In addition to its taste, pear is also famous for its beneficial properties. The Veles pear variety differs from other varieties for its delicious fruits and ease of care.
Let's start with a description of the variety. Pear Veles is the result of crossing Lesnaya Krasavitsa and Venus varieties, the second name of the variety is "Daughter Excellent". We worked on breeding a new variety N.V. Efimova and Yu.A. Petrov. Veles immediately interested many gardeners, and for good reason. Smooth, with thin skin, beautiful fruit shape, Veles pear has excellent taste... The fruits are sweet, fleshy, juicy, with a pleasant aroma.
Pear fruits change color, fruits of green-light green shades in the middle of summer, change to yellow ones closer to August. The side of the pear, on which the sun's rays fall, acquires orange-red tones, and the side in the shade remains green. Because of such metamorphoses, pear fruits look very beautiful and unusual. In addition, the fruits are large, have the shape of a flashlight, the narrow part of the pear is at the top, round at the bottom. One pear can weigh up to 200 grams!
Veles pear belongs to the autumn varieties. The tree blooms in spring, with white, fragrant inflorescences. Fruits are formed during the summer, fruit ripening begins in early August.
The ripeness of a pear can be easily identified by the color of the fruit. As soon as the pear begins to turn yellow, the fruits are fully ripe. Ripeness can also be determined by the density of the pear - if the fruits are firm to the touch, the fruits take longer to ripen.
You can pick ripe fruits in early September, but ... The pear variety is perfectly stored in the harvested state until winter. And if you need to preserve the fruits until the cold weather, then it is worth collecting the pear, when it is solid, carefully remove the fruits from the tree without damaging them. Damaged fruits (fallen or with dents on the skin) quickly rot and are not suitable for storage.
In order for pear fruits to be stored until spring, it is better to put them in a box, and each fruit must be wrapped in newspaper... So, a pear can be stored in a cool place for several months.
The tree itself is more than 4-5 m high with a thick and brownish trunk. Branches are spreading, curved, of medium thickness, gray-brown in color. The leaf blade of an adult tree is dark green, young leaves are light green in color.
The pear begins to bear fruit in 5-7 years after planting, but ... With proper care, the fruits appear already for 2-3 years, although in the first year you should not expect a lot of harvest.
The variety has a beautiful appearance, which makes it attractive for sale. The tree is also resistant to various diseases and pests, not afraid of cold weather and harsh weather. The harvest brings every year, does not need "rest", besides, the number of fruits increases every year.
One of the advantages of the Veles pear is its beneficial properties. The fruits contain many vitamins and microelements: vitamins PP, A, B1, B2, C. The fruits also contain calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc.
But the variety also has some disadvantages, for example, with a plentiful harvest, the fruits become smaller in size... This can be easily remedied with regular pruning of the tree. Freezing of the kidneys is also observed during the ripening of the fruit.
Powdery mildew - the first signs of this disease are the formation of a white thin bloom on inflorescences, shoots and leaves, which eventually becomes brown and leaves behind black dots. It is important to deal with this problem before budding, with Skor or Topaz. Before flowering, it is better to use Hom, but after harvesting, it is worth spraying the tree with copper sulfate.
Fruit rot is often seen on fruits as brown spots, in this regard, the core of the fruit turns brown. The fruits rot and become unfit for eating. Before flowering, the tree can be treated with Hom, and after flowering, apply Oxykh.
Often the pear is exposed to bacterial burns, the leaves of the tree turn black, and the annual shoots dry up. You can fight this disease with a solution of copper sulfate or Hom. It is also important to cut off infected leaves and shoots and burn them.
Cracking the bark is just as dangerous for the pear; cracked trunk makes it more vulnerable to insects and other diseases. A common lime solution will protect the tree from cracks in the crown.
In addition to diseases, the pear "attracts" many pests. Among them, the hawthorn stands out, which feeds on ovaries, inflorescences and leaves of a tree, and is also capable of eating young branches. Before bud break, you need to spray the tree with Karbofos or Entobacterin.
Copperhead is a pest that causes yellowing of leaves. They curl up and fall off. It also feeds on flowers and leaves of a tree. You can fight it with Vermitic or Hom solution.
The moth causes the fruit to fall off and rot. You need to fight it with Apollo or Vermitic preparations.
Before using chemicals, it is worth trying traditional methods. So, for example, to fight insects in the spring, it is good to use an infusion of garlic and dandelions. The usual solution of laundry soap also helps.
