How black peppercorns grow and is it possible to grow it at home


Black pepper, as a spice, has been known to mankind since time immemorial.... Neither the first nor the second courses can do without its aroma and flavor-adding pungency, and delicious marinades cannot be prepared without the well-known black peas. But not everyone knows how this well-known spice grows - black peppercorns. Recently, the cultivation of black pepper in the summer cottage and at home has become more and more popular, so I want to answer in detail all the questions that arise.

How and where allspice black peppercorns grow

The homeland of the spice is the subtropics of Asia. Plantations of "Malabar berry", this is another name for black pepper, are located in India, Brazil, Indonesia.

In natural habitat, it is a perennial tree-like liana, entwining tree trunks.

Pepper vine grows up to 15 meters tall with large leathery leaves and hanging clusters of hard balls-fruits.

Green clusters turn red as they ripen... The red berries are picked and dried. In the process of drying, the fruits become familiar to everyone, black peas.

How black peppercorns grow in Australia:

Is it possible and how to grow a plant at home?

Since at a temperature of + 10 ° C, the pepper liana dies, it is almost impossible to grow it in the open field.

But when creating favorable conditions, it grows well and even bears fruit as a houseplant.

A little patience and you will certainly be able to surprise your family and friends with an exotic tenant on the windowsill.

Where to plant, where to get the seed

So where to plant? For pepper West and East windows are best suited with good lighting and no direct sunlight.

If the planting is located on the south side, you should slightly cover the plant from too bright light.

The optimum temperature for growth and development is + 25 ° С. In winter, like most plants, the pepper liana begins a dormant period, at which time planting feels great at + 16 ° C.

For sowing, you can purchase a bag of allspice black peppercorns, which is sold in almost every grocery store.

You should pay attention to the date of packing, the seeds packaged more than a year ago may not sprout.

Before planting, they are soaked for a day in water + 25- + 30 ° С... Floating peas should not be planted. After that, the seeds are planted in prepared soil.

Which soil to choose

You need to plant seeds in a pot with a good drainage layer., pepper loves moisture, but with an excess of it, the plant may die.

Expanded clay, shards are used as drainage, ordinary crushed stone is excellent for creating a drainage layer. Do not forget about the holes for water drain in the bottom of the pot.

Ready-made potting mix for orchids is perfect for planting., but you can prepare the soil yourself. The following composition will be optimal:

  • sand - 1 portion;
  • humus - 1 portion;
  • sod land - 4 servings;
  • leafy ground - 2 servings.

Seeds are planted in late May and early June... They can be covered with foil or glass to create a greenhouse effect.

The planting should be systematically watered and ventilated. Seedlings appear at 3-4 weeks.

Growing and caring for the home

Watering

Pepper loves good hydration and needs abundant watering and spraying from spring to autumn... The soil in the pot should be slightly damp.

In winter, watering is reduced and water the plant twice less. If the temperature in the room in winter is within + 20 ° C, it is not necessary to spray.

Important: watering and spraying is carried out with settled water in which there is less salt and chlorine.

Top dressing

The introduction of a complex mineral fertilizer or diluted chicken manure into the soil will provide the planting with the necessary substances.

Fertilized from late April to early October, twice a month... With a sufficient content of fertilizers in the soil, the plant will please with a good appearance and active growth.

Transfer

It is produced every two years.... The plant is placed in a larger pot using the transfer method. Before transplanting, the soil must be moistened so as not to damage the root system.

Possible difficulties

Pepper will tell you what he needs at the moment. With a lack of sunlight the plant stretches out and sheds foliage.

With insufficient humidity the tips of the leaves turn brown. Excessive waterlogging leads to yellowing of the leaves.

Direct sunlight can burn and dry foliage.

Little cultivation tricks

Since this is a vine, it is necessary to put a supportto enable the seedling to grow normally.

The appearance of white "eggs" on the back of the leaves is normal for the plant.

