Phlox: planting and care in the open field, pruning, wintering


Garden plants

Some gardeners argue that they do not like phlox, they say, they are boring, simple, reluctant to share with division and rejuvenation ... We agree only one thing: yes, if you want to keep variegated phlox varietal chips from reverse (return to the original qualities of the parent variety), you will have to control and, if necessary, separate the parts of the bush that have changed color.
But about the rustic and boring phlox - we strongly disagree! Have you seen, for example, phlox varieties that change their color with the onset of dusk? Pay attention to the varieties "Alexei Lensky", "Pride of Russia", "Midshipman".
And phloxes that imitate Gzhel on white porcelain? "Neon" phloxes? Varieties "Gzhel" and "Sandro Botticelli".
Read about the features of care and possible difficulties when creating a phloxarium in our article.

Planting and caring for phlox

  • Landing: sowing seeds in spring or November-December in open ground or sowing seeds in March for seedlings.
  • Bloom: from June to autumn.
  • Lighting: penumbra.
  • The soil: medium loamy, rich in humus, moist, light and loose, neutral reaction.
  • Watering: moderate (1.5-2 buckets of water per m²), regular.
  • Hilling: in the second half of the growing season.
  • Top dressing: organic and mineral solutions: 1st - at the end of May, 2nd - at the beginning of June, 3rd - at the beginning of July, 4th - at the end of July. Perennial varieties are fed for the fifth time during the formation of ovaries.
  • Reproduction: annuals only by seeds, perennials mainly vegetatively - by dividing the bush, rhizome and leafy cuttings, but also by seed method.
  • Pests: nematodes, slugs, caterpillars.
  • Diseases: variegation, powdery mildew, phomosis, septoria, verticillium wilting.

Read more about growing phlox below.

Phlox (Latin Phlox) - a genus of herbaceous plants from the family Polemoniaceae, which includes about seventy species, of which about forty are cultivated. Phlox appeared in Europe in the middle of the 18th century, since then breeders have bred about 1500 varieties of beautiful and fragrant flowers.

In Greek phlox means flame. This name was given to the plant by Karl Linnaeus in 1737 for the very bright flowers of some species. The homeland of phlox is North America, the harsh climate of which made the plants unpretentious and tenacious. In addition, phlox are very fragrant and bloom for a long time.

Botanical description

Phloxes are diverse even within one species: their "appearance" changes depending on the climate in which they grow. For example, at an altitude of 4000 meters, they are bryophyte and undersized, their stems branch out and are covered with evergreen leaves, and the plant height is from 5 cm to 25 cm.In more favorable conditions, phloxes are erect bushes with a height of 30 cm to 180 cm. and shrubs.

By the time of flowering, they are spring (early), summer (medium) and summer-autumn (late). The culture is dominated by species and varieties of upright phlox. Their leaves are sessile, opposite, entire, oval-lanceolate or oblong-ovate.

Phlox flowers are from 2.5 cm to 4 cm in diameter, have a tubular-funnel-shaped shape and are collected in complex inflorescences up to 90 pieces each. The flowers have five folded petals, five stamens and one pistil. Phlox fruit is an oval box. All phlox grown in culture are perennial plants, and only Drummond's phlox (Phlox drummondii) and its many varieties are annuals.

Growing phlox from seeds

Having phlox blooming in the garden from spring to late September is real, you just need to know how to grow phlox. Phlox reproduce most often in vegetative ways - cuttings, layering or dividing the bush, but some growers prefer growing phlox seeds. Seeds of perennial phlox collected on the eve of autumn should be sown in the ground before winter - in November-December. Choose an area where your phlox will grow for several years. If there is already snow, remove it from the garden and scatter seeds on the frozen ground with a distance of 4-5 cm. Sprinkle them with a layer of sifted earth 1-1.5 cm, and cover with snow on top. The soil can be prepared in advance so that it is not cold and frozen, or you can buy soil in the store.

The germination rate of seeds that have fallen into the ground in winter is 70%, by the spring their germination rate decreases sharply.

In early spring, seedlings will hatch, which will need to dive after the appearance of two pairs of true leaves at a distance of 20 cm from each other. You will plant these seedlings at the right time.