When choosing a place where to plant a pear, it is important to remember that a pear is a thermophilic plant, therefore it must be planted in a bright area, not only the growth of the tree depends on this, but also the level of sugar content in the fruits. Also, do not plant a pear in open areas, the winds negatively affect the growth of the tree. It is better to plant a pear near the house, where it will have enough sunlight.
As for the time for planting, the Veles variety can be planted both in winter and in autumn. Planting in spring protects the tree from rodents, moreover, over the summer, the root system will grow near the tree, and it will winter better. However, when planting pears in the spring, the pit needs to be prepared in the fall. After all, a tree planted in a fresh hole suffers from subsidence of the earth.
In autumn, it is better to plant a pear in mid or late September, a couple of weeks before the onset of frost. You should also prepare the pits in advance so that the pear has time to take root in a new place and not suffer from frost.
The pear grows well on almost all soils, it is not afraid of clay soils and soils with a minimum amount of fertilizers. But for growth and productivity, it is better to choose fertile soils.
but do not plant a tree on swampy soilwhere groundwater lies close to the roots. From excess moisture, the root system of the tree suffers and is subject to diseases.
For pear growth, it is important to choose the right planting material.
It is better to pick a pear seedling 1-2 years old.
When buying, you need to pay attention not only to the appearance of the tree, its branches should not be broken, damaged by cracks and diseases. The foliage should have a natural green color, and the veins should be visible on the underside of the leaf, which means that the tree is healthy, and in the nursery it was properly cared for. Also, the root system should not be damaged, the roots do not show signs of disease, brownish or gray.
When planting a seedling, you need to properly prepare the pit. Its size depends on the root system of the seedling, but it is also not worth making a too deep and large hole, you can just cut the roots. It is dug to a depth of no more than half a meter. Peat or manure is placed on the bottom, the mixture is mixed with the ground.
Before planting, it is worth lowering the horses of the tree in a solution of potassium permanganate for disinfection.
Now a bucket of water is poured into the pit so that the earth settles a little. So that the tree grows evenly and does not bend to the side, you can immediately install a small wooden stalk in the hole. After that, the seedling is placed in a hole so that the root collar is 8-10 cm higher than the ground.
Further, the seedling can be tied to the cutting, and be sure to water the tree with 2-3 buckets of warm water. Further watering will be required for the tree in 3-4 days. The soil around the cutting should be mulched with grass or leaves, so the soil will retain moisture longer.
Pear Veles quickly enough takes root in new places, she is not afraid of transplants. With the correct planting of the tree, after a couple of weeks new leaves will begin to form on it (if the planting took place in spring), which means that the young tree has taken root in a new place and is ready to grow.
Watering is important not only for a young seedling, but also for an adult tree. After planting, the ground around the seedling must be watered 2-3 times a week. 2 buckets of warm water should be sufficient for growth.
The plant has matured, especially when it began to bear fruit, it also needs watering. Moreover, it is especially important to shed the tree well in the spring, before flowering. Water it every week with a little water. The second careful watering must be carried out before the formation of fruits, it is at this time that the pear needs moisture.
Do not overfill the tree, the root system of the pear grows enough for the tree to feed on moisture on its own.
There are several ways to water a tree:
First, with the help of rotating mechanisms, i.e. rain method. Water will nourish the earth drop by drop. However, with this method of irrigation, the water gets far around the tree, so there will be much more weeds around.
Secondly, you can dig a small trench around the tree trunk and gently pour water into it.
Pears are fed several times a year. The first top dressing is applied before flowering begins. Better to use nitrate, carbimide or urea.
The second feeding is carried out after flowering.... It is good to apply the so-called "green" fertilizer. A small trench is dug around the tree, into which food waste, grass, leaves and manure are placed. In this mass, the presence of soil is mandatory.
"Green" fertilizer is applied in a trench and buried in the ground. Already by the cold, the mixture will rot, and the pear will receive additional feeding.
The third top dressing is applied in mid-September, it is better to feed the tree with mineral fertilizers, sawdust or ash. But the introduction of nitrogen in the winter is strictly prohibited.
Pear pruning is done so that all branches receive light to grow. For the first time 2 years, a young tree does not need pruning, it only forms branches, so excessive pruning will only slow down the growth of the pear.
