Lycoris (Lycoris) - is a genus of perennial flowering plants belonging to the Amalillis family. There are about 20 types of lycoris. Their homeland is such Asian countries as Japan, Thailand, China and others located in the Jurassic and the east of this part of the world. Several species of these flowers were introduced to the United States, where several of them took root. In the English-speaking states, the flower is called "hurricane lily", and sometimes - "spider". In some sources, the name of Japanese origin is also found - "higanbana".
This plant has long leaves. The length is, as a rule, 30-60 cm, while their width ranges from 5-20 mm. Licorice has an erect stem, the height of which is about 30-90 cm. About 7 peduncles can form on one plant. The flowers are red, orange, yellow. They can also be white, purple or golden. There are 2 types of flowers. Some of them have long stamens, which are longer than the perianth. Others have stamens that protrude slightly. The fruit is a three-channel capsule that contains seeds inside. Many species reproduce only vegetatively.
The weirdness of Lycoris is that its leaves and flowers do not meet. In summer, lycoris bulbs are dormant in the soil. In September, flower stalks begin to grow, which develop very quickly. The flowering period is approximately 2 weeks. After the flower has wilted, leaves begin to form in the plant. They remain on the plant throughout the fall, winter, and spring. Lycoris leaves die only in June.
It is recommended to plant licorice in the autumn. There should be a month before the cold weather. This is necessary for the bulbs to release their roots and get used to the new conditions. If necessary, they can be planted in open ground in the spring. But it is undesirable to do this, as it will most likely lead to flower disease. No matter what time you plant this plant, next year it will not bloom yet.
To grow a healthy plant, first of all, you need to take care of the right choice of place on the site. It is necessary to do so that the growing conditions are as close as possible to those familiar and natural for this plant. You need to choose a place that will be well protected from the wind. There should be no drafts on it. Licorice can be planted under any deciduous trees to thrive in partial shade.
The best soil for these perennials is sandy. Before planting them, it is necessary to remove weeds from the site. Then dig up the place, adding peat to the soil, if necessary, as well as humus and a little sand. After digging, the surface of the site must be leveled.
Lycoris bulbs should be embedded in the soil to a depth of 14 cm or more. This is necessary so that the plant does not freeze during frosts. It is recommended to make a gap of about 25-30 cm between the holes. Every year they will grow overgrown with children who need space and food.
First, a little sand is poured onto the bottom of the hole, and then the planting material is pressed into it. After that, we again fill the hole with sand so that it covers the onion. The rest of the hole must be filled with soil. After that, the earth needs to be slightly compacted and the planting site should be watered.
Planting and growing lycoris on your site is not so difficult. To do this, you must follow the usual care procedures. Licorice needs to be watered in a timely manner, loosen the soil, pull out weeds. In addition, from time to time, the plant needs feeding, as well as preparation for winter frosts. Sometimes these perennials will have to be transplanted to another place. If they are attacked by pests, it will be necessary to carry out the appropriate treatment with special means.
Watering is necessary for lycoris especially strongly during the period when flower stalks and foliage begin their intensive growth. During this period, it is necessary to ensure that the soil does not dry out. It is regularly moisturized. But plants should not be poured either. Watering should be such that the soil is always slightly damp. During the period when the plant is at rest, there is no need for watering. These are the winter and summer months.
Fertilize the plant as needed. If the flower does not show signs of nutritional deficiency and looks healthy, then it has enough nutrients. If the plant becomes lethargic and looks unhealthy, you can apply a mineral fertilizer specifically designed for bulbous flowers.
Unlike many other bulbous plants, lycoris does not require an annual transplant. He can stay in one place for 5 years. After that, it is dug up, the bulbs are separated and planted.
First, prepare the transplant site, after which the bulbs are removed from the soil. They are carefully disconnected from the children. In places of breakage, it is recommended to sprinkle them with ash. In accordance with the planting recommendations, the bulbs are planted in a new area. If you are replanting the plant in the fall, then watering is not needed. After the plant is transplanted, it may not bloom for the next 2 years. But too often it is impossible to share licoris. From this he can become weak.
Important! Absolutely all parts of lycoris are poisonous. All work with this perennial should be carried out only with gloves.
When the plant fades, leaves begin to grow. By the end of autumn, dry parts must be removed. The bulbs of this culture are not dug up for the winter, since they put their roots deep enough, and they are not afraid of frost. If your area experiences cold winters with little snow, you need to cover the plants with spruce branches or foliage. The cover layer is removed with a vein.