Most often, it is the annual phlox that propagates by seeds. In the spring, prepare a bed, scatter seeds on it at a distance of 3-4 cm from each other, water them from a sprayer, cover with plastic. Do not sprinkle with earth, but daily raise the film for a short time, shaking off condensation from it, so that the seeds breathe. As soon as the seeds sprout, the polyethylene can be removed.

In the photo: Growing phlox in the open field

Annual phlox - planting and care

Planting annual phlox

We have already talked about how to plant phlox from seeds. But some growers do not want to put the seeds at risk for fear of severe spring frosts, so they plant phlox seedlings in spring. For seedlings, seeds of annual phlox are sown in March, shoots appear in a week. The sprouts that appear need light, watering and a moderate temperature. After two to three weeks, the seedlings dive.

In the first days after the dive, try to protect the seedlings from direct sunlight to avoid burns. Cover them with newspaper or opaque plastic wrap.

Before planting phloxes in open ground, you can feed the seedlings with mineral fertilizers two or three times. The concentration of top dressing should be half that for an adult plant. To achieve the splendor of the bush, the seedlings in the phase of 4-5 leaves are pinched.

Photo: Phlox seedlings grown in cassettes

In May, grown phlox seedlings are planted in a flower bed at a distance of 15-20 cm from each other. It is very important to choose the right landing site. Annual phlox are cold-resistant, drought-resistant, love light, but do not tolerate overheating of the root system. The most beautiful phlox grow in partial shade, and the thicker the shade, the less abundant but longer flowering phlox will have. In the sun, the flowers of phlox quickly fade, in partial shade they retain their color saturation for a long time, and if you planted the so-called "blue" varieties, the flowers of which in twilight light become almost blue, you will have an incomparable aesthetic pleasure from the flowering of phlox grown in partial shade. guaranteed. It is best to plant phlox in high beds, away from trees and shrubs with a highly branched root system.

In the photo: Growing phlox in a flower bed

The garden soil for phlox should contain a lot of humus. Heavy soils with poor drainage are detrimental to phlox. They also do not like acidified areas, in this case lime will need to be added to the soil. The best soil composition for phlox is fertile sand without clay admixtures - provided it is well watered, it will grow powerful flowering bushes. Sand, organic fertilizers and peat will have to be added to heavy loams. Seedlings are planted in a shallow hole, into which vermicompost or compost (or two handfuls of ash) is added before planting, the roots are straightened horizontally.

Caring for annual phlox

Growing annual phlox is a pleasant and easy task. The main thing is not to interfere with their growth. The rest of the care is traditional for flowers, careful loosening of the soil (6-8 times), hilling when loosening in the second half of the growing season, so that phloxes quickly form a root system, feeding with organic matter and mineral fertilizers.

  • The first feeding with liquid manure (25 g per bucket of water) is carried out at the end of May.
  • The second - in early June, but potassium salt or superphosphate is added to the manure solution.
  • The third (liquid manure without additives) - at the beginning of July.
  • The fourth dressing, at the end of July, should contain phosphorus and potassium salt.

In the photo: How phlox blooms in the garden

Watering phloxam need regular, but moderate, morning or evening. You need to pour water at the root at the rate of 1.5-2 buckets per 1 m² of planting. It is detrimental to water phlox with cold water in the heat of the day, because the stems can crack. It is advisable to remove wilted flowers that interfere with the growth of new, still unblown flowers. As for diseases and pests, phloxes have plenty of them.

Diseases and their treatment

Such, for example, a disease like variegation, covers the phlox petals with an unusual pattern, disfiguring the appearance of the plant. There is no cure for this disease, so the bush is dug up and destroyed in order to avoid contamination of other plants. The same sentence will have to be carried out if it is found that the plant has been struck by a fungal disease called powdery mildew, which manifests itself as a whitish dull bloom on the leaves and stems.

Phloxes suffer from another fungal disease - phomosismaking the shoots brittle and the leaves dry. As a preventive measure, it is suggested to spray colloidal sulfur on the leaves and stems of phlox (but not on the inflorescences), but the air temperature should be at least 18 ºC.

