The dacha is getting better - we change the landscape of the site with our own hands

So the next summer cottage season has begun, and we are all starting to bring to life what we have outlined in the winter, or what we did not manage to do in the past. In winter, I often went through the photographs taken on the site last summer, and thought that summer residents are such a people for whom it is not enough to admire the work of their own hands, surprise their neighbors, but I also want to tell everyone about their successes, and also to be curious about the achievements of others, too. keen on transforming their acres, borrow something interesting from them.

Last summer did not please gardeners and summer residents with the weather, and the harvest was worse than usual. For example, my cabbage was eaten by slugs, the harvest of onions and garlic turned out to be less. However, there were also results that were pleasing. The tomatoes, thanks to the glazed greenhouse, were good, the last fruits I removed from the plants at the end of September. It is important that all tomatoes are ripe on the bushes.

Cucumbers and potatoes also delighted with the harvest. I plant 4-5 cucumber plants in a greenhouse, and they hung there in clusters in the fall, it was even a pity that the frost had begun, I had to urgently remove them. And in the open field, I also planted six cucumbers with seedlings, of course, covering the plantings with foil, and then every morning I found one missing plant in the garden bed: and it was always the same - the stem was gnawed by someone. I tried to save them by adding various hot spices - pepper, mustard, in order to scare off the pest. But it did not help. I was constantly planting new seedlings, and then I decided that if the snails were harmful, then I would make "collars" out of plastic bottles to prevent them from getting close to the stem. I cut the rings out of the bottle, made a cut, and put them on each plant. After that, all the cucumbers were alive and well and also gave a good harvest. This season I decided that I would sprinkle crushed eggshells around the cucumbers: since they are afraid of being scratched, then there is a chance to protect themselves from them.

I devoted most of my time and effort to design - for the fifth year in a row, but this process is probably endless. I don't really like the clear geometry at the dacha, but since I acquired a plot already with buildings and trees, I became attached to their location, and therefore began to adapt my fantasies to this situation. The plants, which in 2007 I chose in the Severnaya Flora firm for their certificate to me, as the winner of the competition of the Flora Price magazine, also made adjustments. It was a few spirits, hydrangeas, a bubblegum, chrysanthemums - for all of them it was necessary to find a suitable place in the garden.

The entire site was conditionally divided into zones. The first one can be called an entrance hall; it is bounded on the left by a bathhouse, on the right by two fir trees and a narrow bed along the path. And ahead, a tall pine tree separates the entrance to the recreation area, under which boletus grew a couple of times. In general, I collected mushrooms - boletus, aspen and boletus boletus right behind the fence - birch and aspen grow there.

Near the bath lies a large pinkish-beige stone, which has its own history. Previously, he was behind a fence, but because of the bushes and the ground he was not very visible, and I was not up to him before, while the bathhouse and the veranda were being built and the site was being refined. I do not know when I would have become interested in him, but then one summer resident asked: do I need him? It is clear that I immediately needed it, besides, my acquaintances looked at the site very well and offered their help. He sat deep in the ground, and we had no idea that he was so big. With great difficulty we rolled it onto the site, and now a kind of flowerbed was formed: behind it I planted a thuja, in front of it - a creeping juniper, and the flowers on it change during the summer. In early spring, lumbago, muscari, primroses bloom (they can be seen in the photo), then I plant a mimulus there, which blooms all summer, and in the fall, crocus flowers bloom there. Thuja has grown noticeably over the summer, but in general there are three of them on our site in different places. They were grown from cuttings, and the first time it happened completely by accident - in the winter I brought several branches home and put them in a black vase, they quickly turned green and stood like this until spring. And when I decided to throw them away, I discovered that roots had formed on them (this is not the first time I notice that roots form faster in dark dishes). This is how I grew seedlings for myself, and then for my friends. And I also tried to dig in the lower branches - they also root well.

A climbing rose grows against the wall of the veranda. Further - between the pine and the veranda - a path made of slabs leads to the porch, recreation area, flower gardens, and on the right, behind the fir trees, an apple tree, three lilac bushes, several honeysuckle bushes, black chokeberry, currants, ornamental shrubs and flowers grow. Honeysuckle has been bearing fruit for two seasons: I bought three varieties, and I managed to grow one from seeds. She also reproduces well by cuttings. In front of the house, the previous owners laid out a platform made of tiles, here we put a table, next to it is a barbecue, and flowers are planted around. Along the edge of the flower bed, I made a border of remontant strawberry bushes with red and yellow berries - I collect berries until late autumn, and the flower bed looks very picturesque.

