5 misconceptions of an inexperienced mushroom picker that are life-threatening

The "quiet hunting" season is approaching. Mushroom pickers are already following in the direction of the forest with an empty basket and full confidence that they know exactly which mushrooms are edible and which are not. Meanwhile, as the statistics on poisoning show, even the most experienced lovers of forest gifts can make mistakes due to some false beliefs.

I know what kind of mushroom it is

Many mushroom pickers go to the forest since childhood and can determine by eye which fruit body does not pose a danger to life. Nevertheless, among the doubles there are also those that resemble an edible analogue to the smallest detail and it is not always easy to distinguish them "by eye" even for those who have been collecting all their life. Mushroom pickers are also mistaken in the fact that all edible mushrooms have a pleasant mushroom aroma, and the false ones smell disgusting. For example, a poisonous pod really smells pretty bad, but some types of fly agarics or the same pale toadstool exude the most innocent smell characteristic of the same mushrooms. Therefore, before sending the forest "harvest" to the pan, you should check it again for the presence of poisonous twins. If there is even the slightest doubt about the edibility, then it is better not to risk it and throw it away.

You should not check mushrooms for food suitability using various folk methods. For example, some mushroom pickers claim that if you throw an inedible mushroom into milk, it will curdle. However, such a reaction is caused by organic acids and pepsin, which are contained in all fruit bodies without exception.

Darkening of onions, garlic or a silver spoon, dipped into a saucepan during cooking, which is also associated with the ingress of toadstools into the broth, occurs under the action of the enzyme tyrosinase and sulfhydryl groups of amino acids present in all mushrooms. Long-term cooking of poisonous twins in vinegar and very salty will not help. water. After such a meal, serious poisoning will inevitably occur.

I gotta eat a bite to check

This delusion can even become fatal. Of course, a person will not die immediately from a minimum dose of poison, but at the same time he may not feel any manifestations of poisoning. Even a small piece of pale toadstool will not lead to vomiting or abdominal pain, moreover, it tastes quite good, crunches appetizingly on the teeth and does not taste bitter. Therefore, it is unrealistic to determine the edibility or toxicity from one small sample. Among the false mushrooms there are those that do not at all cause nausea or any other primary signs of poisoning. However, some of them are able to kill gradually. For example, a spider web can be fatal even a month after consumption, and all this time a person will not feel unwell.

All edible mushrooms are safe

Mushrooms, like a sponge, absorb all the harmful substances contained in soil, water or air. This property is possessed by both poisonous and edible gifts of the forest, so if you collect a basket of the purest whites along a highway, a railway or in a forest near a metropolis (closer than 50-100 km), then, most likely, they will contain the entire periodic table ... Eating such food is not only harmful, but hazardous to health. Even over the impassable taiga, the same acid rains can fall, so it is almost impossible to find perfectly clean mushrooms. Meanwhile, in a normal forest far from big cities, the probability of stumbling into a white or boletus soaked through with harmful substances is minimal. The main thing is to take into account its size: the larger the fruiting body, the more decay products of protein and fatty substances have accumulated in it, which can provoke malfunctions of the digestive and nervous systems.

If a snail eats, then the mushroom is safe.

Many inexperienced mushroom pickers believe that a snail will never eat a poisonous mushroom. This statement is an absolute myth. Insects, their larvae, birds and the very same snails eat inedible mushrooms with pleasure. What is suitable for food for various representatives of the fauna may not be suitable for humans at all.

Mushrooms are good for all people

Another misconception is that the protein found in large quantities in mushrooms is good for everyone. For example, even good gifts of the forest can cause irreparable harm to a child, because there are not enough enzymes in his body to digest such heavy food. For the same reason, problems can arise in people with diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, especially in those who suffer from enzymatic deficiency. after all, the chitin contained in the fruiting bodies is practically not digested. Also, mushrooms are rich in fiber, and this also does not always benefit the body in which there are certain disorders. It is not recommended to get carried away with such food and people suffering from cardiovascular diseases. The fact is that mushrooms are often eaten fried or salted (pickled), which means that such food will contain excess fat or salt, which is strongly not recommended to be abused for such ailments.

[Votes: 4 Average: 2.3]

Beware, poisonous mushrooms: a selection of known species

What is the most important thing for a mushroom picker who goes to the forest to "quietly hunt"? No, not a basket at all (although you will also need it), but knowledge, especially in relation to which mushrooms are poisonous and which you can safely put in the basket. Without them, an outing for a forest treat can smoothly turn into an urgent trip to the hospital. In some cases, it will turn into the last walk in life. To avoid disastrous consequences, we bring to your attention a brief information about dangerous mushrooms, which must not be cut in any case. Take a closer look at the photos and remember how they look forever. So let's get started.