As a rule, lycoris reproduces vegetatively. Take the daughter lycoris bulbs. After all, obtaining seeds is a very difficult process. Many species do not form seeds at all. Reproduction by children is much easier.
As a rule, this crop is not affected by various pests and diseases. But sometimes the flowers can be attacked by daffodil flies. To prevent this, during the growth period, it is necessary to water the soil with an insecticidal agent.
There are not many species of this plant. These are the most common types that can be found in gardens most often.
Licoris golden - the homeland of this species is Japan and China. The disadvantage is that this plant does not tolerate frost. If you live in the middle lane, then this plant needs to be grown only at home. Typically, the stem grows up to 60 cm in height. The flowers are tubular and bright yellow. Their diameter is about 10 cm. Golden lycoris blooms in May-June. The inflorescence usually consists of 5-6 flowers.
Licorice scaly - this species also originated from Japan. The plant grows to about 60-70 cm in height. It has wide, belt-like leaves. It propagates only by bulbs, since it does not form seeds. The flowers are collected in inflorescences, in which, as a rule, there are from 6 to 8. They have a very delicate aroma. Lycoris flowers are scaly, funnel-shaped. They have a lilac-pinkish tint. In the center - yellow. The perianth segments of these flowers are bent back.
Licoris radiant - in nature, flowers of this species can be seen in Nepal, as well as in China or Korea. The species was brought to the territory of the United States, where it was successfully naturalized. He is also naturalized in Japan and some other countries. These perennial plants, like other representatives of the genus, are distinguished by the fact that their flowers form and fade before leaves appear on the plant. As a rule, flower arrows grow about 30-70 cm in height. The leaves are long, parallel. Their width is about 1 cm. From the middle, they can bend. The flowers are irregular. Their petals are like long tendrils. In the middle are wide, but short, arched petals.
China (Jiangsu, Shandong, Zhejiang), Japan, Korea
shady and humid, often disturbed places, along valleys, near streams, up to 1200 m above sea level
daughter bulbs (has a low multiplication factor, at best the bulb is divisible by 2)
planting to a depth of 30 cm (from the bottom) and mulching with compost
does not like transplants, after transplanting, flowering may stop for 1-2 years
complex mineral fertilizer for bulbous plants
digging and transplanting is carried out during the dormant period, in July
second half of August, 10-14 days
funnel-shaped, with bent, wavy light lilac petals up to 7 cm long and 1.8 cm wide and with a yellow center, with truncated scales in the tube, fragrant stamens of the same length with the perianth
umbellate at the tops of the stems, of 4-5 flowers
leaves are numerous, basal, belt-like, broad-linear, long, blunt at the top, appear in early spring, dry out by July, can grow back in autumn
leafless, simple, straight
the fruit is a tricuspid box, does not tie seeds in central Russia
the bulb is round-ovate, about 5 cm in diameter, covered with black-brown scales
Lycoris is propagated by baby bulbs, which grow annually near adult bulbs, more often this occurs in small-planted bulbs. By the end of the season, the children can be separated, but it is often undesirable to do this, since the plant weakens and after division does not bloom for 1–2 years. After flowering, the bulbs must be dug up and carefully separated from each other. In warm climates, immediately put in a new place, and in our conditions, dry and put away for storage, because bulbs do not overwinter in the soil, or plant them very deeply, up to 30 cm.
Before planting, the soil must be dug well. The distance from other plants should be at least 60 cm, as the bush grows rapidly. After planting, it is well watered, this helps the seedlings quickly adapt to new conditions.
In the process of growth, minimal care is required, the main thing is to find the right place. At the first time after planting, young baptisia must be formed by pruning (in early spring) in order to set the desired direction of growth, and when the bushes become older, then this moment in leaving will disappear.
There is no need to shelter baptisia for the winter. In central Russia and Belarus, the culture winters well and tolerates any frost.
Sandy soils with a good drainage system are suitable for growing spider lilies. In addition, the soil should have a sufficient amount of organic fertilizers. The bulbs are planted in the fall in pre-prepared soil to a depth of 10-12 cm.
The most important thing is to organize the correct watering and choose a planting site. Spider lily is a thermophilic culture, but at temperatures above 27 degrees it feels uncomfortable, so in the garden you need to choose a place where there will be shade during the hottest hours of the day.
This may be the northern part of the garden, where the temperature will not rise above 27 degrees. At the same time, the plant does not tolerate drought, the soil should always be slightly moist.
The landing site should be protected from wind and drafts, a corner under the shade of large deciduous trees is well suited. In one place, a plant can live for 4-5 years. Each year, one bulb grows, so after 5 years it becomes cramped, and the plants must be planted in new places.