How to protect your garden and vegetable garden from pests in winter

Where do pests hibernate?

During the summer, gardeners and gardeners, examining plants damaged by various pests and diseases, ask themselves the question: "Where did all this trouble come from?" And most often they immediately answer themselves: "Probably, it flew from the neighboring area." The neighbor at this time is busy with the same thoughts.

Where do pests and pathogens in our areas actually come from? The answer is simple - they are here all the time. After all, most of our pests are transferred to cultivated plants from their wild relatives. Naturally, succulent cabbage leaves will be more attractive to cabbage than wild crucifers, and potato tubers are much tastier for wireworms than wheatgrass roots.

Even in winter, pests do not leave our sites. Each pest species is able to survive the winter only at a certain stage of its development. For example, many isopteran insects (aphids, suckers) and some butterflies (gypsy moth, winter moth) hibernate in the egg phase. Another group of pests hibernates in the larval phase. These include wireworms (larvae of click beetles), beetles, bears, onion flies and others.

In the pupa phase, many butterflies (cabbage whites, scoops, moths), cabbage flies and other flies overwinter. And finally, weevils, Colorado beetles, cruciferous fleas spend the winter in the phase of an adult insect.

Wintering sites for pests are quite diverse. Most often, insects spend the winter in some kind of shelter. However, eggs of sucker moths, ringed silkworms and some other insects are found openly on tree branches and survive even in severe frosts. The same can be said about the pupae of the cabbage whites hanging openly on the fences. On fruit trees, some caterpillars overwinter in nests of leaves tied with a cobweb.

The surface layer of the soil is most often used by pests for wintering. After all, under a layer of snow, the temperature is not as low as on the thermometer outside the window. Most beetles and their larvae, pupae of flies and scoops, bears, eggs of slugs and other pests find refuge here. Many harmful organisms also spend the winter in heaps of garbage and in uncleared fallen leaves. Pests such as whiteflies, some aphids and thrips can overwinter in vegetable stores, and if a greenhouse is located next to the plots, then a variety of pests in summer beds, and especially in protected ground, is practically ensured.

Diseases cause great harm to cultivated plants. The most common cause of the disease is fungi. These organisms also winter next to us. Pathogens of black leg and keel of cabbage, fusarium overwinter in the soil. On plant residues, spores of brown spotting of tomatoes, anthracnose of cucumbers, scab and fruit rot of an apple tree, powdery mildew persist. Phytophthora and potato scab are preserved in tubers during storage.

In order to reduce crop losses from pests, protective measures should be started in the fall. The area should be tidied up - to remove fallen leaves, plant debris and weeds. With this simple technique, we remove a huge reserve of infection and deprive many pests of wintering places. From fruit trees, it is necessary to remove the fruits and leaves remaining on them.

You should also dig up the soil onto the bayonet of the shovel. With the help of this technique, all pests and pathogens of plant diseases wintering in the surface layer of the soil are buried in the ground, from where they will not get out in the spring. And those species of insects that prefer the lower horizons of the soil for wintering, when digging, turn out to be carried to the surface, where they have little chance of surviving the winter.

When planting crops before winter, only healthy planting material should be used, diseased and suspicious bulbs should be carefully culled. Tree trunks must be wrapped with roofing material or sewn into a wooden box to protect them from rodents. On the territory of the site prepared in this way for winter, a minimum number of pests remains. Birds that stay overwinter provide invaluable help in the fight against tree pests. Tits, nuthatches and pikas are especially useful. By hanging feeders during the winter, you can attract them to the area where the birds will destroy all insects available to them.

In the spring (in March - April), the trunks of fruit trees must be whitened - treated with a solution of lime. To do this, 1.5-2 kg of slaked lime must be diluted in 8-10 liters of water. For better adhesion, add 200-300 grams of flour paste. The solution is applied with brushes or a clean mop. It is useful to spray this composition and branches. This technique protects the tree from sunburn of the bark in spring and destroys harmful organisms. Before whitewashing, the trunk must be cleaned of dirt, lichens and pieces of loose bark.

As soon as the soil begins to warm up in the spring, hungry insects crawl out of their shelters. There is still nothing on the site, and the pests have already begun their dirty work.

The first to appear are apple weevils, which fly to the branches of the apple tree and damage the buds. After a while, the females will lay eggs, one in each bud. Each female lays up to 100 eggs, thereby causing significant damage to the crop. So the fight against this pest should be started when the daytime air temperature reaches +8 + 10 ° С. To do this, early in the morning, when it is still cold, you need to spread old plastic or tarpaulin under the apple tree and then shake the tree strongly. Beetles fall down where they are easy to collect. If possible, this operation should be carried out as often as possible. When the buds begin to loosen, the beetles stop laying.

