The purpose of the autumn processing of strawberries is to prevent as many harmful fungi, insects and mites as possible from overwintering. And since there are not so many warm days without rains until winter there are not so many, you have to choose proven drugs, while taking into account the temperature of their use.
In autumn, all fungal diseases "flourish" on strawberries, because favorable conditions develop for them: high humidity and coolness, favorable for its preservation. On the leaves, you can find all kinds of spots, gray rot, powdery mildew, etc. But all these diseases are treated with the same fungicides.
As for pests, the greatest harm to strawberries is caused by:
Weevil on a damaged leaf
Leaves are deformed as a result of the activity of strawberry mites
May beetle larvae (beetle) live in the ground, feed on roots
There are other pests on strawberries, but as in the case of fungi, all insects can be killed with one drug - an insecticide, and ticks - with acaricide.
Bordeaux liquid (1%). This is probably the oldest fungicide in use today. True, now it is not as difficult to prepare it as it used to be. You can buy a ready-made solution in 100 ml bottles. It must be poured into 10 liters of water and stirred.
No need to dissolve powders, there is a ready-made liquid on sale
Bordeaux mixture is a contact fungicide that works by direct contact with fungi. It is necessary to thoroughly spray all the leaves on both sides, petioles, hearts and the ground. In the fall, one treatment is enough.
HOM is a popular copper-containing drug that acts like a Bordeaux liquid and its solution also stains the leaves blue. Powder consumption - 40 g per 10 liters of water. During the fall, it can be processed 1-2 times with an interval of 10-14 days.
Copper-containing preparation HOM protects against fungal diseases
Topaz is also familiar to more than one generation of gardeners as a remedy for powdery mildew, but it also helps against all other fungal infections. The solution is prepared from 2 ml of Topaz and 10 liters of water. The drug has a systemic effect, is absorbed by the leaves and spreads throughout the plant in juices, therefore it is effective when the fungi are active and feed. It is necessary to spray at an air temperature above +10 ° C, and if after 10-14 days the warm weather persists, you can repeat the treatment.
Topaz is a popular medicine for powdery mildew and not only
Skor is both a contact and systemic fungicide. It is most effective at temperatures of +14 ... +25 ° C. In cool conditions, +12 ° C and below, processing may be useless.
Skor is a contact-systemic drug for a complex of diseases
Biopreparations contain fungi or bacteria that are harmless to plants, which awaken in the solution and, after its introduction, settle into the soil. There they begin to be active: they multiply, feed, displace pathogenic fungi from their territory, germinate in their myceliums, and secrete substances that kill competitors.
The most popular drug in this series is Fitosporin, which contains a soil bacterium - hay bacillus. Favorable temperatures for its development are +5 ... +45 ° C. It is more profitable to use universal Fitosporin in paste. It dissolves in water 1: 2. For processing strawberries, take 1 tbsp. l. 10 liters of water and watered like regular water.
Fitosporin - a reliable biological product from hay bacillus
Trichoderma has been used in horticulture not so long ago. It is a yellow mold, a strain of fungi found in any soil. To prepare a solution, 30 g of powder is dissolved in a small amount of warm water (+25 ... +35 ° C), and then the volume is brought to 10 liters and watered, spending 200 ml under a strawberry bush. The temperature range for active development in the soil is +10 ... +30 ° C.
Trichoderma - mold fungi that fight against fungi that parasitize plants
There are also peculiarities in the processing of strawberries in the fall from pests. All drugs in this category are divided into:
Of course, it is great to understand this and use special means of a narrow spectrum of action: from a weevil - an insecticide, and from a tick - an acaricide. But if in your region autumn is quickly replaced by winter, then there are not so many warm days without precipitation in stock, so that they are enough for 1-2 treatments from diseases, and then at least two more from different types of pests. Therefore, in the fall, it is better to use universal preparations - insectoacaricides, then there will be half the number of treatments.
|Name||Dosage||Temperature for processing|
|Karbofos||60 g / 10 l||not lower than +15 ° C|
|Fufanon||5 ml / 5 l||+12 ... +25 ° C|
|Actellic||2 ml / 2 l|
|Karate Zeon||5 ml / 10 l|
If a favorable temperature is still maintained 1–2 weeks after treatment, it is advisable to repeat the spraying.