Prevention against ailments

There are times when cacti infest incurable diseases. Proper care and routine hygiene will help save them from death. Of course, this is not about hand washing in a pandemic. There are a few simple rules.

When buying a cactus, flower growers pay attention to the root system (if possible), needles, and the body of the flower. The culture should not have:

  • dents
  • points
  • stains
  • mold elements.

Inspection for the presence of pests will not hurt either. For example, a miniature white dot indicates the habitat of a mealybug. The brown speck is a masked microscopic scale. Such a plant should not be brought into your home.

If the choice fell on a perfectly healthy succulent, the problem may appear later. Therefore, the new "pets" arrange a monthly quarantine away from other plants. When transplanting cacti, be sure to disinfect the soil and wash the pots with hot water.

It is through the soil that most of the fungi that cause dangerous infections are transmitted.

What does a false porcini mushroom look like?

A real porcini mushroom looks like a dense fleshy mushroom with a thick stem and a tough brown cap, which in some species can have white and red-brown color.

One of the first false porcini mushrooms that can be found in the forest is bitterness or gall mushroom. Outwardly, it is very similar to a real edible porcini mushroom, but its pulp contains a high concentration of substances that give it a bitter taste. You can distinguish the false white gall fungus by the color of the cut. A true porcini mushroom will have a white cut, while a false bile cep will turn pink on the cut. In addition, the false porcini mushroom will have a mesh-like pattern on the upper part of the stem, which is never seen in a real edible porcini mushroom. And one more sign by which you can distinguish an edible porcini mushroom from a false one - the tubular layer of a false fungus has a pinkish or whitish tint, while in a real porcini mushroom it is yellow.

Another type of false porcini mushroom is the satanic mushroom. It is so dangerous that only 1 g of this mushroom can cause serious food poisoning in humans. The satanic mushroom belongs to the boletus species, and therefore it often becomes an object of prey for inexperienced mushroom pickers. However, there are several differences that can be used to distinguish this species of false ceps from edible ones. The first difference is in the color of the mushroom leg. The satanic mushroom is often found, which has a whitish, grayish and olive-brown color of the cap and a velvety structure, which is typical for a real porcini mushroom. However, the color of the leg should be alarming if it has shades of red, bright orange and red-brown colors. Any of the shades of red combined with another color is the first sign of a satanic mushroom. Therefore, be sure to bypass it. The flesh of the satanic mushroom on the cut also instantly turns pink or becomes red, blue. When buying or picking mushrooms, always pay attention to the cut to avoid buying dangerous poisonous false porcini mushrooms. The old false porcini mushroom has all the signs, and will have an unpleasant odor on the cut, which is also the difference.

Separately, I would like to say about one more mushroom from the category of porcini, which is called the Polish mushroom. This mushroom from the boletus family is edible, but it is often confused and not taken for fear of poisoning. But you can also distinguish a Polish mushroom by its cut, which first turns blue, then brightens. The smell of Polish mushroom is soft mushroom pleasant, the leg has a smoother shape. The color of the cap is dark red, brown-red, the flesh is fleshy. The porous lower part of the cap turns blue when pressed, which distinguishes the Polish mushroom from other false porcini mushrooms, has a light yellow color and a small notch at the stem.

Poisoning with plant poisons

1. Poisonous substances and poisoning

Poisons are substances that, when exposed to living organisms, cause a sharp disruption of normal life, that is, poisoning or death. The concept of poisons is relative. The strength and nature of the effect of toxic substances on the body depend not only on the physical and chemical properties of substances, but also on the characteristics of a living organism. The same chemical, depending on different conditions, may be harmful to health or have no effect. There are powerful chemicals that are used as medicines in small doses and under certain conditions.
The effect of poisonous substances on a living organism, which causes a painful condition, is called poisoning. Shipments can be intentional or accidental in origin. The largest part of poisoning is accidents when poison accidentally enters the human body.
Acute poisoning develops as a result of the ingestion of chemicals of various natures into the human or animal body in such an amount that can cause disruption of vital functions and creates a danger to life. The smaller the amount (dose) of a chemical that causes poisoning, the more pronounced its toxicity, that is, toxicity.
Acute poisoning is divided according to the route of entry of the toxic substance into the body. The most common food poisoning is the ingestion of poison through the mouth into the gastrointestinal tract, from where it is more or less rapidly absorbed into the bloodstream and spread throughout the body. In addition, inhalation poisoning is possible when inhaling vapors of a toxic substance, skin poisoning when poisons enter the body through unprotected skin, cavity poisoning when a poisonous substance enters various body cavities: the nasal cavity, ear, genitals and others. Injection poisoning is also possible due to the introduction of solutions of toxic substances directly into the tissues or blood flow using a syringe or with the bites of poisonous insects and snakes.