I separated the recreation area from the garden with an arch and bushes of hydrangeas; poppies and lilies bloom between them in summer, and I softened one of the right angles with a bulldonezh bush. Behind the bath I have an apple tree, cherries, sea buckthorn; raspberry bushes successfully cover the compost box, clematis of the Taiga Snow variety bloomed very beautifully against the wall of the bath.

New season - new plans. In winter I make dolls, and then I thought: why not put one of them in my dacha; I also want to change something in the flower garden. I am interested in a tiered flower bed, and recently I saw a modular flower garden, now I think that it is better suited for my site. I wish all other gardeners to fulfill their plans. Good luck everyone!

Anna Podkaura, gardener, Pushkin

DIY decorative pond made of tires

Are spoiled or unnecessary tires from a car lying around in the country? Not sure how you can apply them? Why not build a decorative pond from them? A small pond of tires is one of the right solutions. Install such a water structure near the arbor, and next to a swing or benches for relaxation, and it will become a favorite resting place.

Caring for a tire pond is elementary: just change the water in it, drain it for the winter, remove the plants that are located near the pond, and with the onset of heat, return everything to its original place.

Today we will tell you how, with the slightest physical and financial costs, you can build a wonderful reservoir with your own hands in your country house - a decorative pond made of tires.

Unusual design of a summer cottage using simple tires

Since the suburban area has a huge creative potential, here you can realize your design ideas and fantasies. First of all, to build something for a sense of tranquility and unity with nature.

Water is the natural source that will help create this atmosphere. If the site is small, and there is no opportunity to build a large pool on it, but you want to have a water structure, then a small pond would be an alternative.

This hydraulic structure has a number of positive aspects.

  • you can place the pond anywhere on the site, since a lot of territory for its arrangement will not be needed
  • you can decorate the pond with all kinds of materials, plants, small architectural details
  • you can put fish in a pond, plant with unusual plants
  • plants near such a reservoir will always have a healthy look, since the reservoir provides them with additional moisture
  • a decorative pond will perfectly complement your natural landscape and create a comfortable recreation area.

We already talked about decorative ponds in our previous article. And today we propose to consider the option of building a small artificial reservoir made of car tires, simply speaking, from tires, with our own hands.

Tire pond: how to make?

What makes a tire pond special?

The decorative pond and tires have many advantages. They are as follows:

  1. This design will serve you for many years if you do everything correctly during the arrangement.
  2. The strength of the rubber is quite high.
  3. You can build a pond of any size, it all depends on the size of the tire. The shape can be adjusted because rubber is an elastic material. Alternatively, an oval-shaped pond.
  4. You can use this pond as an aquarium. Rubber, although not an environmentally friendly material, but with proper waterproofing, it will not transmit harmful substances.
  5. You only need to make a solid bottom of the bowl, since the walls, as a frame, are already prepared.
  6. You can paint such a structure in any desired color, and the fantasies for decoration are generally endless.
  7. Does not require the help of specialists in the creation of a water structure.

A pond of several tires in landscape design

How can you make a tire pond?

Well, here let your imagination run wild! Of course, in terms of forms, you can't think of much, but you can work on the decor. The tire pond can be of the following types:

  • Traditional round pond.
  • A cascading pond that will look like a cascading waterfall (tire on tire).
  • A pond of several tires, looks especially good if the tire sizes are different.
  • A pond with a fountain.

As for the decor, they apply:

  • Stones, mostly natural.
  • Plants, flowers, shrubs, both around the bowl and inside the pond.
  • Lighting.
  • Decorative architectural elements - figurines, vases, which can be purchased in specialized stores or also made by hand.

Decorative tire pond near the house

Where to place a decorative tire pond?

If you have decided to build a decorative pond, then you probably already know where it should be. Since such a reservoir should become a decoration of your site, place it in a prominent place so that it can be seen from any angle. You can build it near the gazebo, where you spend most of your time.

Do not forget that if you build a cascade pond, it will need more free space.

If you decide to introduce a fountain, then, accordingly, the size of the bowl itself should be larger, since in a small pond the fountain looks, let's say, not very good.

Remember that in a place where there are trees and shrubs, such a pond will become clogged more often, and it will also have to be cleaned more often.

DIY tire pond

What tires are used in the arrangement of the pond?

Here again, everything will depend on how the pond should be in the summer cottage. If you are planning a small tank, passenger car tires will do. If the pond should be large, stock up on tires from a truck, for example, tires from KamAZ, a bus, or a tractor.

Finding a car tire for the future reservoir is not difficult. If you don't have an extra one in your garage, ask at a tire fitting or in a car repair shop, in truck service centers. Unnecessary tires are not expensive, and sometimes they can just give you one.

Tire pond with fountain

Materials and tools required for installation

Since the installation of a decorative pond is not a complicated process, for this you will need tools and materials that are in every garden:

  • roulette
  • level
  • jigsaw or hand saw for metal
  • shovel
  • tire
  • waterproofing film
  • sealants
  • sand, crushed stone
  • decor for the arrangement - stones, greenery, etc.