Actellic is popular and effective against a complex of pests
Fitoverm is a well-advertised drug, but less effective than chemical ones. Contains enzymes formed by soil microorganisms. Acts on feeding insects and ticks, causes their paralysis. Fitoverma sachets often do not contain instructions for processing strawberries, but the drug is used for it, dissolving 2 ml in 1 liter of water. Up to 100 ml of solution is consumed per bush, that is, it must be processed abundantly and repeated after 7 days. The favorable temperature is above +20 ° C.
Fitoverm is a biological preparation, a waste product of soil microorganisms
Nemabact (similar to Antonem-F) is not yet very common due to the high price, but a well-known drug. From the name it is clear that the composition contains nematodes and bacteria. Once in the soil, they penetrate the larvae and insects and destroy them from the inside. The contents of the package (100 g) are enough for 1 hundred square meters. The powder or granules must be wrapped in a gauze bag and rinsed with the amount of water required to water such an area. The range of favorable temperatures is wide: from +10 ° C to +28 ° C, the soil must be well moistened. The drug kills beetles, weevils, wireworms and all other soil inhabitants, including beneficial earthworms, ground beetles, etc.
Two drugs for the same purpose
Summer resident - a phytopreparation based on fir oil, frightens off and disorients leaf-gnawing and sucking pests. You can buy a ready-made spray and spray the bushes. Thanks to the gel base, the phytocomponents remain on the surfaces of leaves and petioles for a long time. And the larvae of the whitefly, beetle and other inhabitants of the soil are recommended to be shed with the Dachnik concentrate: 5 ml is diluted with 8 liters of water.
Summer resident is a whole series of products for the garden
This category includes recipes that can make our work on strawberry processing easier, allowing us to do just one spray from several problems:
Tiovit Jet - one remedy for both diseases and ticks
Strawberry rescuer is three ampoules with compatible drugs
It is surprising why gardeners, with so many products in the store, for the most part inexpensive, tend to use medicines from their first-aid kit or make decoctions for the garden. If you are one of them, then consider:
Several recipes from home alchemists:
For autumn processing, choose effective preparations that can solve several problems at once. At the end of the season, weather may no longer be able to re-spray. Before using the drug, read the entire instructions, check whether the recommendations for the temperature of use correspond to the weather.
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Strawberry pruning is the removal of leaves and tendrils from a plant. Everyone who wants to get a good harvest and enjoy a large and tasty berry needs to know whether to prune strawberries after fruiting and how to do it correctly.
Robinia or pseudoacacia is a drought-resistant tree that loves an abundance of sunlight. Disastrously prolonged waterlogging - the tops dry out. Do not raise the root collar above the soil, but do not deepen it either. Optimally at surface level.
In mid-August, the last remontant varieties of strawberries and strawberries growing in the open field finish bearing fruit. Many gardeners overlook the fact that after harvesting, it is necessary to continue caring for the plant, otherwise next year the fruits may be chopped, and the bushes may be infected with pests and diseases.
To understand the importance of spring treatments for peach trees, one must know what dangers it faces. First of all, peaches are massively affected by such a disease as leaf curl. Only compulsory spring processing saves plantings from a complete loss of yield.
Spraying in spring prevents the manifestation of all fungal and viral diseases of the crop, of which there are many:
Spring treatment destroys hibernating pests; they live on the bark, buds, flowers and leaves. Spraying can be combined with the first foliar feeding of trees, which will give strength to southern trees weakened after winter.
Therefore, every competent gardener in the winter makes his own schedule of treatments for all fruit crops that grow in his garden. This takes into account the age of trees and shrubs and their condition in the last season.
Many disease and pest control companies have developed their own plans and guidelines for the treatment of peach trees. However, when changing different drugs, you need to know that the treatment scheme does not change. Spraying is carried out:
Of course, a healthy and strong plant does not need so many treatments. The scheme indicates the most suitable spraying times in case of a disease.
Pests and diseases of vegetable and fruit crops can cause enormous damage to summer residents and nullify all efforts to grow crops. Therefore, pest and disease control is important for the gardener and requires special knowledge of plant protection products.