In case of poisoning, poisonous substances enter the bloodstream and are carried by it throughout the body. Some poisonous substances have a harmful effect on the entire human body, while others have a selective effect on individual organs and their systems.
The elimination of poisons from the body occurs in a variety of ways. Almost all toxic substances or their decay products are excreted from the body through the kidneys along with urine. Organs through which poisons are secreted are often severely damaged by them, which causes serious illness. Many toxic substances, acting on the body, cause characteristic changes inherent in them and characteristic clinical signs by which poisoning with this substance is recognized. However, specific signs of poisoning with a certain substance are not always clearly expressed or are masked by general signs of poisoning. Such common signs that are observed in almost all poisoning include general malaise, weakness, apathy, loss of appetite, sleep disturbances, headaches, gastrointestinal tract dysfunction, abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. Often, in case of poisoning, acute disorders of cardiovascular activity are observed, accompanied by palpitations, increased or slowed heart rate, increased or decreased blood pressure, respiratory disorders - shortness of breath, feeling of lack of air, rapid or slow breathing.
Some poisonings are accompanied by mental disorders, agitation, disturbances or loss of consciousness, involuntary urination or defecation. There are also external changes in the skin and mucous membranes, cyanosis of the face and lips, dry skin or, conversely, increased sweating.
The development of poisoning and the degree of its severity, in addition to the amount (dose) of the poison that has entered the body and its chemical composition, is influenced by many conditions. It is known that children and old people are more sensitive to certain toxic substances. In women during pregnancy, breastfeeding and during menstruation, sensitivity to various substances is also increased. Sick people, especially with diseases of the liver, heart, kidneys, etc., are more difficult to tolerate poisoning. Some people have an unusually increased individual sensitivity to various chemicals or drugs (allergies). In such cases, a severe general allergic reaction develops from a small amount of this substance, sometimes ending in death.
At the same time, there are facts of individual resistance to known toxic substances due to addiction to them, for example, to nicotine and other drugs of plant origin.

There are many chemicals that cause acute poisoning. These, for example, include drugs used to treat diseases, but in an increased dose, various animal toxins and plant poisons that have toxic properties, used by humans for the preparation of drugs, and many other substances.
All of these numerous chemicals manifest their toxic effects on the body in various ways, respectively, which they are divided into irritating, cauterizing, skin-blistering, asphyxiant, sleeping pills, convulsive and other poisons. Moreover, most of them, regardless of the dose and the route of penetration into the body, have the so-called selective toxicity, that is, the ability to affect strictly defined cells and tissue structures, without affecting others with which they are in direct contact.According to the principle of selective toxicity, blood poisons are emitted, affecting mainly blood cells (carbon monoxide, nitrate and others), nervous, or neurotoxic, poisons that affect cells of the central and peripheral nervous system (alcohol, drugs and others), renal, and hepatic poisons that disrupt functions these organs (some fungal toxins and others), heart poisons, when exposed to disrupt the work of the heart muscle (some plant poisons from the alkaloids group), gastrointestinal poisons that affect the stomach and intestines, respectively.

Acute poisoning by poisonous plants is a common type of food intoxication with a number of characteristic features. The causes of acute poisoning with herbal poisons can be self-medication - self-ingestion of herbal infusions and decoctions without consulting a doctor or on the recommendations of persons without medical education. Among the painful phenomena that follow the ingestion of poisonous plants, the main place is often occupied by disorders of the function of the gastrointestinal tract.
The active toxic principle of poisonous plants is various chemical compounds, which belong mainly to the class of alkaloids, glycosides, as well as some essential oils and organic acids (hydrocyanic, oxalic).
Alkaloids are complex organic compounds containing carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen. Their salts dissolve quickly in water and are absorbed in the stomach or intestines. The structural peculiarity of glycosides lies in the fact that they easily break down into their constituent carbohydrate (sugary) part and several other toxic substances.

Symptoms of human damage with plant poisons depend on their predominant effect on certain organs and systems of the body (selective toxicity). In case of poisoning with many plants, the symptoms of damage to the nervous system come to the fore. The nature of the lesion can be different. In some cases, the poisonous substances of plants excite the activity of the central parts of the nervous system, in others, on the contrary, they quickly suppress them or completely paralyze them. Depending on this, in the first case, signs of increased arousal prevail in the picture of poisoning, manifested in the form of increased excitement, cramps of hands and feet, manic disorder of consciousness, deceptive sensations, itching, vision of small insects. At the same time, the pupils of the eyes are noticeably dilated, the skin becomes dry and hot, swallowing is impaired, the pulse and respiration become more frequent. Such symptoms can be in case of poisoning with belladonna, dope, bleached, wormwood, milestone, aconite

and other herbal poisons of nervous action. In the second case of poisoning with such poisons, signs of suppression of nervous activity prevail in the form of a decrease in skin sensitivity, drowsiness, depressed mood, difficulty in voluntary movements to a state of complete immobility and loss of consciousness. At the same time, the pulse and breathing are reduced, the skin becomes moist and cold. Similar symptoms are observed with poisoning with poppy, horsetail, omega spotted, pickle and others.