Septoria disease manifests itself as dark brown dots on the leaves of plants, which increase in size with the development of the disease. At the first sign, spray the bush and the soil around it with Bordeaux liquid, and after two weeks, repeat the treatment.

Another disease verticillary wilting, destroys the root system of phlox, but only phlox growing on acidic soils get sick with it.

Pests and the fight against them

Of the pests, phlox is most often affected by the nematode, a tiny filamentous worm that feeds on the sap of plant tissues. From this, the inflorescences are disfigured, the flowers become smaller, the stems become thinner. The affected bush will have to be dug up and burned, and the infected soil should be treated three times with an interval of 20 days with nematicides.

Harm phlox naked slugs, eating at night the bottom of the stems, leaves and even flowers. They live in the upper layers of the soil, so preventive loosening of the soil and removal of weeds will be quite effective means of fighting slugs, but if they do appear on the site, dust the soil with fluff lime, ash or a mixture of ash with tobacco dust.

If phloxes damage caterpillars of butterflies, it would be best to collect them by hand, but if there are too many of them, then treat phlox with preparations from leaf-eating pests.

Perennial phlox - planting and care

Planting perennial species

Growing perennial phlox is not much different from growing annuals, but there are still some features. For example: spring planting of perennial varieties is carried out in the same way as for annuals, but after that the site must be mulched with dry peat or humus. In addition, the distance between plants should not be 15-20 cm, but at least half a meter, because phloxes will grow in this area for many years, and they need a place where they will grow.

If you bought phlox in the fall, then do not plant them, but dig in to a depth of 20-25 cm in a place protected from the wind, where snow lingers in winter. As soon as the soil is frozen, cover the buried phlox with peat or dry leaves.

In the photo: White phlox in the open field

Moreover, planting of perennial phlox in some cases is carried out in the fall. For example, in the case when the bush has grown greatly and has lost its decorative effect, it is dug up in the fall (from mid-August to the first ten days of September), the rhizome is divided, the middle of the bush is removed, which ages earlier than other parts, and the side parts are seated. Also, in the fall, grown phloxes of spring cuttings should be planted in a permanent place. Before autumn planting, compost is added to the soil; if the soil is clayey, then there is also sand, and if it is sandy, then peat. Delenki are placed in the holes located at a distance of half a meter from each other, their roots are spread horizontally and shallowly added (no deeper than 4-5 cm). If there is no rain, the planted phlox is watered abundantly at the rate of 2 liters of water per bush every 2-3 days for two weeks, the dried soil is loosened and mulched with peat or humus with a layer of 4 cm.

How to care for perennial phlox

It is necessary to care for perennial phloxes, as well as for annuals. But if annuals need to be fertilized four times during the growth period, then perennial species are fertilized five times - the last one occurs during the period when seeds are formed in capsules. Feed the phlox with potassium-phosphorus fertilizers (10 g of potassium sulfate and 20 g of superphosphate per bucket of water). Do this in the evening after watering, being careful not to get the solution on the leaves.

With proper care and good feeding, phloxes grow in one place, without losing their decorative effect, up to seven years.

In the photo: The inflorescence of garden phlox that has not yet opened

Perennial phlox is one of the rare crops that can cut throughout the growing season. You can start from the moment when the shoot reaches 5 cm, the last cuttings are removed at the end of September. It is worth remembering, however, that spring and summer rooting are more successful than later ones.

In addition to cuttings, phloxes multiply layering, and this method is much less laborious than cuttings. Before flowering, the stem is bent to the ground, fixed along its entire length and spud with humus and peat. In the fall, a new plant is formed from this shoot, which is separated from the main bush and transplanted to where it will grow constantly.

Phlox after flowering

Annual phloxes may bloom next year, but the quality of the inflorescences is unlikely to be high. Therefore, collect, if you like, seeds, cut off the tops that have dried up in the fall, and dig up the ground on the site, removing phlox rhizomes from it. In the spring you will be able to sow the collected seeds, and the flowers you like will bloom again.