Tire pond, construction stages

We build a pond of tires with our own hands

  1. We dig a foundation pit for the future bowl. You can, of course, not dig a pit, but put the tire on the ground. But the appearance of such a design will not be natural, not aesthetic. The hole for the tire should be slightly wider, larger than the tire itself, so that the tire does not deform.

Take care of good waterproofing so that water from the reservoir does not go into the ground, and often does not fill the tire with it. The special moment is the bottom. It is recommended to use PVC film as a material for waterproofing, and in several layers.

If you want this water structure to be more reliable, use liquid rubber, liquid glass or polyurethane mastic for waterproofing. We strengthen the structure. So that there is no vibration and slipping of the tire along with the film, the edges must be strengthened by filling in sand or crushed stone. If there is no such material, you can simply cover it with earth.

We decorate the pond. To make your pond look beautiful, the area around it needs to be refined. Plant plants, or put pots and pots of flowers, create a composition of stones and flowers, put fish in a bowl or plant aquatic plants in it that will clean it on their own.

As you can see, creating a beautiful recreation area on your site is not difficult. The main thing is to have an interesting idea, desire and simple tools at hand. And then even the most ordinary tire pond can become a delightful place, the highlight of your site, with a minimum investment of time and money.

We, an organization of experienced professionals, can help you solve your problem, as regards the construction and design of a swimming pool, hot tubs, jacuzzis to order and reservoirs. Anything that does not contradict the laws of physics, we can bring to life. Contact us, we will help.

Useful links:


Smart garden without hassle for the elderly, lazy: how to make fruitful beds with your own hands, photo

The favorite pastime of our country's pensioners is to grow potatoes and tomatoes with cucumbers. Grandparents love natural products, and they feed their grandchildren. Yes, only grandchildren do not always help, and it is difficult for the old people to manage the garden alone. Even though the Earth takes negative energy from a person (at least this is what mystical psychologists say), it requires a lot of attention and time. To facilitate the hard work and sow the garden without hassle, our portal has selected a few practical tips. Read this article and calmly grow vegetables for the whole family without unnecessary body movements.

Correct zoning

Beautification of your own yard is a creative process in which it is important to correctly plan the space. It is advisable to draw up a complete list of all buildings and decorative elements, and then draw a detailed sketch on paper. This way you can notice possible flaws and gaps in the circuit and fix them.

Options for designating the conditional boundaries of the village courtyard:

  • The area for children should be clearly visible from all sides, so it is better not to install high fences around the playground. The best place is considered the area near the window or near the summer kitchen, so it will be easier for parents to look after the kids.
  • It is better to equip a green garden, vegetable garden, alpine slide and flower beds in the depths of a modern courtyard
  • The backyard is suitable for installing a carport and building a garage with storage rooms
  • In the recreation area, it would be a great idea to install a beautiful arch, a low fence or a picket fence. Forged structures entwined with vines, roses and other types of climbing plants look beautiful
  • The garden area can be separated by a border of stone or brick. Densely growing shrubs, screens, green thickets and tall flowers can serve as a fence.
  • You can build a cozy shady corner for relaxation and privacy. Trellises for curly flowers, trellises and vertical flower beds are used here.Wicker rocking chairs, swings with a canopy, hammocks, sun loungers and cozy benches will fit here.

Elements for visual differentiation:

  • Garden screens
  • Arches
  • Conditional stone and brick fences
  • Wooden fences
  • Tracks
  • Ladders and steps
  • Green spaces.

Tips for choosing plants:

  • Conifers are not recommended to be planted in recreation areas and on terraces, as they tend to crumble
  • Deciduous trees are better not to be located near bodies of water, so that fallen leaves do not fall into the water and do not rot
  • A great idea would be to plant shrubs in a dense row around the perimeter of the site in the form of a low green fence
  • Flowers look beautiful in separate boxes and baskets
  • To save space, you can build vertical structures for landscaping: alpine slides, hanging flower beds and flower beds.

Do not forget about the decoration of the yard: garden figurines, birdhouses, arches, fancy figurines, clay flowerpots or a wicker fence.

Do-it-yourself snowblower: homemade products, devices and equipment for the village, for removing snow

Mechanization of the snow removal process was invented almost 150 years ago, having patented a snow blower machine for cleaning railway tracks from snow drifts. Special units allow you to remove snow faster and in larger volumes than by hand with a traditional shovel. Imported mini snowblowers are widely represented on the market. But Russian craftsmen easily create their own, quite workable options. Having studied them, we will figure out how to make a snowblower with our own hands.

