How to properly water the beds

Watering is serious business

Everyone knows that water for plants is life itself. Biological and biochemical processes in plants cannot take place without water. Water is essential both for dissolving mineral nutrients from the soil and for photosynthesis. And the plants themselves are 90% water. But it turns out that plants evaporate even more moisture. Compare: to maintain a plant in a normal state, 1 part of dry matter requires 4 parts of water, and 300 parts evaporate at the same time. One hectare of irrigated land "drinks" 1 liter of water per second. The importance of watering is obvious.

However, for good plant growth, they need not only mineral nutrition, the presence of carbon dioxide in the air, but also a favorable combination of water-air regime in the soil, which is often violated by improper watering. It is also important what kind of water the plants are watered with. Summer residents, whose sites are located close to the city, often use chlorinated tap water, which is bad, since chlorine kills beneficial microorganisms that play a very important role in plant life. The use of groundwater, which often contains a lot of iron, is also unfavorable. Most gardeners are watered with ordinary river or lake water, let's hope that it is not very polluted by civilization.

Today's gardeners and gardeners often do not carry water with buckets and watering cans, but use pumps, which is much easier and more convenient. But excessive watering of the soil with a hose leads to its mechanical destruction, washing away of microorganisms and washing them out of the root layer. A decrease in the number of microorganisms naturally worsens the mineral nutrition of plants. In addition, if, after abundant watering, the soil is not loosened, then favorable conditions are created for the development of anaerobic bacteria that form hydrogen sulfide, and it poisons the roots of plants. Improper hose watering directly on the soil also leads to an increase in salts and the active development of phytopathogenic fungi that cause plant diseases.

Watering plants through a mulch cover

It is best to water the plants through a mulch cover. Organic mulch with a layer of 5-7 centimeters suppresses weeds, serves both as food and a home for microorganisms, retains moisture, preventing its evaporation. Even in the hottest weather, it does not overheat, remaining cool. Warm air, sinking through the mulch into the loose soil, cools, and the water vapor present in it falls out in the form of underground dew. This is how natural (or dry) autowatering works, according to the same principle, rivers are replenished with water. It is estimated that the amount of moisture received by plants in this way is twice as much as that given by ordinary precipitation. As a result, mulched beds need to be watered 3-4 times less than usual.

To prevent the mulch from rotting, as well as to create favorable conditions for the development of plants, watering must be combined with the introduction of agronomically beneficial microorganisms (EM preparations) into the soil. To protect the plants from diseases, they should be sprayed with EM preparations after watering. Spraying should be fine so that large droplets do not run off the leaves, for this it is best to use sprayers with a misty spray.

Irrigation methods for various agrotechnical measures are also important. For example, when sowing seeds, you first need to make grooves, spill them with water, then sow the seeds and sprinkle them without watering. If you water the grooves after sowing or sprinkling seeds even from a watering can, light seeds are washed off from their places with water, and the seedlings will be uneven and uncooked.

Another example: many gardeners complain that their carrots grow crooked. At the same time, soil hardness is blamed for such a defect. And the reason for this is unexpected: frequent and abundant watering of carrots in the spring led to the death of the central root, and, as a result, the lateral ones began to develop.

The most optimal for today is drip irrigation on mulch with the placement of drain holes in the area of ​​plant roots. It is clear that it is difficult and expensive to organize such drip irrigation throughout the entire area, but using it for the most important and especially greenhouse plantings that cannot take advantage of the moisture of the free rain is beneficial and useful. Various drip irrigation systems are sold, you just need to choose the option that suits your site. Ask your friends, read the necessary literature about the features of various systems, consult with experienced gardeners. There is still time until spring.

I wish you success, dear summer residents, and a Happy New Year!

Sergey Rumyantsev

When and how to water cucumbers?

In good weather, you can water the cucumbers in any way, but always with warm water (25-28 ° C), so that excess moisture evaporates, and the right amount of water is good for the cucumbers. In cold or cloudy weather, it is better to limit watering, since the roots do not absorb moisture well and rot if there is an excess. Moreover, fungus may appear on the leaves.

On the leaves, cucumbers are best watered up to 12 hours, then during the day the air humidity around the plants will be higher. The soil under them is moistened within a radius of 15 cm and to a depth of 20 cm. At the same time, near the root collar, the earth must be dry, otherwise the root begins to rot (for the same reason, cucumbers do not spud).

Water is poured under the plant in a weak stream, without compacting the soil and without injuring the roots, since they are located superficially. If there is no opportunity to water the cucumbers in the morning, then watering over the leaves is carried out in the evening, when the heat has already subsided, and the coolness has not yet come.

In sunny weather, cucumbers are not watered, as drops of water falling on the stems and leaves can cause burns

Several important recommendations on how to water the garden

It is better to moisten the soil in the early or in the evening, doing it in a timely manner and regularly. In spring, irrigation is oriented towards a 10-centimeter depth of the soil, since at this time the plants still have enough moisture accumulated in the soil. Depending on the temperature outside, the irrigation rate increases. Remember that during the flowering period, crops are more sensitive to lack of moisture, so it is better to pay more attention to planting during this time. If plants grow on sandy soil, then they need increased moisture. In order for the liquid to enter the soil well, systematic loosening of the soil will not be superfluous.

Knowing how to water the garden, you will be able to get a high-quality harvest, achieve abundant flowering of crops, enjoy your garden and beds every day.