In severe poisoning, the excitation of the nervous system is often only the first stage of the action of the poison, followed, sometimes very quickly, by a strong depression and paralysis of its activity. The initial effect on the nervous system is usually complicated by disorders of other organs, primarily the heart and respiratory organs, which can lead to the development of their failure and death of patients.
A significant amount of poisonous plants has a strong effect on the mucous membrane of the digestive tract and causes severe abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea. As a result, due to the rapid dehydration of the body, severe weakness, shortness of breath, and weakening of cardiac activity can develop. This group includes plants containing saponin (euphorbia, sprouted potatoes, nightshade), mustard and others.
Vegetable pesticides (anabasine, nicotine) are very strong poisons. The lethal dose of anabasine for humans is 2-3 drops. Both poisons, when ingested, damage the central nervous system and cause respiratory paralysis.
In acute poisoning with anabasine, patients note a burning sensation in the mouth, headache, vomiting, general weakness, palpitations. In more severe cases, hallucinations and delusions, convulsions, and loss of consciousness are noted. Anabazine and nicotine are especially easily absorbed into the body through abrasions, scratches and ulcerations of the skin.

Poisoning with witchcraft.

Among the poisonings encountered by healers, the following are found:

poisoning with tincture of tobacco. Tincture or decoction of tobacco contains a large amount of a strong alkaloid - nicotine, which causes severe poisoning, paralysis of the nervous system and death. The lethal dose of nicotine is 0.05 g. Healers recommend making enemas and lotions from the infusion or decoction of tobacco and drinking this poisonous liquid. In such cases, nicotine is rapidly absorbed into the bloodstream and has a detrimental effect on the body.

Poisoning with decoctions and infusions of poisonous plants. Often, under the pretext of "medicinal, folk" herbs, healers sell the roots of poisonous plants, the use of which causes severe poisoning and death. So, under the name of "adam root" they sell the roots of poisonous plants, which contain very life-threatening substances. These roots include:

1.the roots of hemlock (omega) spotted, which contain the strong alkaloid coniine, which causes poisoning and death
2. the roots of aconite (wrestler, "blue buttercup"), containing the strongest poison - glucoside aconitine, which in a dose of 0.003 g causes death
3.roots of omega marsh (milestone poisonous, cicuta), containing an extremely poisonous substance cicutotoxin

2. Poisonous plants

Plants that are capable of producing and accumulating toxic substances that cause poisoning of humans and animals are called poisonous.
Different types of poisonous plants can produce one or more poisonous compounds: alkaloids, glucosides, saponins, and others. In this case, toxic substances are contained in the entire plant as a whole or only in its individual parts. For example, quinine is contained in the bark of the cinchona tree, but is absent in the leaves; in the poppy, the leaves, stems, seed pods are poisonous, but the seeds are not poisonous.
The toxic properties of most poisonous plants (aconite, castor oil plant, bitter almonds) are not lost when dried or heat treated. Other plants lose these properties when dried.
The most frequent cases of poisoning of people with poisonous plants, outwardly similar to edible non-poisonous species. For example, hemlock leaves are similar in appearance to parsley and can be mistakenly used as a condiment for food. The whole plant is poisonous, containing the alkaloid koniin, whose action is similar to curare. In case of poisoning, there is a loss of skin sensitivity, respiratory depression. In severe cases, death from suffocation occurs.
One of the most poisonous plants of the flora of Russia is the poisonous milestone or cicuta. The whole plant is poisonous, especially the rhizome. The poisonous principle is the resinous substance cicutotoxin. In case of poisoning, unconsciousness occurs, convulsions appear, foam at the mouth. Death occurs from respiratory arrest.
Severe poisoning is caused by belladonna berries, similar to cherries, and henbane seeds, similar to poppy seeds. Symptoms of poisoning with belladonna berries and henbane seeds are similar.

There is a dry mouth, a feeling of thirst, the pupils dilate greatly, the skin of the face turns red. The victim becomes highly agitated with hallucinations and delusions. Death from suffocation due to paralysis of the respiratory center and vascular insufficiency is possible.
Similar phenomena are observed with ordinary dope poisoning.
There are frequent cases of poisoning of children with raven's eye berries, vaguely reminiscent of blueberries or blueberries. A victim of poisoning with this berry develops a headache and dizziness, nausea, diarrhea, vomiting, and frequent urination.
Wolf's bast is a shrub with juicy bright red or orange-red berries, reminiscent of sea buckthorn. The whole plant is poisonous, especially the berries. When eating berries, there is a burning sensation in the mouth, increased salivation and thirst. Vomiting, bloody diarrhea appear, a little later - blood in the urine, cardiac disorders. If the juice of the wolf bast comes into contact with the skin, it burns with blistering and ulceration.
May lily of the valley is also poisonous.