How the snow blower works

Home-made snow cleaning machines for the house have the same principle of operation as the factory ones in Husqvarna, forte qi jy 50, cmi 163, snow fox sf16353l. Such homemade products capture and move snow using a large horizontally fixed screw (auger).

The auger blades are driven through a bearing-rotating axle (drive shaft) that transmits torque from the motor.

As the machine moves forward, the wide bucket, like a funnel, picks up the snow masses and guides them through the conveyor screws. The propeller blades, located at an angle, rotate, crush the snow and push it further, to the pump with a mechanical drive, pushing the snow out of the unloading hatch.

Necessary accessories

In preparation for work, we need:

  • blueprints
  • tools: wrenches, screwdrivers, a file and a hammer, a vice and pliers, a drill, a grinder, a welding machine and possibly a lathe. In addition, you will need chains, sprockets, bushings, bearings, bolts and nuts.

Also needed materials:

  • Sheet steel or roofing iron.
  • Steel corner 50x50 mm.
  • Plywood, 10 mm thick.
  • ¾ and ½ inch pipes.
  • 1.5 meters of conveyor belt (if not available, replace with tire sidewalls).
  • Engine. Motoblock, it is an internal combustion engine (runs on gasoline), or an electric motor. The electric motor needs a cable designed for use at subzero temperatures and high-quality waterproofing.
  • To avoid a short circuit from the ingress of melted snow, cover the electric motor, for example, with a plastic 5-liter bottle cut along the length.

Mechanical device diagram

Snow blower device quite simple and based on a supporting frame... An engine, a snow bucket, and handles are mounted on it.

The main working part is the auger, which, while rotating, collects and moves snow to the impeller, where the snow mass is captured by the blades and fed first into the cavity of the mechanism, and then into the exhaust pipe.

Diagram of a homemade snow blower clearly demonstrates the design of the unit.

The easiest snow blower - single stage... Capturing and discarding snow from snow blowers Champion 656, lux 163, Patriot is carried out only by a rotating auger. In two-stage designs, the auger is supplemented with a metal blade-blade (rotor), attached in the middle of the drive shaft.

Video: Homemade Rotary Snow Sweeper

For more information about the rotary snow blower, see the video:

This design is used to remove large volumes of snow and allows it to be thrown up to a distance of 12 m.

The engine power determines the type of snow blower:

  • Manual, mechanical. 2.5-5 hp engine activates the working parts, and the advancement of the unit is due to the physical force applied by the user. A mechanical snow blower with your own hands is the easiest to make.
  • Curious that “Mechanical snow blower”Is also called a plastic shovel with a handle in the form of a metal bracket, equipped with reinforcing stiffening ribs on the back side, with a rotating auger attached to the front side.
  • If you keep the correct slope of the shovel so that the auger does not hang in the air, but rather rotates, this option “scooters”Without a motor, it is very effective for clearing loose snow (up to 10 cm) in small areas, especially in hard-to-reach places.
  • Self-propelled... A sufficiently powerful engine, from 10 hp, ensures the operation of the equipment and the movement of wheels or tracks.

Tracked mini-vehicles

When loaded in deep snow crawler is preferred... A do-it-yourself tracked snow blower is easy to make from a tracked radio-controlled children's car. A crawler-mounted mini tractor is also suitable.

Such a structure can be equipped with headlights, a webcam and controlled remotely (with a remote control). Tracked mini-snow removal equipment is considered the most productive.

How to make a snow blower with your own hands

With proper preparation, it is quite possible to get a high-quality homemade snow blower with your own hands. Drawings, carefully executed, will help with this.

Today, lawn mowers are one of the most popular tools for working on lawns located near the house. Click on the link to get acquainted with the technical characteristics of this lawn mower.

Tillage is considered one of the key processes in agriculture, because it is on plowed soil that both cereals and other crops are planted. Here you will learn about the different types and advantages of the PSK plow.

The mini tractor is an excellent solution for the processing and maintenance of land plots. Russian-made mini tractors are reliable assistants for many years.

Worthy of attention rotary snow blower "Blizzard" (Penza regional station of young technicians) based on the D-6 engine. D. Slonov's model (Altai Territory) with an engine from the Ural-2T chainsaw.

Below is the video of the snow blower "Winter storm":

1. Drawings of the main units of a snow blower with two augers based on an all-terrain vehicle by V. Berezhny (Valdai, Novgorod region) serve as an excellent visual instruction.

2. The welded body made of sheet steel is reinforced with corner spars and an additional side member. It is connected to the all-terrain vehicle-base with two carriers welded to the auger bed.

The screw mechanism consists of 2 belts (oppositely directed Archimedes screws, welded to the protruding M6 studs). A motorcycle chain is stretched between the auger and shaft sprockets.

