The disease develops in warm and humid conditions.

Symptoms: the growth zone of leaves and peduncles is affected. The disease can go unnoticed for some time, until the cyclamen releases flower stalks. The affected peduncles stop developing, look distorted, the upper part of the peduncles seems to dry out. Flowering does not occur, since the peduncles do not develop. From contact with infected peduncles, leaves are infected. Young leaves around the edges dry out and curl, old leaves dry up and die off.

Control measures: Use parboiled soil to prevent disease. Try to keep humidity levels relatively low when symptoms appear. Remove damaged stems and leaves. Treat the diseased plant with fungicides 2-3 times.

Sooty fungus

Symptoms: black fungus appears on the sweetish secretions that aphids leave on the leaves. An ugly-looking fungus plaque in itself is not dangerous to the plant, but it clogs the stomata and blocks the surface of the leaf from light, as a result of which growth slows down and the plant weakens. Affected leaves dry out over time if the necessary measures are not taken.

Control measures: soot plaque is washed off with a wet cloth moistened with a 2% solution of green soap, followed by treatment with a copper-soap solution, then the plant is washed with clean warm water. You can treat cyclamen with a fungicide.


Watch the video: Potting on the seedlings at the end of March 21 @stinky ditch nursery


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