A green pet begins to bear fruit in the second year of life. Depending on the harvest time, you can get green, white, and, actually, black pepper.

Under good conditions of keeping pepper vine at home can reach 2 m in height.

White pepper is obtained by steeping ripe fruits for 2 weeks and then peeling and drying.

Only black peas can be used as seeds. Red, white and green seeds do not germinate.

Beneficial features

The spice has a powerful antibacterial effect... Promotes the preservation of food, which is why it is so popular in hot Asian countries.

It is able to normalize the digestion process. Helps with colds. It is an excellent antioxidant and improves metabolism.

With a lot of useful properties, it should be remembered that pepper is contraindicated in inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, and its excessive use can be harmful.

The program "About the Most Important" will tell you about black peppercorns:

It's easy to grow peppers at home... A little patience and careful care will allow you to get a very interesting plant at home, not only useful, but also having excellent decorative properties.

Try it, you will definitely succeed.


So, before planting, I was faced with the question of which variety to choose. I will say right away that I did not understand pepper (especially peas), and for me it was a problem. I had to revise a bunch of information and make a comparative characteristic of varieties. To make it easier for you, I will share the table that I got.

VarietyCharacteristicprosMinuses
tellischery pepperEarly ripe, 95-100 days before fruiting. The bushes are highly leafy, reaching a height of 0.8 m. The peas are large, with a pronounced aroma.Fruiting abundantly, the grains are formed large and in large quantities. Can bear fruit several times a year. Resistant to fungal diseases, adapts well to changes in weather conditions.Due to the dense foliage, you have to trim regularly to get enough light. A garter is required, as weighty brushes with grains can break branches. Difficult to find a variety in stores, I had to order online.
MalabarAlso an early maturing variety. The first crop can be harvested 90-100 days after planting. The fruits themselves are slightly elongated. The color is not entirely black, rather dark cherry. About 50 seeds ripen on the brushes.High yield - up to 3 kg of pepper can be harvested from one bush. It tolerates temperature and climate changes well, frosts are not terrible. Good immunity to diseases.With improper care, yield decreases. The grains are prone to shedding. To increase the number of ovaries, artificial pollination is required.
Vietnamese black pepperMid-season. The first fruits appear 120 days after planting. Sprawling, voluminous bush. Grows up to 1 meter. The bunches are large, up to 70 grains ripen on one.Produces well. Up to 3 kg can be harvested from one bush. Planting material can be found in any store, and germination is good. Abundant flowering, ovary occurs even under unfavorable conditions.Relatively small grains. A garter to the support is required. Needs regular feeding and fertilization.
BetelHybrid variety. Sprawling bushes with abundant foliage. Height up to 0.7 m. The peas are small. Ripening occurs in 95-100 days from the moment the shoots appear.It blooms profusely and forms a large number of ovaries. The peppers have an excellent spicy aroma and taste. Good immunity to diseases and pests. Not afraid of cold weather, changes in climatic conditions. You can dry it and make a seasoning for the winter.Small grains. Although there are many flowers and ovaries, the yield is low for such a bush. It is poorly stored (mold often appears), so it is recommended to use it right away.
SarawakA relatively new variety. Ripens 115-120 days after planting. The height of the bush can reach 1 m. The shape of the fruit is round. An abundant amount of grains is formed on the bunch.Seeds are easy to find. The peppers themselves have a persistent and pleasant spicy aroma, perfectly complement both the first and second courses.Average yield - about 0.5-1 kg per bush. The fruits are small in size. Low immunity to fungal diseases. It is necessary to regularly carry out prevention.
CeylonHybrid variety. Refers to the early. A bountiful harvest can be collected 100-110 days after sowing the seeds. The height of the bush does not exceed 0.8 m. The mass of one brush with seeds is about 90 g. The shape is slightly elongated.High immunity to disease. It is well stored, perfectly tolerates long-term transportation. The taste and aroma are intense. Grains do not crack.Small fruits, yield up to 1 kg per bush. Demanding to care.
LampongLate pepper variety, bears fruit 130-140 days after planting. The bush itself can grow up to 1.5. The fruits are round in shape, the weight of the brush is up to 140 g.Long-term fruiting. Stores well.The smell characteristic of pepper is almost completely absent. Regular garter and pruning is required, otherwise the branches will break under the weight and curl strongly.