The drive shaft is made with sprockets and bearings removed from agricultural machinery, fixed with dowels and pins.

3. The scheme of S. Khomyakov's snow blower, drawn in detail with an indication of all sizes, is no less interesting and simple to execute.

4. First the supporting frame is welded from steel corners... A U-shaped profile is screwed onto its crossbars to attach an easily removable platform for the engine. Then the control handles made of 1/2 inch pipe are mounted.

Wheels or runners (skis) are attached to the base frame from below. Suitable wheels can be taken from an old cart, and wooden blocks reinforced with a plastic box will serve as runners.

5. To the prepared base we fix the engine.

6. Bucket, drive shaft, auger:

  • The bucket body is made of sheet iron, complementing it with plywood sidewalls. If the bucket is more than 50 cm wide, a larger engine is required. At 50 cm, a power of 6.5 hp is quite suitable.
  • The drive shaft is made from a ¾ inch pipe. In the through-cut in the middle of the pipe, we attach the rotor (120 × 270 mm.) Weld corners 25 × 25 mm perpendicular to it. (two on both sides) and make a groove on one side of the pipe for a key under an asterisk.
  • The diameter of the pipe, so that it fits into bearings 205, is reduced by two additional cuts.
  • The bearings are taken from a KART car. But you can use any closed ones (so that snow does not fall), for example, the cardan support from the Zhiguli.
  • The transfer belt connects the shaft and the motor.
  • The auger blades are cut from a conveyor belt (4 rings, each 28 cm in diameter) or sheet steel (4 discs, each cut in half and bent with a spiral).
  • We use a chain or belt as a drive.

7. The main body is being manufactured made of sheet iron or 2 mm steel.

8. The snow ejection part fixed to the auger body is made of parts of plastic sewer pipes with a diameter of 160 mm, clad one on top of the other and supplemented with a gutter. The width of the rotor blade must be less than the diameter of the discharge chute.

9. Paint the finished model for more effect.

Useful Tips

  1. It is better to place the gas tank on top, and it is not recommended to make its volume more than 2.5 liters.
  2. Motoblocks not intended for winter use are filled with synthetic oil.
  3. Solid particles (branches, stones) thrown away together with the snow, ricocheting, can injure others. Use safety goggles when working with a snow blower, and do not wear loose clothing, the edges of which may get caught in the moving parts of the machine.
  4. To prevent the engine from jamming due to the ingress of large foreign objects, the augers and the rotor are attached to the drive shaft with shear bolts and bushings. Under excessive loads, these “fuses” will break and the engine will remain intact.
  5. Do not open the fuel tank, do not refuel equipment with a hot engine, let it cool down for a couple of minutes. It is recommended to take a break from work every half hour or hour to avoid overheating of the engine.

Some people buy factory-made equipment because of the warranty and service provided for it. Others value the physical pleasure of working with a traditional shovel.

And those who like to design equipment on their own and have the appropriate experience in this field are quite capable of create your own snow blowerarmed with suitable instructions and expert advice.

What is public-private partnership (PPP)? Definition, features, types, advantages, disadvantages, example

Definition : Public-private partnership (PPP) is a model in which the government interacts with private companies to implement infrastructure projects. This alliance between both sides provides funding, design, prosperity and infrastructure maintenance within the country.

The PPP approach initiates the efficient provision of public goods to the public, this is because such projects are outsourced to appropriate private organizations that have experience and knowledge in their field.

Content: public-private partnership (PPP)

  1. Characteristics
  2. Types
  3. Benefits
  4. disadvantages
  5. Example
  6. Conclusion

Features of public-private partnership

To understand the concept of PPP, we need to know its basic characteristics. Some of these are discussed in detail below:

  • Service oriented : The PPP approach is about facilitating long-term public services and includes roads for transportation, dams for electricity and water supply, and streetlights for lighting.
  • Lifetime cost : In the PPP model, the total cost of the project is calculated immediately for the entire period of its existence. Thus, taking into account initial capital costs, repair and maintenance costs, modification costs and possible disposal costs.
  • Innovation : With the participation of private firms, the PPP approach also initiates the use of creativity and new technologies in infrastructure projects.
  • Participants : In a public-private union, there are two parties - the government and the corresponding private company.
  • Risk sharing : Infrastructure projects carry high risks, so PPPs help the government shift this risk onto private firms.
  • Long term relationship : These projects are usually designed for years, therefore, the public authority and the individual remain associated for a long period.
  • Sharing resources : Capital, financial, project and other necessary resources are allocated between the government and the firm for the successful implementation of the project.