The whole plant is poisonous, especially its red juicy berries. When poisoning occurs, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, dizziness is noted.
In contact with poisonous plants or contact with the skin of the juice of a poisonous plant, acute inflammation, eczema, dermatitis may develop. When collecting datura on hot days, poisoning by plant vapors is possible. Inhalation of the dust generated during the grinding of castor bean may cause allergic reactions with symptoms of bronchial asthma. Dermatitis is often noted upon contact with primrose (indoor, Chinese and others). Dermatitis caused by meadow plants (sedge, parsnip, yarrow and others) is often noted in people lying in the meadow after swimming. Open parts of the body are affected, while strip-like rashes are characteristic. Severe dermatitis is also caused by Sosnovsky's borsch.
The active toxic principle of plants, mainly disrupting the activity of the heart, are glycosides. These include well-known plants - foxglove, adonis, oleander, lily of the valley, from which special tinctures are prepared, which have been used as medicines for a long time. Toxic doses overexcite the activity of the heart and make it unable to perceive the inhibitory effect from the central nervous system from the central nervous system, transmitted through the vagus nerve. Poisoning is manifested by strong palpitations, a feeling of "sinking" in the heart due to a disturbance in the rhythm of its activity, pale face and fainting.
Cardiac glycosides of foxglove and other plants have a cumulative effect, that is, the ability to accumulate in the body when taken for a long time. In this case, symptoms of poisoning may develop after taking even a small dose of these drugs. In addition, saponins and a number of other organic substances destroy the mucous membrane of the digestive tract and can cause nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.
A number of poisonous plants have a predominant effect on the liver, as a result of which they are called liver poisons. These include the groundwort, heliotrope, pink bitterness. The alkaloids of these plants cause loss of appetite, indigestion (nausea, diarrhea), jaundice (icteric staining of the whites of the eyes and skin), itching of the skin, pain in the liver, mental disturbances (speech excitement, followed by a state of drowsiness).
A special place among poisonous plants is occupied by hogweed. The main manifestation of their toxic effect is observed upon contact with unprotected skin. The essential oil they release, especially in cloudy weather, burns the skin severely and forms watery blisters.

Poisoning can also occur when eating plants that are considered non-poisonous. For example, grains of bitter almonds, apricots, cherries, bird cherries and other stone fruits contain hydrocyanic acid.
Greened potato tubers contain a large amount of solanine glycoalkaloid, which causes diarrhea, heart palpitations, shortness of breath, and numbness in humans. Similar symptoms are noted with poisoning with bittersweet nightshade berries.
Poisoning by volatile substances of some plants (bird cherry, poppy, lily, tuberose and others) is not uncommon when large bouquets are kept indoors. The victims have headache and dizziness.

3. Mushroom poisoning

Mushroom poisoning occurs not only when inedible mushrooms are eaten, but also edible when they are improperly processed and preserved. Mushroom poisoning is quite common and sometimes ends in death, since the mushroom toxin is poisonous.
So, for example, morels and lines contain poisonous gelwellic acid, which can cause hemolysis (dissolution of red blood cells), damage the liver, heart, kidneys and spleen. The lines, in addition to Helvelic acid, also contain a whole group of very dangerous toxic substances, for example, gyrometrin, which, in addition to its ability to cause damage to the liver and other vital organs, also has a toxic effect on the nervous system and disrupts metabolic processes in the body, including in cells brain.
Usually, the effect of the poison does not begin to manifest itself immediately, but after 6-10 hours. The disease develops gradually. First, there is a feeling of fullness and squeezing in the stomach, which over time acquires the character of pain and cramps, nausea occurs, turning into indomitable vomiting. Sometimes there is diarrhea, a rapidly growing feeling of weakness and weakness. Very often there is a sharp headache, clouding of consciousness, delirium, convulsions, jaundice is often observed.
Children, young people, pregnant women and the elderly are especially sensitive to the action of helvelic acid and gyrometrin.
It has been experimentally established that gelwellic acid is extracted from mushrooms by boiling. Unlike helvelic acid, gyrometrin dissolves in hot water; heat treatment does not affect it either. But with prolonged drying, gyrometrin and other substances of this group contained in the lines are nevertheless destroyed during prolonged drying.
Thus, proper handling of mushrooms can eliminate the possibility of poisoning by them.