Around the same time, cruciferous fleas appear from the soil, which begin to feed on the overwintered shepherd's bag and wait for radish shoots and cabbage seedlings to appear on the beds. If the weeds are removed, the fleas will be left without food.

Buds begin to bloom on the black currant bushes. Some of them have grown a lot, but do not bloom. This means that the bush is infected with a currant kidney mite, the fight against which is very difficult. These very kidneys are simply stuffed with microscopic mites. When the currants bloom, the mites move into healthy buds. It is almost impossible to destroy a tick on an adult bush. One can only advise to prune heavily infested shoots and remove affected buds.

All these techniques, carried out in autumn and early spring, will reduce the number of pests on the site, greatly facilitate the fight against them in summer and significantly increase the yield.

T. Zavyalova,
candidate of agricultural sciences

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Question: What kind of work is important to carry out in the garden in winter

1. Shake off snow from bushes and trees
Why: Snow protects plants from the cold, but if it accumulates too much, under its weight, branches and trunks of young one-year-old seedlings can bend and even break.

If, nevertheless, trouble happened, and you found broken branches and trunks, do not despair - you need to urgently carry out resuscitation measures. The sooner you do this, the more chances the plant has to recover.

Return large branches or stem to their original position and secure with staples, cloth, or other fixtures. Be sure to clean the joints with a knife and coat with oil paint. It does not hurt to additionally tie the wound with cellophane wrap. Just don't forget to take off the bandage when the hot days come!

2. Look for insect pests
To do this, carefully examine the branches of trees and shrubs. Found nesting sites cut out with pruning shears, and then burn.

Why: With the onset of spring, it will be much more difficult to cope with breeding pests.

Include birds in your garden as a preventive measure against insect pests. If you hang out the feeders and regularly refresh the stocks of seeds, cereals and pieces of unsalted bacon, in spring and summer, the lured birds will thank you for their care, destroying pests in your garden.

3. Update the whitewash
Why: It will protect trees from sunburn (the white color repels the sun's rays), diseases, pests and frostbites.

Usually whitewashing is done in October-November, but in late winter or early spring it should be refreshed. To do this, the trunks and skeletal branches are covered with a lime or chalk solution (1 kg of chalk or freshly slaked lime per bucket of water with the addition of 250 g of copper sulfate. For better adhesion, add 1 - 2 kg of clay or 1 - 2 glasses of milk). It is better to whitewash on a warm sunny day so that it dries and does not freeze.

4. Provide first aid to affected plants
Why: If you catch it before the start of the sap flow (that is, spring), the damage may not be so significant.

Look for freezers. These are longitudinal cracks in the bark of trees that can penetrate to the very core. Frostbites cause disease, yield decline and even death of fruit trees. Frost cracks appear both on the boles (trunks) and on the forks of branches. The most susceptible to their appearance are fruit: pears, apple trees, plums and cherries.

5. Wrap up tree trunks and branches
Burlap, spruce branches, special covering materials, thick paper or just a newspaper are suitable. In specialized stores, you can buy rodent protection nets. It is strongly not recommended to use only polyethylene. Choose breathable material. Apply the canvas tightly, slightly deepening it into the ground. Moreover, you need to wrap not only the trunk, but also the junction of the lower branches.

Why: To protect against frost cracks, rodents and hares (they can gnaw on the bark, gnaw through thin branches, which will lead to the death of trees).

Advice: If you use roofing felt or roofing felt, the winding will need to be removed during thaws. At elevated temperatures during the day, condensation may form under it, which will negatively affect the state of the bark of the trunk.

6. Protect your garden from rodents
Wrapping tree trunks and branches with spruce branches or netting is usually enough to protect trees from hares and rodents in winter. Many measures involve the preparation of the site in autumn. At least read about them now and do them next season (especially if you see gnawed trees on the site).

From mice:

  • Compact snow around tree trunks and spray with water to form a thin layer of ice. In winter, mice move under a layer of loose snow, and if trampled down, it will be difficult for them to get to the bark.
  • Treat the trees and the space around them with a mixture of clay and cow dung (4 kg of clay, 4 kg of fresh mullein, 100 g of creolin, 90 g of karbofos concentrate mix well and dilute with water until sour cream). The resulting solution is coated with trunks and skeletal tree branches.

7. Remove lichens from trees
Why: Lichens harm crops, clog microscopic holes in the bark, making it difficult for air to flow to the inner tissues of the plant, and in addition serve as a refuge for some pests, such as scale insects.

Rub the greenish-gray bloom on the branches of shrubs with a coarse cloth, removing it to a healthy bark. Scrape off tree trunks and branches with wooden scrapers or the back of a garden knife. After cleaning, the bark must be disinfected with a 1% solution of copper sulfate and 3% - iron sulfate.

8. Cover young conifers (from sunburn)
Why: In the second half of winter, conifers suffer from sunburn. The bright light is amplified by reflections from the snow and damages the needles.