Types of public-private partnerships (PPPs)

When we talk about public-private partnerships, we are confronted with different ways this approach works. To understand some of the commonly used PPP structures, read below:

Build-Work-Transfer (BOT)

Toll road projects are exemplified by this traditional model: A private company builds a road, collects toll or revenue (for the duration of the contract), and then hands over ownership to the government.

Build-Own-Operate (BOO)

Although it is very similar to the BOT model, ownership of the object remains with the private organization itself.

Build-Own-Operation-Transfer (DOWNLOAD)

To recover the cost of construction and make a profit, the private firm, after development, retains ownership of the property until the contract is valid, after which the ownership is transferred to the public sector.

Build-Lease-Operate-Transfer (BLOT)

The private company uses the leased state property for the construction of the facility. He operates on this property during the rental period to recover costs and generate income. Later, when the lease expires, the land is returned to the government.

Design-Assembly (DB)

This is the main form of P3, in which a private company designs and builds a facility as required by the government after a full risk assessment, in return for a fixed amount as payment.

Design-Build-Finance (DBF)

A private sector firm is implementing a project to design the layout, build the facility and cover the capital costs associated with such design and construction.

Design, Build, Finance, Operate (DBFO)

In the DBFO model, the private company is responsible for planning the project design, building the facility, arranging the required capital and operating it until the grant period. The proceeds from operating the facility match the costs incurred and generate profit for the company.

Design-Build-Fund-Service (DBFM)

This model can also be called a management contract. Here the public sector entity remains linked to the project from start to finish.

The process starts from the design of the floor plan to construction, financing and maintenance of the facility throughout its entire life cycle. The firm either charges a fixed amount, or divides the profits, and he also participates in making management decisions on the project.

Design, Build, Financing, Maintenance, Operation (DBFMO)

This is an extended version of DBFO.Here a private firm prepares a plan, builds a facility, invests the required amount and performs operations to generate income. Since the company takes on the project for a long time, it must also take care of the maintenance.

Design-Build-Service-Funding (DCMF)

In the DCMF model, a private enterprise understands government specifications and accordingly designs, develops, maintains, and invests in a facility, which is then leased to the government agency itself.

Operation and Maintenance (O&M)

This model involves the subcontracting of the operation and maintenance of the facility to private companies.

Firms implementing such projects are experts in the field of maintenance. Also, the object remains in the ownership of a government agency. Income for individuals is usually generated from performance fees. In some cases, companies charge a one-time and fixed fee for their services.

Benefits of public-private partnerships (PPPs)

The PPP approach is very beneficial for the government, country, economy, private organizations and the public. Below are some of the outstanding benefits of this concept:

  • Early Completion Bonus : To improve efficiency, private companies are motivated by a bonus if they complete the project ahead of schedule.
  • Tax cuts : cost-effective infrastructure projects help the government save money and thus reduce tax rates.
  • Project completion efficiency : When the standard time for completion of the project is estimated, its execution and execution become more competent.
  • Feasibility of the project : Since the risks of the project and its practical implementation are well analyzed, the likelihood of failure is significantly reduced.
  • Highest quality standards : The PPP approach initiates the benchmarking of the desired project quality and ensures it throughout the project life cycle.
  • Superior infrastructure solutions A: This has been possible since experienced private companies work in collaboration with the government, where each of them does their best.
  • Increased return on investment : ROI on P3 infrastructure projects can be quite high in the long term. The reason is that it was controlled and implemented by both parties together.
  • Risk transfer : The government transfers the associated risk along with the project to private firms that have relevant experience and knowledge in the field.
  • Reduces budget deficits : In the PPP approach, private companies determine the cost and execute the capital budget to avoid future funding shortfalls.
  • Provides effective public investment : Since P3 initially allowed private companies to invest in infrastructure projects, the government can use its capital for socio-economic welfare.

Disadvantages of public-private partnerships (PPPs)

On the one hand, it helps to improve the infrastructure conditions in the country; on the other hand, it has the following limitations:

  • carries a risk for private firms : Public-private partnerships involve transferring risk to private entities, making them liable for insolvency.
  • Various profitability : The complexity, level of competition, associated risk, nature, size and impact of a project determine its profitability.
  • Increase government spending : Due to the high risk of participating in a project, companies usually require huge compensation, which leads to an increase in government spending.
  • May not be cost effective : Sometimes the government lacks information on the cost of a project. When a private company holds complete information about the value of the public sector, it can be misleading.
  • Dependence on the private sector : The most significant limitation of the PPP approach is that the government relies heavily on the private sector to implement and implement projects.

An example of a public-private partnership (PPP)

A public relations officer drew attention to a problem with transport links between two villages in her area, which were separated by a river, and one could only get to another village by boat. Therefore, she proposed to the government a project to build a bridge to establish communication between the villages.

As the task was very difficult, the government decided to use a PPP approach for this project.