Biological protection is preferable. It allows you to preserve the health of humans, beneficial insects, birds, animals. But there are situations when it is necessary to apply plant protection chemicals, especially during mass invasions of pests and manifestations of diseases.
plant protection chemicals
Chemical plant protection products involve the use of toxic substances (pesticides). Inappropriate use of them can lead to poisoning of animals, people, beneficial insects and birds. Moreover, you can pollute the soil, water and plants themselves, their fruits with poisons. It is important to remember that from the moment of processing plants treated with chemicals, a certain time must pass (at least 30 days), during which the fruits and the plant itself must not be eaten.
In summer cottages, it is better to use low-toxic preparations for processing crops. And it is imperative to carry out disease prevention, apply mechanical protection measures. It is advisable to consult with specialists before using chemicals.
Preventive measures against diseases: disinfection of seeds, disinfection of greenhouses, greenhouses, implements, equipment, soil, treatment of the roots of seedlings and seedlings before planting in the ground.
Chemicals that do not require a long exposure time (up to 15 days) after treatment: fungicides (Ditan M45, Bordeaux liquid) insecticides - liquid malofos (0.3-0.4%) and ovadophos (0.15%), basudin (10% ).
This list is not complete or definitive. For pests and diseases, it is listed below. It is important to use plant protection chemicals strictly according to the instructions. It is advisable to alternate the preparations so as not to cause addiction in the pests of the garden and garden.
Insecticides VDG, Aktara long-term protective effect against thrips, aphids, scale insects, whiteflies, false scales. These preparations can be sprayed on places of mass accumulation of insects or the entire plant. Sometimes they are brought into the soil.
Insectoacaricide Fitoverm it is good to use against many insects and ticks during the growing season of plants, it is not addictive to pests.
Organophosphate insectoacaricide Fufanon It is widely used during the period when sucking and gnawing insects appear on crops.
Against them, the drug VDH and Aktara are used.
For the destruction of insects, the already known insecticides Aktara, VDG are used, as well as insectoacaricides Fitoferm of biogenic origin, capable of fighting a whole complex of insects, and Vermiticum for intestinal contact is effective not only against thrips, but also against spider mites. You can also use the organophosphate insectoacaricide Fufanon. All these drugs are sprayed with plants when affected by thrips.
In the fight against it, the previously listed chemicals are used: Fitoverm, Vermitek, Fufanon.
In case of mass infestation of crops by pests, insecticides Akiellik and Decis Extra of a wide range of effects, as well as Fufanon, can be used. Decis Extra is especially effective against any winged insects.
plant protection products against diseases
For the prevention and treatment of this disease, you can use the fungicides Topaz, Oksikhom, Skor. The last two have a long-term preventive effect, while Topaz has a protective effect for 14-18 days. Fundozol and Tiovit Jet are also used against powdery mildew.
As a preventive measure, it is recommended to use the systemic fungicide Topaz at the beginning of the growing season. Repeat the treatment after 14-18 days.
In this case, it is worth using Topaz for prevention and treatment during the growing season. The product combines well with other plant protection chemicals.
It can be treated with the multifunctional fungicide Fundazol, which is used for a complex of diseases (root rot, mold, smut, various spots). They treat not only plants, but also the soil.
Here it is worth treating Horus with fungicide against scab, alternariosis, monilosis for prevention or treatment.
It is effective for prophylaxis to apply a fungicide of systemic action Poliram against powdery mildew of apple trees, scab of foliage and fruits.
Although plant protection chemicals effective, but still you should not get carried away with them, so as not to harm your health and not to clog the soil with poisons. It is much easier to apply various biological methods using bacteria, special fungi, worms, birds, beneficial insects that can fight pests and pathogens.
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A healthy garden is a joy for the gardener. But so that the trees are not afraid of diseases and dangerous insects, they need to be sprayed on time. The first works in the garden begin in March. Processing trees in spring allows you to destroy diseases and pests, as well as prevent their appearance, because it is at this time that many insects wake up, and diseases become active.
Spraying trees photo
In the spring, the processing of fruit trees, like berry trees, is carried out several times. This is usually done in early spring, before the flowers appear and after flowering. You can "get lost" in all these manipulations, especially if there has never been any gardening practice. Below is a detailed table showing when, why and how to process trees in spring.
As you can see, there is a lot of work on processing trees in the spring. But they are necessary to maintain immunity and the overall health of horticultural crops.