Did you find out about the varieties of pepper? It's time to learn how to store zucchini at home. I recently wrote about this.

What other types of peppers are there, see the video:


How black pepper grows


Black pepper - (PIPER NIGRUM) or as it is also called, the Malabar berry is a tree-like vine with aerial roots formed at the nodes, from the pepper family. All of us beloved bell peppers and chili peppers are not relatives of the "king". The pepper vine grows in the forest, twining around the trees that support it. The length of a wild liana can reach from 6 to 15 meters. But on plantations, its growth is inhibited, and special supports in the form of poles are used as supports, just like for cucumbers. Liana has ovoid leathery grayish-green leaves. It blooms with small white flowers gathered in hanging ears. After flowering, fruits are formed.

Pepper fruits are spherical drupes with a hard shell and have a burning taste, and at first they are green, then turn red. The crop is harvested when the fruit begins to turn red. When dried in the sun, the peas turn black. Interestingly, the pepper vine is capable of bearing fruit twice a year for 25-50 years.

The homeland of black pepper is the Malaber coast of India. Black pepper is grown in Indonesia, Brazil and other countries with a subtropical climate. Our cold climate, of course, does not suit him, but I wanted to experiment.


What is useful and who can harm

The oldest oriental spice makes our food not only tastier, but also much healthier. Black pepper contains almost all vitamins and minerals, as well as healing essential oils.

But the "Malabar berry" is especially appreciated because of the unique alkaloid - piperine, it is he who gives the spice its characteristic pungency. The substance has a beneficial effect on metabolic processes, stimulating the production of enzymes necessary for proper assimilation of food and accelerating the removal of decay products from the body.

In addition, piperine is involved in the formation of endorphins and serotonin, so it can be safely called a natural antidepressant. It is not surprising that black pepper is advised to be sure to use in the autumn-winter period, as protection against seasonal fatigue.

Beneficial features

When consumed in moderation, the "king of spices" helps:

  • strengthening immunity
  • reduction of pain syndromes with sprains and muscle injuries
  • elimination of edema
  • improve blood circulation, reduce the risk of blood clots
  • easing headaches, including chronic migraines
  • improvement of the oral cavity
  • skin rejuvenation, dermatitis and vitiligo treatment
  • increased appetite, increased intestinal motility.

Official medicine confirms antiseptic and antibacterial properties.

In Ayurvedic practices, it is used to treat colds, dry coughs, respiratory problems and diarrhea.

Peas, stewed in a water bath with olive oil, is considered an effective remedy for gout and sciatica.

Nutritionists advise to include a spice in the menu for those who are struggling with excess weight. In cosmetology, there are many products for problem skin care based on black pepper extract.

And finally, the "Malabar berry" is a recognized aphrodisiac, able not only to maintain the fire of desire, but also to help with a decrease in potency.


Contraindications

Like other hot spices, black pepper should be used with caution for chronic inflammation of the kidneys and bladder, pancreas, or gastrointestinal tract. If the diseases of the listed organs are acute, the spice must be completely excluded from your diet.

Pepper is contraindicated for anemia, peptic ulcer disease and during the recovery period after gastrointestinal operations.

Excessive addiction to seasoning can irritate the mucous membrane of the upper respiratory tract and stomach. In addition, women who glove too much food sometimes suffer from reproductive disorders.