But from the 3rd year of growth, the pear needs pruning, which can be carried out with a sharp knife or pruner. The first step is to cut branches that grow at right angles. Fruits rarely arise on such branches, moreover, they block the light of the lower-growing shoots. Branches are left growing at an angle of 60-70 degrees, they withstand heavy fruits in autumn.
The remaining branches are shortened by a third of the length. The central branch is also cut off, but its height must exceed the height of other shoots by 20-30 cm. In the 4th year, young shoots are also cut off.
Also, regardless of the year of growth of the tree, sanitary pruning is performed, i.e. broken, dried branches are cut out. During the summer, if the branch has been infected with diseases or pests, do not wait until autumn. You need to cut it off immediately so that the whole tree does not become infected.
By cutting off branches, you can leave a small stump on the trunk of the tree.
The pear of the Veles variety perfectly survives cold winters. But preparing the tree for winter protects it from low temperatures and pests that hibernate in the roots or bark of the tree.
In the fall, you need to collect all the fruits from the tree. Next, you need to collect the foliage around the trunk and dig into the ground. This procedure is necessary for the roots to receive more oxygen and to remove insects.
Also, the trunk of the tree and the base of the main branches must be treated with a solution of chalk and lime.
Veles pear is a real find for gardeners. Not only does this variety have beautiful and large fruits, but they are in no way inferior in taste to many other varieties. Delicious, sweet and meaty fruits ripen closer to autumn, remain on the tree for a long time, and in the torn form they keep the taste for a long time. In addition, the variety does not need special care, it is resistant to cold weather, diseases and pests.
Veles pear is one of the most common varieties of fruit trees. Most often, this species is grown in the Moscow region. Many summer residents note the resistance of the variety to frequent diseases. It is also characterized by excellent taste and aroma.
The Veles pear variety belongs to the autumn varieties. Obtained by crossing "Venus" and "Forest Beauty". Authors: Yu.A. Petrov and N.V. Efimova.
It is a medium-sized tree with a spreading, and later with a wide-pyramidal crown of medium density. The branches are long, thick, curved. Fruiting on ringlets. Shoots are thick, brown, brownish. Leaves are smooth, dark green, finely serrated along the edge, wavy. They keep on a thin, long petiole. Fruits are medium, weighing up to 200 g, wide pear-shaped, with a smooth, even surface. Fruit color is greenish-yellow with a slight orange tint. The peduncle is long, curved. The pulp is creamy, semi-oily, juicy, sweet and sour, with high taste. Fresh fruits are used. Stored in the refrigerator until mid-November. Filming begins in late August - early September. Full ripening of pears on the tree is not excluded, but such fruits are not suitable for long-term storage. For the fruit to be stored longer, you should remove them slightly unripe, greenish.
Fruiting of the Veles pear begins at 5-7 years. The yields are good and stable. Fruit ripening is simultaneous. The variety is winter-hardy. Resistance to fungal diseases is high.
When describing the Veles pear, the advantages are noted: attractive appearance and excellent taste of the fruit.
The disadvantages include the crumbling of pears as the tree matures, freezing of flower buds.
This page contains a photo of a Veles pear.
Proper care of a pear tree depends on its viability, disease resistance and weather conditions, and, of course, yield.
The pear tree requires 4–5 waterings per season, depending on weather conditions.
In case of dry weather, the amount of watering is increased.
In the first few years after planting, you need to water more often, 2-3 times a month. It is advisable to do this early in the morning or in the evening. There are many ways to moisten the soil, but good results are obtained by supplying water to temporary furrows that are laid around the tree at a different distance each time. If possible, sprinkler irrigation can be carried out.
Annual pruning affects the growth of the tree, it can regulate the growth of leaves and roots, the laying of flower buds. Incorrect and too strong pruning can only harm the tree.
Strong pruning, as well as pruning that does not correspond to the biological characteristics of the variety, slows down the entry into fruiting of young and reduces the yield in fruiting trees.E.V. Kolesnikov
Apple and pear. M. Rosselkhozizdat, 1981
The crown of the pear tree is usually naturally formed and the conductor itself dominates the skeletal ramifications. But sometimes crown shaping is still required. For pears, a sparse-tiered scheme is often used, in which 2-3 tiers of skeletal branches are laid for several years, each of them should have 4-5 branches.
Not only the shape of the tree depends on the correct pruning, but its yield and ease of maintenance.
To facilitate tree maintenance and harvesting, it is recommended to lower the crown of the tree. This is done in two ways:
Trees with a low stem begin to bear fruit earlier, are more resistant to winds and are less likely to be burned.