The first activities in the garden are in March, before the buds begin to bloom on the trees. It is necessary to remove insulation, clean up the territory, carry out sanitary pruning. At the same time, the processing of trees in the spring from pests begins. Insects, depending on the species, can settle on trees at different times of the year, so it is impossible to spray once a year in the hope of no longer encountering them. Prevention and additional work will be required throughout the warm season, but in different cases, different methods of control are used.
Aphid damage photo
Whitewashing trees with lime helps protect them from various pests that can settle and live in the bark. Before whitewashing, the bark must be cleaned, and then whitewash. Thus, it is possible to destroy the habitats of insects and prevent their re-settlement in the bark.
Before budding on trees, you need to take measures to combat the larvae, which become active during this period. From them, you can use effective broad-spectrum insecticides: "Karbofos", "Actellik", "Decis Profi", "Prokleim", as well as "Bordeaux liquid", "Urea".
Around before the buds appear, or when they appear en masse on the tree, crops are often attacked by the moth. Caterpillars are especially dangerous for apple trees! So before flowering, it is imperative to carry out work to destroy them. For this you can use the drugs Fitoverm, Atom, Zolon, Ivanhoe, Sirocco, Decis, Alatar, Iskra M, Binom, Lepidocid, Ditox or "Bordeaux liquid", "Urea".
During the flowering period of trees, ticks wake up. So at this time it will not hurt to protect fruit trees, as well as berry trees, from the effects of a dangerous insect. If this moment is missed, then ticks will settle on every tree and this will inevitably affect the harvest. For ticks, Actellik, Bi-58 New, Bona Forte, Karate, Fitoverm are often used.
After flowering, trees are carefully examined for pests. If any are noticed, re-processing is carried out, if not, then all subsequent work can be postponed until the summer.
Even one disease, if left untreated, can lead to the complete destruction of the garden. Trees are able to fight fungi and viruses for a long time, but if they are not helped, sooner or later the disease will win. So the processing of fruit trees in the spring from diseases begins even before bud break.
Treatment of the garden from pests and diseases
And for stone fruit and pome trees, before bud break, fungicides such as "Horus", "Skor" are used. You can also apply "Iron vitriol", "Copper sulfate", "Bordeaux liquid".
Before flowering, and sometimes during, spraying is carried out for scab and spotting, coccomycosis, moniliosis, clasterosporium disease. Despite the fact that treatment has already been carried out for most of these diseases, it is necessary again to increase the resistance of the plants. You can use drugs for this: "Strobi", "Skor", "Horus", "Raek", "Fitolavin", "Bordeaux mixture", "Poliram DF".
When the flowers crumble and ovaries appear in their place, you will need to do one more, final treatment for putrefactive diseases. Here you can recommend "Alirin-B", "Discor", "Topaz", "Gamair", "Glyokladin", "Fitolavin" or "Urea". This is where the spring treatment of trees against pests and diseases ends. But this does not mean that the work in the garden is over at all. In the summer, you should carefully monitor the crops in order to protect them from summer ailments and insects in time.
Some drugs in the garden are used more often than others. They are highly effective and very good at helping both pests and diseases. Every novice gardener is obliged to know about these drugs and use them if the need arises. Among such drugs, there are Bordeaux liquid, urea, copper and iron vitriol.
Making Bordeaux liquid at home
Bordeaux liquid is one of the most famous and common remedies used for trees. It consists of copper sulfate and lime. Its color is always blue, so it is difficult to confuse it with anything. For processing, a 3% solution is used.
Bordeaux liquid is considered a strong fungicide. It can cope with fungal diseases, spots and is effective against pests, due to the fact that it contains lime. It is suitable for processing any fruit and berry crops.
Iron vitriol is the second most popular drug. It is most often used in the processing of plums, pears, cherries, and apple trees. Mainly it allows you to get rid of all kinds of diseases that are already on the tree or can only affect it.
When using ferrous sulfate for treating trees in spring, you need to know that they work with this tool exclusively before the buds bloom on the trees! A 3% solution is used - this will be more than enough for an adult culture.
Copper sulfate in its action is similar to Bordeaux liquid, but it does not help well against pests. For the drug to be of great benefit, some kind of broad-spectrum insecticide is usually added to it. If such a remedy was not found on sale, you can simply alternate the treatment with copper sulfate with spraying with insecticides - this will also be effective.