Some people have an individual intolerance to hot spices. To determine which spice causes a negative reaction of the body, appropriate tests will help. Allergy to black pepper has symptoms that are indistinguishable from ordinary food. The mucous membrane of the larynx and the area around the eyes swells, a cough and a runny nose begins, a rash appears, itching and redness of certain areas of the skin are noted.

In severe cases, the pressure rises, dizziness and vomiting may occur, shock and loss of consciousness are not excluded. The conditions described are extremely rare, but people with a general tendency to allergies need to be careful.


Adult plant care

  • Warm room. The culture needs about 25 degrees. It's not scary if the temperature drops a little, the main thing is not to abruptly. For example, in winter the room may be about 18 degrees, your exot will tolerate it quite well. If the room is 10 degrees (above zero) or colder, the vine will die.
  • Bright but indirect lighting. In this regard, the requirements for pepper are the same as for most modern home exotic flowers from the tropics. Put him on the west or east window - there he will be fine.
  • Water the pepper liberally. But - only in the warm season. In winter, the culture needs little water (this is a dormant period for pepper, it is also not followed in winter, but the plant must be kept in the light). In any case, use lukewarm, heated, or at least room temperature water for irrigation.
  • Spray pepper, especially in winter, during radiator season. The drier the air in the room, the more often you need to take out the spray bottle.Say, 2 sprays a day is the winter norm for such a crop (unless, of course, there is a humidifier or an aquarium nearby). Well, if you have no time to mess around, just keep the pot on a pallet with expanded clay, which you will water once a week - it will also humidify the air near the crown of the plant quite well.
  • Fertilize peppers in the summer. He is given not only the organics mentioned above. This culture also loves general-purpose mineral fertilizers.
  • It is worth replanting a vine every 2 years.
  • Pepper propagates in different ways: by seeds, dividing the bush, cuttings and lateral layers.

If you do everything right, the vine will grow 2 meters. As it grows, take care of props, or at least find a cornice for the plant, where it will crawl along the tied string.

Harvesting

This culture begins to bear fruit at 2 years of age. Although I have met reviews of indoor gardeners, complaining that black pepper grows in them for 4-5 years, it turns beautifully green, and that's all.

This culture blooms from April to May.

The spice is obtained from unripe "berries". As soon as they begin to blush, the peas are cut off from the brushes, poured over with hot water (it washes away the pericarp, that is, simply the shell of the peas). The seasoning is then dried until the berries are dark brown or black.

You can do this in the sun - even small farms do this, while large ones use dryers.

But what if you miss the moment and let all the peas ripen fully? Collect them, process and dry. The result is white pepper. This seasoning is considered very sophisticated, it is praised by many chefs ... Although personally I do not like the aroma or taste of such a pepper. Well, here, as they say, "the taste and color" ...

And if the berries are still green and dried, you get a green pepper.

Red will turn out if you do not dry the ripe peas too much ...

And only the pink peppercorns known to many gourmets from this vine you will not get. It grows on a separate plant - the pepper tree.

Briefly about the most important

  • Black pepper is not a bush, but a long liana on which clusters of green and reddish peas grow.
  • You can grow this crop by sprouting dried peppercorns sold in the spice section. But - only black! White, green, or red will not germinate.
  • Before planting, peas need to be soaked for a day. Then place it in wet soil and wait for the sprout to appear.
  • Growing pepper in the country will not work - temperatures below 10 degrees are fatal for him. But he will feel good on the windowsill of your home.

You can see what black pepper seeds bought specifically for seedlings (not a spice) look like, as well as a plant grown on a city window, in this video.

Maybe it is not the best quality (filmed on the phone), but it shows the real experience of a person. This gardener lives in Ukraine.


Outdoor black pepper

In Russia, black pepper can be grown outdoors only in warm southern regions with a subtropical climate. But even in such conditions, the winter, even the mild one, will definitely not survive, unless it is planted in a heated greenhouse. Therefore, for Russia it is exclusively an annual decorative leafy plant. You won't be able to wait for the harvest.