What to do: Wrap the crown in burlap. You can remove this shelter when all the snow has melted. After a few years, young plant seedlings will adapt, and they will not need to be covered.

Important: For winter shelter of plants, you cannot use lutrasil (spunbond, agrotex) - a lightweight non-woven material of white or black color (although it is great for protecting plants from spring frosts). The fact is that passing heat inside, lutrasil does not release it back. Therefore, in winter, plants under such shelter suffer from overheating. And in spring their needles will begin to dry out and crumble.

9. Cover the fruit (from frost)
Why: Severe frosts can damage plants. But even more dangerous are temperature jumps, which mislead plants. Abnormally warm days in the middle of winter completely knock plants out of their biological rhythm. Many of them (especially those that bloom earlier than others) take the thaws for spring, and when the winter cold returns, they no longer plunge into deep sleep, freeze and die.

Fact: Fruit of autumn and winter varieties and stone fruit crops freeze the most: apricots, plums, cherries. The most vulnerable are those trees that last year gave a large harvest and spent a lot of energy on ripening fruits, as well as aging crops and recently replanted ones.

What to do: Caring for fruit trees in winter is simple, but very important. Even before the start of frost, heat-loving plants must be sprinkled with sawdust, fallen leaves, covered with spruce branches or other insulation. After a snowstorm or just a strong wind in winter, it is useful to check the integrity of these covers and correct them if necessary.

Snow is a good "insulation". Throw them spring-flowering shrubs that have been laying flower buds since last year (currants, gooseberries, barberries, honeysuckle, spirea, forsythia, mahonia and others). In especially harsh winters, even in fully zoned plants, flower buds often freeze slightly, and the plant does not bloom and does not bear fruit. Such shrubs should be covered "headlong", covered with snow entirely. If it's winter with low rainfall, you need to do it artificially.

Cover the root collar of fruit trees, which are easily damaged by frost. As a rule, snowfall is sufficient for shelter. But in frosty winters with little snow, snow should be raked up additionally.

Wrap up the vaccination site. This must be done to improve the fruitful qualities of plants, increase endurance and decorativeness. The junction of two different plants, although it has grown together for a long time, is easily damaged by frost. Natural or artificial drifts will only help if the grafting site is not high from the ground. In other cases, we use an artificial covering material.

10. Protect your lawn
"Don't walk on the lawns!" - in winter, a sign with such an appeal would be very useful in the garden.

Lush snow protects the grass from hypothermia. But if you constantly tamp it, treading paths, in frost the plants can die, and in the spring bald spots will appear in this place. For the same reasons, when cleaning paths, it is better not to throw snow on nearby bushes and trees, forming dense compacted snowdrifts.

What winter work in the garden and vegetable garden do you do before the start of the season? What measures for Do you treat trees in winter against pests and diseases? Tell in the comments section under the article

Cherry and sweet cherry processing in spring

You need to spray cherries and cherries before the start of sap flow. For this purpose, a 2% solution of copper sulfate or Bordeaux liquid is used, as well as iron sulfate (200 g of substance per 10 liters of water). Also for the first spraying, gardeners use urea (300 g per bucket of water). These measures will help protect trees from aphids, weevils and other pests and their larvae, as well as protect them from monilial burns, purple spots and scab.

If you did everything correctly, then further spraying from diseases may not be needed. If it was still not possible to avoid infection, drugs are used for treatment: Skor (effective against coccomycosis), Profi (coping with anthracnose), etc.

How correctly you carry out the spring processing of the garden directly depends on whether you will have a harvest. But here, too, the main thing is not to overdo it, but to observe the measure. If you do everything right, then your garden will be protected from diseases and pests for a long time, and the trees will delight you with juicy ripe fruits.

Beautiful plants that will protect your garden from pests

If you want to protect your crop from pests, then you can rely not only on special chemicals - there is an easier solution, they write "Belnews"... The fact is that certain plants are able to protect your garden from insects. In addition, many of them have a pleasant appearance.

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Marigold. Amazingly beautiful flowers that can turn any garden into a beautiful and sophisticated one. However, the main advantage of marigolds is that they protect other plants from such intruders as worms, onion flies, weevils, and cabbage whites. There are also many folk recipes for agriculture, where marigolds are used as the main means.

Calendula. Another beautiful flower that is able to protect the crop from a large number of pests. So, the "specialization" of calendula includes Colorado beetles, various types of worms, aphids. Also, an excellent fertilizer comes out of calendula if you use faded plants.

Caucasian chamomile. These undemanding flowers are an excellent remedy against most of the known pests. So, this small flower is even able to ward off mosquitoes that like to annoy in the country. Also, the Caucasian chamomile will perfectly cope with ants, fleas, cockroaches, mosquitoes, rodents, lice, cockroaches and other unpleasant "guests".

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