In the photo: Blooming phlox in the garden

Wintering

Perennial phlox, or rather, their growth buds in a snowless winter can freeze out if the temperature drops to -10-15 ºC, and if the frost reaches -20-25 ºC, the phlox rhizome will die. Therefore, in the fall, after the phlox tops have turned yellow and dried, cut it off, and sprinkle the root collars with a layer of soil with peat. Cover them with straw, fallen leaves, or spruce branches to keep the roots in the soil until spring. If snow falls 50-60 cm thick, then you can not be afraid of thirty-degree frosts.

Varieties and varieties

Annual phlox

Phlox Drummond - one of the best annuals among garden flowers. Discovered in Texas and brought to England in 1835 by the English traveler, naturalist and theologian Henry Drummond. In England, the flower has taken root. Drummond's phlox blooms from June until frost. Its leaves are oval-lanceolate, opposite. Thin branched stem 12 cm to 30 cm tall. Fragrant flowers of purple, dark red, white, yellow, salmon flowers.

Photo: Phlox Drummond

Phlox Drummond is presented in two varieties: star-shaped and large-flowered. Drummond star phlox (Phlox drummondii cuspidata) usually reaches 30-40 cm in height, although dwarf forms are also known - up to 12 cm. The petals of its bright flowers are beautifully dissected, and the flowers look like a star with an eye. Drummond's phlox large-flowered (Phlox drummondii mixed) grows up to 30cm in height. It has large flowers of various colors, but the red shades are especially attractive.

Photo: Phlox Drummond

Some growers divide annual phlox according to their size into large-flowered and dwarf (15-20 cm tall). Large-flowered varieties include High White, High Fire Red, and High Bright Red. Compact low varieties (dwarf) represent the Snow Globe (white), Shamoa (pink), Isabella (yellow), Salmona (salmon), Defiance (fiery red). Both large-flowered species, and stellate, and dwarf species have double and semi-double varieties. Popular are varieties of terry phlox Promis of different shades.

Perennial phlox

Among perennial varieties of phlox, it blooms earlier than anyone else (in May) phlox subulate... Its densely branching stems are so abundantly covered with flowers of different shades from snow-white to dark red that you cannot see the narrow, awl-shaped leaves, for which it got its name. This variety of phlox is planted in rockeries and on alpine slides. The splayed phlox also blooms in May, one to two weeks later. Its small bushes with delicate lilac-blue flowers look very elegant.

This species is not as light-loving as subulate phlox, has lignified stems, larger, but less dense leaves. Perennial phlox is another species such as paniculate phlox, which blooms in mid-summer. This is exactly the phlox that we all know very well: huge fragrant flower caps, beautiful green leaves.

In the photo: Phlox subulate

In the photo: Phlox spread out

Phlox paniculata

The ancestor of many exquisite varieties, including Pure Feelings terry phlox (large inflorescences of white flowers with a green stripe in the center, lilac below; elongated, twisted petals, plant height - 70-80 cm) and terry phlox Natural Feelings (very small white -green-pink flowers, inflorescences resemble a lilac branch). The selection resulted in such winter-hardy varieties as Orange Perfection, Orange Spat, of orange-red shades that do not fade in the sun. They are easy to breed, easy to care for, and incredibly beautiful. But oddly enough, the most popular among flower growers is the phlox King up to 1 m high with flowers up to 4 cm in diameter in raspberry, pink, lilac, white and other colors.

In the photo: Phlox terry Tiara

Literature

  1. Read the topic on Wikipedia
  2. Features and other plants of the Cyanophyta family
  3. List of all species on The Plant List
  4. More information on World Flora Online
  5. Information about Garden Plants
  6. Information on Perennial Plants
  7. Information about Herbaceous plants
  8. Information about Annual Plants
  9. Information about the Shrub

Sections: Garden plants Perennials Herbaceous Flowering Annuals Semi-shrubs Plants on F Cyanosis


Cuff

Such a herbaceous perennial, as a cuff, is often used by gardeners to create a relief green cover in a flower garden and in an area where shrubs grow. This plant is part of the Rosaceae family. The cuff is most widespread in nature in Eurasia, North and South America; it is somewhat less common in New Zealand and Africa. This plant is distinguished by its high decorative effect, and it also has medicinal properties. It is called by the people a sickness, a ram, a goose foot, breast grass, bear's paw, God’s tear, or inter-finger.