The black pepper plantation, which regularly brings crops, is an impossible dream for a Russian gardener, the excessively harsh climate is "to blame" for this

For its landing, an open place is chosen, well warmed by the sun, but at the same time protected from cold northerly and north-westerly winds. It is desirable that the plants be covered by a wall, tall trees, a fence, and so on.

The site for planting is being prepared in the fall. It is dug up, getting rid of weeds, stones, plant debris. For each m², 7-10 kg of rotted manure or humus, 35-50 g of simple superphosphate (or half as much as double) and 15-25 g of potassium sulfate are applied. Mineral fertilizers can be replaced with sifted wood ash (200–250 ml).

Seedlings are prepared by growing peppers from seeds. There are no differences, except that they need to be planted at the end of February or at the beginning of March. They begin to prepare seedlings for planting in open ground in 1.5–2 weeks, taking them outside every day and gradually extending the time they spend in the open air.

Caring for a plant is practically no different from what is required for him in "captivity". It consists of regular watering and feeding.

If it is hot sunny weather, black pepper is planted in the ground in the late afternoon. When it's cool and cloudy outside, any time of the day is suitable. Each well is watered using 1.5–2 liters of water. When it is absorbed, the plant is planted, deepening it 1–2 cm more compared to how it grew in a pot. This stimulates the formation of new adventitious roots that supply the vine with nutrition.

The interval between the holes is about 2 m. Each liana will need its own support. In Asian and South American countries, pillars are used for this. They are like the trunks of trees around which the plant winds in nature.

The optimum temperature for growing black pepper is the same as at home. If a cold snap to 15–16 ºС is expected, the liana must be protected from the cold by covering it with any breathable covering material folded in several layers.


Traditional recipes for treatment

Angina, bronchitis: honey (1 tbsp.) Ground pepper (1 tbsp. Spoon). Single dose - 1 teaspoon with 3 times daily use.

Diarrhea: swallow a dozen peas with water. Usually in an hour and a half everything will return to normal.

Flatulence: pour a pinch of ground pepper into a spoonful of baked milk and drink.

Joint pain: ground pepper (1 tablespoon) olive oil (200 ml). Boil for five minutes, cool, strain and use for rubbing.

Contraindications: anemia, gastritis and ulcers.

For the first time, black pepper as a product with beneficial properties for the body is mentioned in Ayurveda. Since ancient times, pepper-peas, tinctures from it and essential oils have been used to improve health, which were used orally and externally (in the form of compresses, rubbing, baths, inhalations, rinsing). But in any case, it is important to strictly observe the dosages, since the slightest excess of the permissible portions can cause unpleasant side effects.

In folk medicine, black pepper is a popular remedy for colds and coughs. It is believed that a cough can be cured by taking a pinch of ground spice three times a day with water. To overcome a cold, it is advised to eat 2 raisins 4 times a day, into which to cram a pea Piper nigrum.

To get rid of sciatica and joint pain, it is useful to take a medicine from olive oil and Piper nigrum. Put 2 tablespoons of peas in a glass of oil and simmer in a water bath for 15 minutes. It is useful to rub the refrigerated product into sore spots.

An ointment made from ghee and ground pepper is used by traditional healers to remove warts, to treat eczema, boils, urticaria and skin inflammations. For the treatment of lichens in the East, a mixture of black pepper and henna was used. And if you grind black grains into powder and mix with yogurt, you get a folk remedy for freckles and acne.

In addition, black pepper, according to the ancient Indians, is useful for impotence. Ayurveda adherents advise mixing hot spice and sugar in equal proportions, then dilute half a teaspoon of this mixture in a glass of milk and drink. The course of treatment is 7 days.

Since ancient times, black pepper has been used to cure all kinds of ailments. Some recipes have survived to this day.

