Laying drainage pipes on site

Drains (this is the other name for drainage pipes) are special pipelines used to collect and drain groundwater.

Unlike conventional pipes, they have a continuous perforation along their entire length - rows of holes or slots for collecting water.

To protect the internal cavity from soil particles entering through the holes and silting up the internal surfaces, drains are wrapped with geotextiles or special fabrics that are resistant to moisture and are not subject to decay.

Drainage is laid in an underground position with a slight slope towards water intakes - reservoirs, rain collectors or other drainage mains. Pipes are laid according to a specific system that allows you to reduce the amount of moisture in a specific area.

The layout depends on the intensity of the inflow or on the configuration of the protected structures... The depth of placement usually corresponds to the lower immersion level of foundation strips, slabs or other support elements.

Prerequisites for installing drainage

Drainage is an expensive drainage system, even if you design and install it yourself. Therefore, first of all, you need to figure out how much you need it.

The need for drainage cannot be determined by eye, because there may be groundwater near the soil surface, which creates many problems during floods and rains.

Many areas are located in lowlands, so they accumulate a large amount of moisture. An excess of moisture in the soil leads to rotting of plant roots, which makes it difficult to grow vegetables, fruits, berries and herbs on the site. At the same time, a fungus often appears on fruits and plants. Many plants do not take root in a waterlogged garden area and even the crop grown on it rots on the vine.

Clay soils practically do not absorb water, so the basements of buildings and structures often flood underground waters. Due to the high salinity, rainwater destroys the structural elements of buildings (foundations, columns, slabs, walls, partitions, etc.).

Even effective waterproofing cannot protect basements from flooding, and foundations from destruction. As a result, the buildings are operated less than they should in accordance with the project documentation.

You can understand whether drainage is required or not by the following signs:

  • Its location on the relief. For sites located in lowlands and on slopes, a high-quality drainage system is required. If the water is not drained from them, then the fertile soil from them will gradually be washed out during floods and rains.
  • The presence of long-term non-drying puddles on it. Plots on the plains are ideal for building buildings, but puddles often appear and persist on them. This is an obvious sign that shows the inability of the soil to absorb water.
  • Decay of plant rhizomes. If there is a lot of excess moisture in the soil, then the plants in the beds begin to rot and hurt.
  • The presence of moisture-loving plants on it. If there are a lot of moisture-loving plants on the site, then this indicates an excess of water on it.
  • Flooding of basements and cellars. A clear sign of the need to lay drainage is the flooding of the basements of buildings and cellars with groundwater.

Placing drainage on the site is the most effective way to rid it of excess water. If you order the installation of drainage in any construction organization, then it will cost you a lot. Therefore, it is easier to find out the technology of its installation and assemble everything with your own hands.

To do this, you need to buy perforated flexible or rigid plastic pipes. You can also purchase one-piece products and drill holes of the required diameter in them yourself. In addition, a lot of gravel backfill and geotextiles are needed. After that, it is necessary to dig a network of trenches on the site, and then lay drainage pipes in them under a slope and fill them from above.

Prerequisites for the organization of drainage

Drainage is an expensive system, even if you do not have to pay for the services of specialists and the owner of the site is ready to do all the work on his own. Therefore, you should figure out how much it is needed at all.

It is impossible to determine the need for a system device "by eye", because groundwater can lie close to the surface, which becomes a real problem only during floods or heavy rains.

Many sites are located in lowlands. Waterlogged soil causes root rot, which creates many difficulties in caring for a vegetable garden and garden. Plants often infect fungal diseases and mold. Some crops do not take root on wet soil, and the crop rots on the vine.

Dense clayey soils do not absorb water well. This leads to frequent flooding of underground parts of buildings. Due to the high degree of mineralization, flood and atmospheric waters negatively affect buildings: they destroy building materials, provoke corrosion.

Even high-quality waterproofing is not capable of 100% preventing basement flooding, erosion of the array of foundations, plinths. As a result, the buildings serve much less than they could.

It is possible to determine whether drainage is needed on a site by several signs:

  • Terrain relief... Areas located in lowlands and on steep slopes require a drainage system. Otherwise, fertile soils can be eroded or flooded during rains and floods.
  • Puddles... The flat terrain is convenient for construction, but puddles can appear and remain on it for a long time. This is a clear sign that water is poorly absorbed into the soil. A drainage system should be installed throughout the site.
  • Rotting the root system of plants... If excess liquid remains in the gardens, flower beds and lawns, the plants grow out and get sick.
  • Moisture-loving plants... If one or more types of moisture-loving plants grow on the site, this clearly indicates waterlogging of the soil.
  • Flooding basements and cellars... An obvious "symptom" of the need for drainage is flooding of foundations and underground building structures.
  • Hydrogeological research and observation... If experts have determined that there is a high groundwater level on the site, or you can come to similar conclusions during excavation work, you should take care of soil drainage.

Proper laying of drainage pipes on site is the only way to inexpensively and effectively get rid of excess water.