Public-private partnership process

Let's now figure out how the project will develop in the above illustration, through the following important stages included in it:

  1. Planning : The government initiates the development of the master plan for the bridge and selects a suitable private company providing the best proposal for the implementation of the project.
  2. Financing : Now let's move on to the role of a private person. He first analyzes the cost of the entire life of the bridge and finances the project accordingly. This cost can later be reimbursed by the state.
  3. Design : Experts and engineers then develop the final bridge plan, and both parties contribute to the task. In addition, the critical path method determines the time frame for the project.
  4. Building : The company is hiring an experienced contractor and workers to build the bridge. The project is being completed efficiently within the expected time frame.
  5. Exploitation : After proper testing and quality control, the bridge is opened for public use. Thus, facilitating communication and transportation for the indigenous people.
  6. Maintenance : Estimated for the entire life of the bridge, after five years of operation, the bridge needs some repair Such maintenance costs are also borne by the private company that took over the project.


Cooperation is inevitable when it comes to large infrastructure projects that require large investments and experience.

Therefore, the state prefers to resort to the help of professionals in this field. This is where the role of private companies in the implementation of such projects appears.

Storing dried pumpkin seeds

Having learned how to fry pumpkin seeds in a pan, microwave or dry in another way, we will find out where and how to store them so that they do not get damp and spoil.

Storage conditions for pumpkin seeds

We put unpeeled seeds in jars, close and put them for storage in a dry locker.

If salt or spices were added during frying, we try to eat such a delicacy early, since the seeds are not stored for a long time in this form. Regular, dried achenes can be stored for up to a year.

Now it is clear how to dry pumpkin seeds in the fresh air, in a frying pan and various kitchen utensils. The main thing is to properly prepare the seeds for drying and carefully follow the drying or roasting technology.

How to decorate the entrance area of ​​a country house in an original way

Entrance area a country house, by definition, is its business card, declaring not only the status, but also the character of its owner. Ideally, this is the link that harmoniously unites the garden space with the living area. It can be fully called presentation, since it is the entrance to the house and the adjacent territory that creates the first impression on guests and the general mood for all inhabitants of the country estate.

The entrance area, as a rule, is designed in accordance with the style of the garden and the architecture of the building, so the right accents in the form of appropriate accessories, elements of landscape design and organic selection of plants are very important here.

Currently, the urbanization process is gaining momentum. Increasingly, the urban population is trying to retire in the bosom of nature, moving to a permanent or temporary residence in a private house located somewhere outside the city. And this is not surprising, because only in this way you can truly relax in all respects - not only in the physical, but also in the emotional, mental. In view of this, it becomes necessary to make the atmosphere of staying in the house as cozy and comfortable as possible. Moreover, this issue concerns not only the internal arrangement of the house, but also the external one. Therefore, a well-thought-out landscape design in front of the house is just one of the most important factors affecting the overall pastime. Moreover, this feature is an indisputable indicator of taste, understanding of the aesthetic features of the owner himself, and besides, some landscape details can significantly transform the building itself, making it even more attractive.

Ideas for decorating a personal plot

The area around the house primarily separates private property from street property, and can also decorate the home itself. Today, the arrangement of homestead estates is not a particular problem; there are many interesting proposals and ideas in this regard. For example, the simplest and most common way is to decorate the site with flower beds, create a hedge. Increasingly, fountains in front of the house or artificial reservoirs, decoration near the house territory with various figures, statues or other unusual details are gaining popularity.

An integral part of any private home are gazebos and specially designated recreation areas. The choice is huge, it all depends on the taste preferences of the owner and, accordingly, his financial capabilities.

In this case, the main thing to take into account is an important point - the choice of landscape compositions must necessarily correspond to the style and architectural character of the building.

The idea of ​​ u200b u200bdesigning a flower garden

Creating a flower garden

The organization of a home flower garden requires the observance of certain conditions, the omission of which can negate all the efforts made and spoil the overall picture of landscape design. So, it is important to think over the creation of a flower bed in such a way that its spirit and volume are in perfect harmony with the architectural direction of the property, and color solutions are chosen so that the plants are not too catchy and distract the general attention, but also so that they do not fade against the background of the chosen design. First of all, attention is always paid to the entrance area. Along the path leading to the door on both sides, you can plant selected flowers and plants in rows. At the same time, the presence of bright and colorful flowers in the flowerbed will be an ideal option for a home with a restrained style, and if the building has some decorative details, then in this case it is wise to choose a modest color scheme.

Flower garden in front of the house

It will not be superfluous to note the fact that a properly designed flower bed can be a successful way of masking some architectural errors, or just an excellent option for transforming landscape design around the house. In such cases, they often resort to organizing a mixborder. Due to the presence of flowers of different types and sizes, this garden arrangement can be a decoration for any front garden.