If a young pear freezes, many tops form on it, thickening the crown. Some tops are removed, and some are shortened, turning them into semi-skeletal branches.
Sometimes the tree “does not want” to start bearing fruit for a long time. The branches of such a tree should be given a more horizontal position, but so that the end is not below the middle part. This helps to reduce the outflow of nutrients and the laying of fruit buds.
It is impossible to leave hemp during pruning, as they do not allow the wound to heal normally. In addition, it is better to close large wounds not with garden putty (with it, the wound tightens worse around the edges), but using waxed paper. Inspect large damage on the trunk and trunk every spring, remove dead parts of the bark in a timely manner and update the sections, smoothly moving the knife, remove a ring of bark from the edge with a thickness of no more than 1 mm.
Roofing sheets should not be taken new, but used. Otherwise, there may be burns to the bark from the action of substances covering the roofing paper.
Apple and pear. M. Rosselkhozizdat, 1981
For the treatment of large wounds, etiolation is used - wrapping the affected areas with a sheet of tar paper (or thick paper). Roofing paper is tied above and below the damaged area, and a free space is left between the roofing tar and the wood. In the dark, wound healing is much faster. This method can be used to treat circular damage to the trunk with the length of the damaged area up to 1–2 cm.
Trees of the Veles variety are frost-resistant enough, therefore, preparing for winter, you need to take more care of protection from rodents and pests.
So, you should remove dead leaves and fruits (can be used to make compost). For the winter, tree trunks are whitewashed with a special solution of 1.2–1.5 kg of clay and 2 kg of lime diluted in 10 liters of water.
Whitewashing for the winter protects the tree from pests
They dig up the ground in near-trunk circles to destroy hibernating pests. For protection from mice, hares and other rodents, the trunk of a tree is wrapped in fiberglass, tar paper, spruce branches. Some gardeners advise using serpyanka (plaster net) or tar-smeared burlap for strapping. Young seedlings need to be wrapped more carefully. The root system is covered with sawdust, and a hut made of spruce branches is installed above the tree.
A pear, like any fruit trees, needs adequate nutrition, which is provided with mineral and organic fertilizers containing nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus and other nutrients.
Organic fertilizers mineralize faster on sandy soils than on heavy clay soils, so it is better to use them in spring or late autumn.
On light sandy soils, to increase their cohesion, it is good to apply manure, as well as peat and pond silt. The systematic use of peat reduces the leachability of fertilizers. Organic fertilizers should be applied during the pass - deep digging of the soil with stirring. The rate depends on the age of the tree and ranges from 10 to 40 kg per specimen. In summer, organic fertilizers can be applied in liquid form (for example, slurry).
When applying fertilizers, it is necessary to take into account the patterns of placement of the root system. On soddy-podzolic soils, at a young age, a high density of roots is observed under the crown, which means that most of the overgrown roots are close to the trunk. With distance from the trunk, the concentration of roots decreases. With the growth of trees, the root system also increases. Most of the roots lie in the soil at a depth of 60 cm.Kapichnikova N.G.
Apple tree, pear. Moscow: SME Publishing House, 2005
In early spring (immediately after snowmelt), it is recommended to apply nitrogen fertilizers, since this time of the year there is no nitrogen available for plants in the soil. Nitrogen is one of the main nutrients for pears. With normal supply of them, the tree develops well, flower buds are actively laid on it and fruits are tied, the leaf area greatly increases. All this helps to strengthen the root system and improve the mineral nutrition of plants. In addition, nitrogen fertilizers affect the chemical composition of fruits (the content of sugars, acids, etc.) The application of nitrogen fertilizers to a certain level improves the quality of the fruits and enhances the brightness of their color.
It should be borne in mind that exceeding the doses of nitrogenous fertilizers reduces the sugar content and keeping quality of the fruits (during storage, they are quickly affected by rot, bitter pitting and browning of the core), the same happens with a deficiency. Therefore, it is so important to strictly observe the dose and timing of feeding. Under young trees, you should not apply more than 5-6 g / m 2 nitrogen fertilizers per year (usually ammonium nitrate - 15 g / m 2, or urea - 10 g / m 2). Often, the rate is divided into 2 applications: 2/3 of the rate is applied in the spring and 1/3 - in the fall. If the soil is poor, top dressing should also be done in summer, for example, by spraying with a urea solution.
Many soils contain little phosphorus, so it is advisable to add superphosphate, which is mixed with phosphate rock for acidic soils.