If you contact a specialized company, the system will cost significantly more. It is better to understand the features of the drainage arrangement and do everything yourself.

To build a drainage system with your own hands, you will need a perforated corrugation or a rigid plastic pipe with slot-like or round holes, which you can drill or cut with your own hands. Gravel backfill and geotextiles will be needed.

Elements for connecting drainage pipes to each other

Drainage pipes are connected using special fittings. The drainage device can be represented by two systems: open and closed. The first option provides for a complex of ditches and trenches for water drainage. The second system has underground pipe laying, where the elements are connected to each other by fittings.

Types of fittings for drainage pipes:

  • Universal
  • Plugs
  • Universal tee
  • Swivel tee
  • Reducing coupling
  • Crosspiece
  • Reducing tee.

The connection of pipes is possible due to the protruding part at the ends of the pipes. The sewerage is laid with plastic fittings. These elements are well sealed and perfectly permeable to liquid.

The crosspiece can connect 4 pipes at once. The coupling combines 2 pipes, both the same size and different.

Fittings have many benefits to their use. They note lightness, flexibility, tightness. The couplings are lightweight, so they do not weigh down the system. At the same time, the variety of connecting elements allows you to make different wiring. It is simple to work with fittings, all processes are easily done by hand. In this case, the pipes can be laid on an uneven surface.

A tee is used to fasten several drainage branches. You can also connect the pipe to the well this way. You can create a complete system over a large area. The reducing tee is used for pipes of different sizes. The swivel version will allow you to mount a drainage system called "herringbone".

Drainage installation technology around the site: how to make the system correctly

The simplest technology, describing how to properly drain a suburban-type plot, implies the rejection of the use of gutters.

Note! In this case, the surface system is performed in a non-standard way with minimal costs, since there is no need to purchase ready-made parts in stores. In the process of work, materials at hand are used.

A simple device for drainage of a country-type plot

Do-it-yourself technology for creating surface drainage of a site:

  1. Trenches should be dug along the perimeter of the area that needs drainage. They should be positioned taking into account the slope of the surface. If the site is horizontal, this slope must be formed independently. The optimal parameters for calculating storm sewers: the width of the trenches should be 40 cm, the depth - 50 cm. The minimum angle of inclination of the surface (towards the removal of moisture from the site) is 30 °.
  2. The trench system must be connected, and then taken out into a ditch or into a storage well. In this zone, you can organize a small artificial reservoir, for example, an ornamental pond, and plant there plants that love moisture.
  3. The system is checked for functionality. To do this, water is poured into the trenches and the direction in which it flows is checked.
  4. An embankment is formed at the bottom of the trenches. First you need to organize a layer of coarse gravel, after which there is a layer of fine gravel.

Geotextile filter pipes are often used for the drainage system.

Protection of the foundation of the house: the sequence of work of the storm sewer device

The technology of arranging a drainage system to protect the foundation involves the use of a linear structure:

  1. In areas where liquid is drained from drainpipes leading from roofs, storm water inlets are installed. For these elements, you need to dig holes in advance, which are 10 cm higher than the depth and width of the water intake funnel. The grate should be positioned 3 mm below the soil level.
  2. The funnel is installed on a concrete base so that there is enough space to remove the grate and clean the water inlet if necessary. It is also not recommended to place this element too high, otherwise the liquid will be sprayed on the sides and there will be no sense from the drainage.
  3. The water inlets are connected to the gutters for transporting water. To do this, you need to indent from the foundation of the house by 1 m and dig a trench. Its depth is selected so that the gutter can be installed, and there is still 10 cm of headroom left on top. The same amount of space should be in width. Do not forget about the slope of the drainage pipe towards the well.

An example of a storm sewer device

Helpful advice! In the process of installing gutters, which are also placed on a concrete pad, it is recommended to use a building level. The sides of these parts can be fixed with concrete for reliability.

Next, the grilles are installed, and the end cap should be on the last gutter of the system. Place sand traps and wells along the corner parts of the storm sewer, after which you can begin to connect all the elements of the system together. At the joints, the use of bituminous mastic is allowed, which will exclude leaks.

The system is completely ready, it remains only to fill it with soil, but so that a gap of 3 mm is preserved between the surface and the grating.

Open type storm sewer with concrete gutters

Additional tips for arranging garden drainage

Gutters made of plastic are lightweight and inexpensive. However, they are subject to deformational changes under the influence of the pressure exerted by concrete and soil. In order to exclude damage to the material, it is recommended to fix the drainage grates “on the bank”.

The water drainage system from the site by open drainage often freezes in winter. So that in the spring the storm sewer can do its job without delay, the pipe must be attached to the sand trap. Thanks to this, the system will not freeze too much.

Using the technology described earlier, you can drain around the perimeter of walkways. Paved areas and paths on the site also need to drain excess moisture, since water has a destructive effect on tiles and other elements (curbs, flower beds).

Watch the video: How Your Home Plumbing Works From Start to Finish. GOT2LEARN

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