Death cap

The most poisonous mushroom of all those found on the territory of Russia. The main role in the mechanism of poisoning with pale toadstool is played by amanitotoxin. This substance is completely insoluble in water, retains its toxicity even after boiling for 20 minutes, and is not destroyed under the influence of enzymes of the gastrointestinal tract.
The venom of the pale toadstool affects the liver, cells of the central nervous system, blood vessels, glandular tissue and the walls of the digestive tract. Along with this, poison also causes a violation of many biochemical processes in the body.
Once in the body, the poison does not make itself felt immediately, but many hours later after dinner or lunch. Meanwhile, the poison does its job, and when signs of poisoning appear, it is already difficult to save a person: the fungal toxin that has penetrated into the blood can be removed from the body only with the help of hemodialysis. Therefore, early hospitalization in a qualified medical institution can save a person who has poisoned with a pale toadstool, even when the mushroom toxin is in the blood.


The chemical composition of the fly agaric and the mechanism of its action on human organs are now well understood. The main poisonous principle of fly agarics is the alkaloid muscarine - a strong poison, 3-5 mg of which kill a person (this amount of poison is contained in 3-4 fly agarics).
Fatalities are very rare and only occur when large quantities of these mushrooms are eaten. Recovery occurs relatively quickly: in 1-3 days. True, sometimes, for some reason, this period can be delayed and up to 11 days.

False mushrooms, skillfully disguising themselves as true ones, still end up in the baskets of inexperienced mushroom pickers, sometimes causing severe poisoning. False mushrooms are not highly toxic. When poisoning with these mushrooms, gastrointestinal disorders occur.These phenomena are associated with the action of "milk" juice of false mushrooms, which has pronounced irritating properties and causes gastroenteritis (inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract), accompanied by nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea.

4. First aid for poisoning

5. Treatment for poisoning

6. Prevention of acute poisoning

Using medicinal plants at home without knowing their medicinal properties can harm health and even cause death. Therefore, it is necessary to prepare medicinal herbs and prepare medications for treatment from them ourselves with extreme caution and only with reliable knowledge of the matter, and not by hearsay.
For the manufacture of medicines, medicinal plants are widely used, for example, lily of the valley, aloe, ergot, hellebore, belladonna and many others. From them, in special conditions, medicinal substances are obtained that are of great benefit to patients in therapeutic doses. However, from the same plants at home (in decoctions, infusions, etc.), substances are obtained that can cause great harm, since, for example, it is almost impossible to establish a therapeutic dose of these substances on the eye. It is especially dangerous to use home remedies for the treatment of children. All preventive measures against poisoning with poisonous mushrooms boil down to the following: it is necessary to remember well the distinctive signs of false mushrooms and pale toadstool.

In general, the prevention of poisoning with herbal poisons consists in the unswerving fulfillment of the following rules:
1.do not use unfamiliar plants, mushrooms for food
2.do not eat well-known cultivated plants (potatoes, cereals, buckwheat, peas and others) that were improperly stored and overwintered in the field
3.Do not ingest homemade tinctures and herbal medicines without the agreement of a doctor
4.do not spontaneously increase the dose prescribed by the doctor and prepared in the pharmacy tincture
5.do not allow children, especially young children, independently, without adult supervision, to pick mushrooms and berries
6. not trust your life and health to persons without special medical education who offer “miraculous” medicines made from plants for the treatment of diseases.

7. Literature:

1. AA Lukash "Household poisoning and their prevention." - M .: "Medicine", 1968.

2. SM Martynov "Prevention of mushroom poisoning". - M .: "Medicine", 1975.

3. J. Zekkardi "Encyclopedia of Emergency Medicine". - M .: KRON-PRESS, 1998.

False mushroom

Rode Zwavelkop (Hypholoma sublateritium)

In young mushrooms, its cap is bell-shaped, in old ones it is almost flat. The color of the cap is red-yellow or yellow-orange, with darkening in the middle. There is no “collar” ring on the leg, the flesh is yellowish and bitter in taste.

False honey is rarely the cause of death due to a natural defense mechanism. The fact is that it is impossible to get rid of the bitterness during heat treatment of this mushroom, and, as a rule, even with the ingestion of a small amount of these mushrooms, serious complications can be avoided.

Top dressing of cucumbers in the open field

Quality seeds, good soil, careful care of the seedlings - this is, of course, all very important. But one cannot but agree that this is not enough to get a good harvest. Top dressing is one of the important steps towards a rich harvest.

A person needs vitamins and minerals for health, proper functioning of the body - we can get them from food, and also take them additionally in the form of active supplements. Cucumbers also need minerals, but they cannot get them on their own - they need help.