Wood ash is an optimal source of potassium
Sandy soils are poor in potassium (on other soils, potassium deficiency is felt after a rainy year). Meanwhile, the tree's need for it increases over the years. Common fertilizers containing this element are potassium chloride or potassium salts, which contain a lot of chlorine. Therefore, the application rate recommendations must be strictly followed. It is best to fertilize them in the fall, then the harmful effects of chlorine are not so strong.
It is preferable to enrich the soil with potassium using wood ash.
In central Russia, soils are acidic and need liming, which not only normalizes acidity, but also increases the effectiveness of organic and mineral fertilizers. In the Non-Chernozem zone, lime is applied in an amount of 3.5–4.5 kg per 10 m 2, depending on the acidity of the soil.
Lime materials (ground limestone, dolomite flour, limestone tuff, drywall, marl) can be applied simultaneously with the manure. First, lime is scattered, then manure, after which they are buried in the soil.E.V. Kolesnikov
Apple tree and pear M .: Rosselkhozizdat, 1981
Pear trees love fertile soil. In addition, it is desirable that there is a layer of sand under the fertile layer. This is good for the development of the root system. A prerequisite for planting is the absence of groundwater, otherwise the tree will rot and die.
There are two ways to plant fruit trees:
Each of them has its own fans, however, for climatic zones characterized by moderately cold winters (namely, Veles is intended for growing in such regions), it is still better to give preference to autumn planting.
Important! If you plant a pear in spring, the active development of shoots and leaves with insufficient rooting will lead to the fact that the tree will not be able to take root normally until winter and will simply freeze.
The optimum age for planting a seedling is 2 years. Its trunk should be flat, without any damage, with few side branches. Particular attention should be paid to the roots. If they are dry, less than 25 cm long and there is damage, then you should refuse to buy such a seedling.
It is best to get a young tree in local nurseries. Such seedlings usually take root quickly and begin to bear fruit early.
It is better to buy pear seedlings in nurseries or garden centers
It is best to plant a young tree near the house, on the lighted side. So the pear will be protected from frost and gusts of wind. Also, the seedling can be placed in the garden among other fruit trees.
The pear tree brings good yields, growing on sandy loam-chernozem, loamy or sandy soil. On clay soils, the pear usually develops poorly and does not bear fruit.
Keep 3-4 meters between trees, and 5-6 meters between rows. Thickening of plantings leads to a decrease in yield, the appearance of diseases. The root system of pears is quite extensive, so it needs a lot of space.
The land for planting pears is prepared in the fall. Dig a hole 40-50 cm deep and about 1 m wide. It is advisable to loosen the bottom and add fertilizer. For this, fertile soil is mixed with peat or humus in equal proportions. One hole requires 2-3 buckets.
Notches are made on the walls of the pit to improve air exchange and stimulate the growth of the root system.
It can be planted both in spring and autumn. Most often, a pear is planted in the fall, in September, but if you want to plant a pear in the spring, then try to keep within before the beginning of May.
|Pest name||How it gets on the pear||Signs of defeat and damage done||Features of the fight|
|Pear flower beetle||Usually beetles hibernate in the soil of the trunk circles. In early spring, when the soil warms up, they crawl out and rise to the crown.||In the spring, you can find yellowed buds and flowers, eaten away by the flower beetle. It is difficult to see the beetle itself, as it is very small and shy.||If signs of a flower beetle attack are found in early spring, you can collect the insects by hand. Early in the morning, when the air has not yet warmed up, and the temperature has not risen above +5 ° C, the beetles sit motionless on the branches, in a daze. At this time, they are shaken off onto a fabric or film previously spread under the tree.|
|Pear moth||Butterflies lay their eggs in the soil of the trunk circles. Caterpillars crawl out of the eggs and climb up the trunk into the crown of the tree.||Climbing inside the fruit, the caterpillars feed on the pulp. It can be detected by the presence of small dark holes on the surface of the fruit, through which the caterpillar climbed inside.||When the caterpillar is already inside the fetus, it is too late to fight. Only the preventive measures described above are effective.|
|Aphid||Contaminated by ants that like to feast on the sweet secretions of aphids||As a rule, aphids can be seen on the inner surface of the leaves, as well as on young shoots. After a while, the affected leaves roll up into a tube. If you do not fight with aphids, it can cause significant damage to the leaf apparatus of the plant.||The folded leaves should be torn off and destroyed if possible.|