Another color scheme is a rabatka - flowers that are planted in a row and alternate in size. And if the backyard allows, then you can resort to planting flower borders, as one of the options for decorating the path.

Plant selection

When decorating a flower garden near a house, it is better to have trees, shrubs, perennial and annual flowers as a priority.

It is not recommended to plant an exotic plant in the front garden, because they require constant care and attention, and the result does not always justify the effort expended.

For example, bushes of lilac or barberry, viburnum or wild rose are perfect for creating a hedge. For a fence made of metal or stone, climbing plants in the form of grapes, kirkazon, actinidia and others will serve as the best option. And undersized coniferous plants can refresh the atmosphere and add a touch of aristocracy. Flowers in clay pots, hydrangea or lavender bushes or curly flowers will be an interesting and unusual decor for the porch.

If you carefully think over the principle of organizing the front garden, correctly selecting and alternating summer, autumn and winter plants, then you can enjoy the flower beauty almost all year round.

Hydrangea can mask the flaws in the yard

Planting principle

To give more aesthetics to the area in front of the house, you should take into account a few simple, but quite important tips:

  • if the flowers are planted very close to the house, then their color scheme should be maximally combined with the shade of the walls
  • It is better to decorate large areas in front of the house with bright large flowers with large leaves, and accordingly, in small areas it is better to plant small-leaved flowers that are not brightly colored
  • according to the principle of the design concept, miniature areas require seating in front of the house of flowers of cold shades: lilac, lilac, blue
  • the principle of plant selection also depends on which part of the front garden is located: the north side is an alternative for shade-loving plants, the south side is drought-resistant plants that are not afraid of direct sunlight
  • to preserve the aesthetic appearance of the flower garden, even in winter, it is recommended to plant more coniferous trees or shrubs with colorful bark (barberry) on it.
One of the options for a flower garden in front of the house

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Landscape details

Decorating the area in front of the house is a rather laborious task. To obtain a satisfying result, it is worth a lot of work, applying all your imagination and resourcefulness to this matter.

Having finished with the organization of the flower garden, many owners of estates prefer to complete it by finally using landscape accessories, selected in the same design direction.

Decorative vases and pots, wooden tubs and barrels, granite and concrete flowerpots can be used as appropriate compositions, of course, all this must be selected in accordance with the architectural style of the building. Another interesting and eye-catching element is various garden figurines and statues, or large beautiful stones. One way or another, when equipping the proposed site, it is important to observe the golden mean, so as not to make the overall look too catchy or overloaded.

Decorative elements for the garden will add zest to the overall design of the landscape

Figured design of bushes

Curly shrubs or unusual hedge trimming are very popular today. Of course, this type of landscape design requires a lot of effort and not a small financial investment, but the result is worth it. Unusually shaped shrubs can be like an improvised gate, placed on one side and on the other side of the door, or they can act as a framing of the path leading to the main entrance.


Garden paths

To give an aesthetic appearance to the entire personal plot, garden paths can be laid out. Most often, for this you can use paving slabs, paving stones, use the layout of bricks or natural stone.This element of general landscape design has great advantages, as it allows you to make the area in front of the house neater, especially in inclement weather. Moreover, the arrangement of such paths ensures comfortable movement of residents and visually separates the functional zones of the entire site. Flower arrangements can be planted along the entire length of such paths, gravel can be scattered and small lawns can be created.

When decorating garden paths, natural stone may be required. We recommend buying it at Atlant Granit (

Fountains and reservoirs

Beautiful and varied fountains always attract attention, no matter where they are located - in the park area or on the site in front of the house (which is even better!). The organization of such design solutions successfully combines several positive aspects: the fountain in the courtyard gives more expressiveness and aesthetics to the entire site, but also ensures a constant high level of humidity. Small bodies of water, ponds, or a bubbling waterfall can become the main design exposition, creating a sense of peace and tranquility.


Green rooms

Modern trends in landscape design involves the organization of the so-called "green rooms". These are specially designated areas for recreation, with garden pavilions in the front garden. In such corners there is upholstered furniture designed for a pleasant and comfortable pastime, plants in special containers, tables for meals, and also lamps that make the evening time enchanting and magical. When organizing such green rooms, you should carefully consider the cover to protect furniture and other components of the overall interior from bad weather.

Green room

Designing a plot in front of the house is a fun and interesting activity, especially since the supposed variations are more than enough. Of course, you can do the reconstruction of the area in front of the house with your own hands, or you can ask for help from specialists who have sufficient information regarding current trends and relevant skills in this area. In a short time, and taking into account the personal taste preferences of the owner of the estate, such experts are able to transform the site in front of the house, making it unusual and unique.

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