Growing seedlings from fruit seeds

The technology of growing avocados from seeds is well known to lovers of homemade plant exotics. Trees for cultivation in the garden are grown in the same way:

  • To obtain seeds, select several ripe fruits. You will need at least two seeds, since the avocado does not bear fruit well in a single planting. For safety reasons, it is better to take a few seeds.
  • The selected fruits are cut, the seeds are removed and washed under running water.
  • In the hard shell of each bone, 3-4 holes are drilled into which matches or toothpicks are inserted.
  • The bone on toothpick spacers is fixed over a glass of water so that its lower blunt part is immersed in liquid. Water must not enter the drilled holes!
  • After 2–4 weeks, the shell will burst, and the roots will appear a little later.
  • When the length of the roots reaches 3-4 cm, the bone is planted in a loose nutritious soil, removed in a warm place and watered regularly.

This method of planting is very common among plant breeders, but there is a high risk of root damage when planting. If the seed is germinated in a different way, this problem can be avoided:

  • The bones are soaked in hot water (about + 50 ° C), after which they are peeled off.
  • The upper (sharp) part of the seed is cut (1 cm), the cut site is treated with a solution of any fungicide.
  • The seeds are planted in separate pots with a diameter of 12-15 cm, filled with a soil-sand mixture. Sowing depth is about 2–3 cm. The cut must remain above the surface.
  • Germination takes place in a dark place at a temperature of + 18–20 ° C. Seedlings appear in 20–30 days. During this time, crops are provided with regular, moderate watering.

At home, seedlings are kept until they reach a height of 35–40 cm, after which they are planted in the ground.


Planting with seeds in a seedless way in open ground

If there is no time and desire to grow seedlings, you can sow the seeds directly into the open ground. This method guarantees stronger and healthier shoots. But clarkia blooms in such cases later than from seedlings.

Rules and terms

Seeds can be sown in well-heated soil when there is no longer any risk of sudden temperature changes. Otherwise, the sprouts that have not yet matured can freeze and die. Sowing is usually planned for the first half of May. But if the climate and weather permits, you can shift them to the end of April. Sometimes sowing is carried out in the fall so that shoots appear in early spring.

Location selection and lighting

As well as seedlings, the seeds themselves must be sown, choosing a place in advance. Clarkia, unlike many other plants, can grow not only in well-lit areas, but also in partial shade. She is also not afraid of drafts. More soil requirements. When choosing a place, it is taken into account how the culture will fit into the general landscape.

Soil

The soil should be fertile and light. If it does not meet the requirements on the site, you will have to make some adjustments. If the soil is dense, clayey, you need to dig it up, add sand, peat. It is loosened to ensure free access of oxygen to the roots, to avoid stagnation of moisture. Prepare the soil and add the necessary compounds to it 2 weeks before planting.

Landing features

For sowing in the selected area, recesses (nests) are made at a distance of 25-40 cm from each other. If the variety is tall, the distance is increased by 20-30 cm. 4-5 seeds are thrown into each nest. Can be sown in rows. But then young shoots will have to be thinned out.


Landing in the ground

It is recommended to transplant young trees into the ground in the spring, when the night frosts recede.

  • A nutrient mixture is poured into the bottom of the trench.
  • The seedling is placed on the top without destroying the old earthen coma.
  • The space around the plant is evenly covered with soil.
  • After planting, the soil under the seedlings is tamped, abundantly moistened and mulched with humus.
  • On both sides of each tree, at a distance of 20-25 cm from the base of the trunk, irrigation grooves with a depth of 15-20 cm are dug.

Since the climate in the trench is very close to subtropical, the trees take root quickly and feel quite comfortable.


Tamarix: planting and care in the open field, reproduction

Tamarix is ​​a compact, tree-like shrub from the tamarix family. It grows up to 1.5 m in height, although some varieties can reach 4 m. There are more than 75 species of this plant, some of which have pronounced healing properties.

In our climate, only four are grown: branchy, graceful, loose and four-stalked tamarix.

The plant is very attractive, exquisite and graceful. Its thin branches with small leaves of an unusual bluish hue are folded into an openwork, spreading crown.