In order for the cucumbers to grow healthy, bear fruit as long as possible, they need to be fed regularly - how to fertilize the cucumbers, in what way and how often it should be done, we will tell in this article.

Why do cucumbers need fertilizers?

If you have chosen fertile soil with a high content of various minerals for growing cucumbers, most likely you will get a rich harvest without resorting to additional measures.

However, far from everywhere cucumbers grow "by leaps and bounds", more often it happens that the soil in summer cottages does not contribute to abundant fruiting. Especially if the same crops are grown every year in the same places (most often the owners of "six acres" are forced to do just that).

In turn, fertilization of cucumbers has many positive aspects, it allows you to achieve excellent cultivation results.

Firstly, "Fed" cucumbers grow faster, and also begin to bear fruit earlier.

Secondly, fertilizers extend the fruiting period (often for a considerable period).

Thirdly, with the help of fertilizers for cucumbers, you can increase yields and even affect the taste of the fruit.

Fourth, properly selected fertilizers protect plants from diseases, and also strengthen their "immunity". For cucumbers growing in open ground, this factor is especially important, since such plants are less protected from pests and “vagaries of the weather” in comparison with cucumbers growing in greenhouses and greenhouses.

When to start feeding cucumbers and how often should you do it?

Among experienced gardeners, the time of the first feeding is clearly defined - the appearance of the first shoots. This does not depend on the method of growing, nor on the place where the cucumbers grow. In other words, the first time the cucumbers are fed immediately after the first shoots appear:

- if you grow a crop in a seedling way, feed each plant at home

- if you planted seeds (in a greenhouse or open field), the first feeding is carried out when the plant has two strong leaves.

After the first feeding, the frequency of fertilization is determined by an interval of every 15-20 days.

However, there is one caveat! To improve the quality of the soil for cucumbers planted in open ground, it is necessary to pre-cultivate the soil.

And there are three ways to do this:

1) Fertilizing the soil in the fall. Immediately after harvesting, the soil can be prepared for future "spring" plantings. Decide where you will grow cucumbers next year, dig up the ground, mark the ridges, and then "treat" them with a solution of mullein and water, humus or "lay" organic fertilizers (you can use food waste - eggshells, potato peels, fruit skins , vegetables). After that, bury the "trench" and, if possible, cover it with "insulation" for the whole winter.

Warm bed equipment

2) Preparing the beds in the spring. A few weeks before planting cucumbers in the open field, you can "equip" the so-called "warm beds". To do this, the ground dug up after winter is first treated with a solution of copper sulfate, and then an approximately 20-25 cm layer of soil is removed.

Ephedra and straw are placed in the resulting "ditches", poured over with a solution of bird droppings, ash and warm water. Before planting, the beds are covered with a special material or foil, and immediately before planting cucumbers in the open field, the ground is watered with hot water.

3) Mineral fertilization of the soil before planting cucumbers. This "ritual" is also carried out several weeks (preferably three) before planting cucumbers in the open field. The soil is treated with mineral fertilizers - nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. The amount of fertilizer is calculated based on the consumption per square meter. So, nitrogen for such a site requires no more than 10 grams, and phosphorus and potassium are taken in an amount of 10 to 15 grams.

How is the feeding of cucumbers carried out?

Root top dressing

If you do not take into account the preliminary preparation of the soil and the creation of "warm rows", then in general, the fertilization of cucumbers can be divided into two types:

Root feeding of cucumbers is carried out, as the name implies, by introducing fertilizers (organic or mineral) as close as possible to the root system. Of course, there is no need to dig holes and "lay" solutions and mixtures directly at the roots of plants. Cucumbers are usually watered with prepared solutions under the leaves. Moreover, they do it in such a way that the mixture does not fall on the leaves or whips, otherwise they may "burn", turn yellow or even die.

Foliar dressing

Foliar dressing, on the contrary, is carried out on leaves and whips (in rare cases - on fruits, but this is only if there are some diseases of the plant or they are especially exposed to the "invasion" of pests). In other words, foliar feeding is spraying. For her, a solution of mineral fertilizers is prepared not as concentrated as for root feeding.

What fertilizers to choose for feeding cucumbers?

Often inexperienced gardeners are misled by conversations about the unpretentiousness of cucumbers, while experienced summer residents know that such conversations are lazy. To get a rich, high-quality harvest of cucumbers, it is necessary not only to choose the right fertilizers, but also to accurately observe their proportions and timing of introduction. So, how to feed cucumbers so that they grow faster and start bearing fruit earlier?

The best organic fertilizer for cucumbers is mullein. It is recommended for both outdoor cucumbers and greenhouse plants.

The mullein is rich in various nutrients for cucumbers and can provide complete nutrition without the need for additional fertilization. For feeding cucumbers growing in the open field, a mullein solution is prepared based on the proportions of 1 to 10 - 10 liters of water are needed for 1 liter of fertilizer. At the same time, at least one liter of the finished solution is consumed per plant.