By itself, copper sulphate copes with curliness, coccomycosis, moniliosis, phylosticosis, clotterosporosis, scab and other diseases. It is not only possible for them, but even recommended to process, first of all, apple trees, pears and plums.
But copper sulfate also has one big drawback - its toxicity. When working with him, protective suits and gloves are used. It is important to exclude it from getting into a reservoir, a fountain, a tank with water from which animals, people, fish drink. The working solution is prepared from 100 g of copper sulfate and 10 liters of water. Stronger concentration can be dangerous for trees.
Urea or urea is a powerful agent against the extermination of a wide variety of pests on fruit and berry trees. Also, this remedy can protect trees from putrefactive diseases. Treatment of trees in spring involves the use of a solution prepared from 500-700 g of urea per 10 liters of water.
Gardeners often mix urea with copper sulfate. On average, for 600 g of urea, 50 g of copper sulfate and a bucket of warm water are taken. This mixture allows you to get rid of pests and diseases on the tree, and also slows down its development by 1-2 weeks. A similar method is often used for those crops that bloom during return frosts. If the processing is carried out in time, flowering will occur after the return frost and the buds will not freeze.
The drug is not dangerous, in any case, for humans, therefore, serious protective measures are not required if the urea is not interfered with with anything. A product is being prepared for processing immediately before the procedure! A concentrated solution is used only in early spring, and after flowering it is weak, because the abundance of urea can leave burns on the leaves.
Root rot is the most common flower disease. They can be provoked by frequent watering, an incorrect feeding scheme, a lot of weeds in the garden, or leftover leaves from last year.
Tracheomycotic wilting is an unpleasant disease of rose bushes, which is provoked by the fungus Fusarium. Most often, a pathogenic fungus attacks a culture with improper agricultural technology:
Active spores of the pathogenic microflora affect the vessels that deliver the main food to the root neck. Shoots, leaves wither and dry up, the plant dies. To combat the disease of rose bushes, tracheomycotic wilting, a thorough treatment of the root system in a 3% solution of potassium permanganate or a modern drug Gamair is used.
Spores of Fusarium fungi, which cause tracheomycotic wilting disease of bushes, persist in the ground for several years
White sclerocial rot is a dangerous disease of rose bushes, visually manifests itself on the root collar. The appearance can also signal the onset of the disease:
A white, cotton-like bloom appears on the root collar, which eventually spreads to the stem.
There are no ways to combat this disease of rose bushes, except for culling and complete destruction of infected bushes
|Unacceptable combinations of urea||Rapid-use formulations||Acceptable combinations, suitable for storage|
|wood ash||phosphate rock||sodium nitrate|
|calcium nitrate||ammonium sulfate||potassium nitrate|
|simple superphosphate||ammonium nitrate|
|a piece of chalk||potassium sulfate|
Urea is a highly acidic product. With the simultaneous introduction of lime, chalk, ash, dolomite flour with urea, a reaction occurs that neutralizes the introduced compounds. At the same time, an excessive amount of salts is formed in the soil.
Urea is not mixed with monophosphate and calcium nitrate due to acidification of the soil, since acids are the basis of all the fertilizers listed.
As you can see, I deliberately did not write the calendar dates of treatments, but "tied" the treatment to the stages of development of the grape plant. Focusing on these phases, the grower of any climatic zone will be able to independently determine the timeliness and necessity of this or that processing.
Now we know how and when it is possible to cultivate a vineyard, the most difficult thing remains, to independently draw up a scheme for cultivating your vineyard. And here, unfortunately, I am not your assistant. Only you yourself are able to do this, I will only try to show how I do it.
I do not consider two eradicating treatments with iron vitriol before and after shelter, since, in my opinion, these are mandatory treatments not only for grapes, but for the entire garden. These treatments do not carry a chemical "load" and are not included in my scheme.
So, we look at the development phases and recommendations for them and understand the need for one or another processing.
Bottom line: My treatment scheme for 2015.
It turns out two mandatory fungicide treatments and two, depending on weather conditions and the state of the vineyard. I use insecticides once after flowering for prophylactic purposes with a minimum dosage. This is a scheme only for my conditions and only for my vineyard. It is not known whether it will repeat itself in the next season, this one will show.
Video on the subject of winegrowers A. Krota and A. Mchedlidze.