For cough and runny nose

  • To get rid of dry cough and sore throat, it is enough to dilute a pinch of pepper in liquid honey and take the mixture three times a day.
  • Homemade drops with seasoning will help with a cold: pepper on the tip of a knife is stirred in a glass of warm (necessarily boiled!) Water and the nose is washed with this solution.

For heartburn

An unpleasant burning sensation in the epigastric region will help to forget a decoction of ginger (10 g) and ground pepper (7 g).

By boiling spices in 450 ml of water for 15 minutes, a folk medicine for heartburn is obtained, which you need to drink three times a day, half a glass 15 minutes before meals.

From worms

To remove parasites from the body, it is enough to swallow three spice peas after each meal. Pepper broth in baked milk also helps a lot.

5 g of ground pepper is poured into 100 ml of boiling milk and kept for three minutes over low heat, after which it is insisted for another couple of hours. Taking this medicine 15 minutes before meals, 1 tbsp. l., you can forget about worms forever.

For liver health

The antioxidants in the spice have a positive effect on liver function. To prevent diseases, it is enough to regularly eat black pepper.

Vitiligo

Pepper in combination with baking soda is considered an effective folk remedy for such a rare skin disease as vitiligo.

The ingredients are mixed in equal parts and rubbed into white spots daily.

To prevent problems with the gastrointestinal tract, it is enough to regularly eat peppercorns.

In the case of an acute stage of diarrhea, a tincture with cinnamon and pepper is effective.

It is necessary to insist 1/2 tsp. hot spices with a pinch of cinnamon in half a glass of boiling water. And after half an hour, start taking this tincture by a sip per hour.

Ointment for lichen

A simple recipe for fungal infection and lichen: you need to mix ground pepper and henna in equal parts and apply once a day to the affected skin.

The warming effect of the hot spice helps relieve soreness and improves joint mobility.

Mixing 1 tsp. seasonings, honey and flour, it is necessary to apply the composition to the sore spot and cover it with a bandage or napkin. For fixation, secure with a plaster.

For kidney stones

The seasoning helps in the prevention of lime deposits in the kidneys and helps to remove the remains of crushed stones from the body.

For a therapeutic effect, a pea of ​​pepper is put into a peeled raisin instead of a stone. Several things are eaten once a day before lunch for 2 weeks.

With diabetes

Research published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences suggests that black pepper is an excellent regulator of hyperglycemia. The spice normalizes muscle metabolism, even in a calm state. It helps in the fight against obesity and, as a result, diabetes.

Thanks to its antibacterial and antioxidant properties, black pepper promotes the healing of the walls of the gastric mucosa. This fact is scientifically confirmed by regular biochemical studies of patients with ulcers and gastritis.

When using a spice for treatment, it must be borne in mind that when using ground black pepper, the harm caused by the product can significantly outweigh the expected benefits. Therefore, it is forbidden to introduce a burning seasoning into the main therapeutic treatment regimen without the consent of a doctor, when it comes to elderly patients, children, pregnant women or people at risk for absolute contraindications.

Practical recipes from traditional medicine using black spice:

  • From cough. 1/5 teaspoon of black pepper powder is added to water heated to 30 ° C (200 ml), stirred and given to the patient to drink before meals. You need to drink the medicine for 3-5 days twice a day.
  • Fortifying elixir. A third teaspoon of ground seasoning, 1 tbsp each. spoon: dried St. John's wort, dry wormwood, linden honey and 0.5 teaspoon of tea leaves mix and pour 500 ml of vodka. Insist the liquid, shaking occasionally, for three months in a dark cool place. Then drink 0.5 tbsp. spoon three times a day after meals, for 10-15 days.

It is a waste of time and health to use ground black pepper, bought in a store package and having a shelf life of more than six months, as a medicinal raw material. Such a product can slightly improve the taste of food, but has no medicinal benefit.


Watch the video: How to grow Black Pepper from Right seeds: Farmers SECREAT method reveled


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