Another way to feed open ground cucumbers is bird droppings (most often chicken). It can be purchased dry at any gardening store. To prepare a solution, take 1 liter of droppings, mix with 10 liters of warm water, and add 2 cups of ash. Cucumbers are fed with this mixture according to the same "scheme" - 1 liter per 1 plant.

How else to fertilize cucumbers?

You can use universal ready-made fertilizers that are sold in stores. The method of their preparation, the required amount for plants, is usually indicated by the manufacturer on the package.

notewhat to use for fertilizing cucumbers growing in the open field, horse manure is strongly discouraged! This fertilizer contains a large amount of ammonia, which, when decomposed and in contact with the soil, releases dangerous nitrates that penetrate into the plant - such cucumbers can be hazardous to health.

In addition to organic fertilizers, open field cucumbers need, as mentioned above, minerals, the most important of which are potassium, nitrogen and phosphorus. Cucumbers growing in open ground are not only fed with mineral fertilizers, but also sprayed.

To prepare a mineral solution for root feeding for 10 liters of water, take 15 grams of urea, 50 grams of superphosphate and 15 grams of potassium. To prepare the composition for spraying, the proportions of the components change - for 10 liters of water there are 5 grams of ammonium nitrate, 10 grams of superphosphate and 8 grams of potassium sulfate.

During the fruiting of cucumbers in the open field, it is recommended to increase the amount of nitrogen and potassium up to two times.

At the same time, watch out for the appearance of the cucumbers - often an excess of minerals leads to their drying out and yellowing. Therefore, plants need to be watered more often and fertilized no more than once every 20 days. If the soil is depleted, top dressing is carried out every 15 days.

An important condition the correct fertilization of cucumbers is the use of warm solutions - this culture, in principle, does not tolerate cold, therefore solutions are always prepared with hot water, only slightly cooling them just before feeding.

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7 dangerous mushroom myths

«Errare humanum est ", - Seneca once said. Humans tend to make mistakes. Everything is true, but there are mistakes and misconceptions that are too expensive, so it's better not to make them anyway.

There are many myths and misconceptions associated with mushrooms.

There are many myths and misconceptions associated with mushrooms. Some of them are absolutely harmless - for example, legends about "witch circles" that exist among different nations. But when it comes to how to distinguish edible from poisonous mushrooms, relying on "folk omens" can be unhealthy.

What dangerous myths do mushroom pickers believe to this day?

Myth 1: snails and worms do not eat poisonous mushrooms.

Not at all! For example, the wonderful and useful chanterelle mushroom is toxic for worms and insects, so they do not touch it, and with many mushrooms poisonous to humans, neither snails nor insect larvae disdain. Moreover, it is not at all safe to use wormy mushrooms for food, even if the mushroom itself is edible.

Myth 2: poisonous mushrooms have an unpleasant smell.

A very unreliable sign! For example, the deadly toadstool, which is deadly to humans, is similar in smell to delicious champignons. Many poisonous mushrooms smell quite common - mushroom. And the perception of aromas is a subjective matter, it cannot serve as a reliable criterion of danger.

One of the main safety rules: take only those mushrooms that you are sure of

Myth 3: poisonous mushrooms taste bitter

It's an extremely dangerous idea to taste a potentially toxic food! And absolutely pointless, besides. The flesh of edible mushrooms, for example, some species of russula, can also taste bitter.

Myth 4: if you put a poisonous mushroom in milk, it will turn sour

The milk will really turn sour. Only with the toxicity of the fungus, this circumstance is not connected: the enzyme that causes the coagulation of milk protein is also present in edible mushrooms.

Myth 5: with prolonged cooking, poisonous mushrooms become harmless.

Not! Not all toxins contained in poisonous mushrooms are destroyed during heat treatment and other culinary manipulations. Neither vinegar, nor salt, nor high temperature will make the poisonous mushroom edible, so you should not try to "protect" yourself in such a dubious way.

No matter how much you cook the fly agaric, it will not become edible

Myth 6: silver turns black in a decoction of poisonous mushrooms.

Yes, it turns black. In the broth of any mushrooms, which contain amino acids containing sulfur. Both poisonous and edible.

Myth 7: alcohol helps with mushroom poisoning

Perhaps this is one of the most dangerous myths about mushrooms. In fact, alcohol can only aggravate the problem: accelerate the absorption of toxins, distort the picture of poisoning, and complicate the doctor's diagnosis.

Only timely and competent actions can really help with mushroom poisoning.For more information, read the article What to do in case of mushroom poisoning.Well, the best thing is to take care of prevention, to exclude the very possibility of a problem.

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