Water quality

The orchid is a tropical plant and its source of life is water. This is her constant food. Through water, the orchid can regulate its health. Orchids that grow in rainforests benefit from good, clean rainwater for nutrition. In urban conditions, the composition of water is different everywhere, so the quality of water must be monitored, as it affects the health of the flower.

For irrigation, use soft water or at least moderate hardness. The hardness of water at home is determined by the scale formed in the kettle: its amount and rate of occurrence.

How to properly water the garden and vegetable garden

© Photo: Publishing House "Volgogradskaya Pravda" / archive.

Caring for garden and garden plants is not only about turning on the tap and directing the hose towards the garden bed. Today "MK in Volgograd" together with the editorial board of the newspaper "Krestyanskaya Zhizn" will share the irrigation rules with Volgograd residents. To do this, we talked with a specialist from the Research Institute of Irrigated Agriculture, a professor at an agricultural university Omariy Chamurliev, Honored Meliorator of the Russian Federation Alexander Bolotin and biologist Valery Bgashev.

So, the garden needs more water than the garden, because trees have more developed roots, while annuals pull their roots along the surface of the earth, where it is dry and very hot.

- The first watering of seedlings should be abundant, and then you should stop and wait ten days for the roots to extend deep into the depths, - experts say.

- Large farms often save water and switch plants to a rigid irrigation regime - 65-70% of the norm. Then the plants go deep into the ground, where they look for water. This applies to tomatoes, peppers, which have a taproot system, and eggplants with a fibrous root system that penetrates deep into the soil up to 1.5 m, - notes Omariy Chamurliev.

“If you water the tomatoes often, they grow watery,” says biologist Valery Bgashev.

These are just a few life hacks for gardeners. If you are interested in the secrets of proper moisture preservation, loosening and other summer cottage activities, read the great material "Peasant Life".

We plan the garden correctly

So, you have already prepared the seeds and even grown seedlings at home. It remains only to decide exactly where to plant all the plants, choosing the optimal place on your site for certain types of vegetables. You can start planning a garden in early spring, when the snow has completely melted from the site, and the soil has dried well.

In general, the planning of the plot, which is engaged in by a summer resident with many years of experience in gardening, looks like this - the owner simply walks along the already equipped paths, leaving sticks and pegs in the ground and muttering to himself: "Here are two beds of pepper", "And here there will be tomatoes" ...

In fact, it's so easy to approach planning a garden for summer residents only with many years of experience on the site. Less experienced gardeners should heed the advice of professionals and approach the process of planning vegetable planting in a scientific way.

If you first decided to set up a vegetable garden on a newly acquired piece of land, then you will have to take into account several main factors:

  1. Cardinal points. Experts advise breaking the beds for future planting strictly in length from north to south or from northeast to southwest. So the planting of plants will be warmed up and illuminated by the sun's rays during the day as evenly as possible. It has been proven that with such an arrangement of the beds, plants are less susceptible to fungal diseases. The southern, slightly warmer and better illuminated side should be given to thermophilic crops such as beans, tomatoes and cucumbers, and the northern - cold-resistant - radish, turnip and rutabaga. To protect the plants from cold winds, it is better to plant dense rows of corn, sunflowers or berry bushes such as gooseberries or currants on the north side.
  2. Soil composition. If on this site vegetables will be planted for the first time, it is necessary to study the composition of the soil. If the soil is clayey, you will first need to add straw manure, sand, compost, turf soil and mineral fertilizers to the soil. If the soil is sandy, then peat, manure and mineral fertilizers are ideal additives. In case of increased acidity of the soil, it is necessary to add lime additives - quicklime or slaked lime, as well as wood ash. Of course, you can add all of the above additives in the fall, but experts call early spring the optimal period for adjusting the composition of the soil - about a month before planting seedlings and seeds.
  3. Illumination. It is possible to influence the illumination of the site only by cutting down the existing trees. Planting seedlings under the lush crowns of apple or pear trees is not strongly recommended. Trees can only grow from the north side of the garden - so they will not block the plants from the sun's rays and at the same time protect them from the cold wind. If there is a free piece of land on the north side of the house, it is better to plant unpretentious plants there, for example, sorrel or onions, for which too much sun is even harmful. Tomatoes or cucumbers in the shade will definitely wither away. It is even better to give such a northern front garden for flowers, since it is quite risky to grow vegetables here.
  4. The relief of the site. If the site has an uneven relief, then in the lowland the soil in the spring will thaw and dry much longer than the land on the hills. In addition, in heavy rain, there will be water in such areas. That is, you need to take care of the system of drainage grooves that will help get rid of excess moisture. In such lowland areas, professionals advise planting cabbage and other moisture-loving plants. But, if in your region the summer is usually dry and hot, then you can plant tomatoes and peppers in low-lying areas - in this case, you will have to water the seedlings a little less often.

If on the site where it is planned to set up a garden, before that only weeds grew and there was an ordinary lawn, the owners have two options: remove the topsoil with weed roots completely, remove it from the site and add peat, rotted manure to the soil and, if necessary, sand or simply dig up the site and plant potatoes here in the first year.

The first option is too time consuming and expensive, therefore it is not popular with gardeners. In the second case, in the first year, the potato yield will be low, but most of the weeds will disappear and the next season it will be possible to plant any, even the most fastidious vegetables.

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