At the end of May or early June, large pink or lilac inflorescences bloom, consisting of small flowers that look like lilacs. And while they have not yet opened, they very much resemble miniature beads. Because of this, tamarix is ​​often called a bead.

The plant is unpretentious, easy and pleasant to grow. However, in order for its decorative qualities to be revealed in all its glory, it is necessary, nevertheless, to follow a number of rules.

Today we will talk about planting tamariks, caring for shrubs, breeding plants in the open field on the Popular About Health website:

For normal growth and development, the plant requires a lot of light. In shaded areas and deep shade, tamarix grows poorly. Therefore, plant it in an area well-lit by the sun, where there are no piercing through winds.

In principle, any soil is suitable. The only requirement is good drainage. If the soil in your garden is very dense, clayey, add some peat or humus to the planting hole.

Tamarix - reproduction and planting in the open field

Tamarix is ​​propagated by seeds and cuttings. In the first method, seeds are sown in small containers, scattered over the soil surface. Placed on pallets filled with water. When the seedlings grow up and get stronger, they are planted in the ground.

In the conditions of the middle lane, cuttings are more often used, since the seeds simply do not have time to ripen. Let's consider this method in more detail:

Already lignified shoots, 20-25 cm long, at least 1 cm thick, are suitable for cuttings. They are cut in late autumn, wrapped in a damp cloth, sphagnum or a plastic bag. Store in a cool room, covered with sawdust. The main thing is that the cuttings do not dry out, but also do not become moldy.

In the spring, they are planted under a film, in containers filled with soil, or in a greenhouse. Placed not straight up, but slightly at an angle. After rooting of young shoots, only the strongest and strongest are planted on open ground. The rest are removed.

You can also root cuttings in a jar of water. Just place them not in soil, but in clean - clean water. When the roots are given, plant them on the ground. In the ground, planting is not difficult.

Lay drainage at the bottom of the planting pit, add a layer of wood ash, add a little organic matter. The depth of the hole is 20 cm. Place the seedling, cover with earth, tamp, water well and mulch.

Outdoor tamarix care

The plant does not need a lot of water. Immediately after planting in tamarix soil, water these plants abundantly and often. Then reduce watering to a minimum and carry out them only in dry, hot weather.

Avoid waterlogging the soil, as this can lead to dark spots on the leaves. If you notice this, remove branches with such leaves so that the spots do not spread throughout the shrub.

In addition, excess water is dangerous because the plant tends to accumulate moisture in its trunk. Therefore, in winter, tamarix can simply freeze.

In early spring and at the beginning of the flowering period, it is recommended to apply organic fertilizers. In the summer, add minerals under the roots a couple of times - phosphorus and potassium.

In the ground, caring for a bush should include pruning. This is necessary for the shrub to look neat and attractive. Thin it regularly, remove old, dry, broken shoots and branches. Many gardeners generally cut off all branches to the very base once every five years. In this case, the plant rejuvenates and does not lose its attractiveness for a long time.

Tamarix tolerates winter normally, but severe frosts and cold winds are dangerous for him. Therefore, in late autumn, it is recommended to wrap the bushes with a covering material, thick cloth or plastic wrap. In the spring, cut off the frozen branches, new ones will soon grow in their place.

The healing properties of the plant

The plant has mild diuretic, analgesic, diaphoretic and astringent properties. Has a hemostatic effect.

Infusions, decoctions are used in the complex treatment of inflammatory diseases of the stomach, rheumatism. Means based on bark and leaves are used for diarrhea, bleeding, and are taken for diseases of the spleen.

Tea from young twigs is drunk to strengthen the body. In the Caucasus, tamarix is ​​used to eliminate infertility and treat venereal diseases.

The plant can beautify any garden area. Tamarix looks beautiful in a group of other shrubs, and is good on its own. Its delicate crown, delicate clusters of flowers look great at sunrise and sunset.

Blooming branches placed in a vase will decorate the interior and fill the room with a delicate pleasant aroma.


Watch the video: Growing and Deadheading Perennial Tall Phlox.


Previous Article

Rowan

Next Article

Cintia