The most delicious fragrant strawberry (garden strawberry) ripens at the summer cottage one of the first, and we are looking forward to it. But you also need to try a lot to get a good harvest. After all, these are not trees or bushes, here you have to bend your back, crawl on the ground. How to get a good harvest while maintaining your health? Let's think that the main thing in this matter is how to gorge on berries, but not overwork.
Strawberry is a perennial plant. Its leaves are systematically renewed. The root system is located in the upper layers of the soil (up to 25 cm). The berry is very sensitive to high soil moisture, which should never be allowed.
In order to take care of the strawberries less hassle, you need to plant them correctly. Various soils are suitable for this: chernozem, loamy and sandy loam, filled with organic and mineral fertilizers. The protection of plantations from winds is very important, which ensures a safe overwintering and good development of plants.
Dry and too swampy areas are not suitable for planting strawberries. The occurrence of groundwater is allowed no higher than a meter from the soil surface.
The area should be flat on the relief. In low beds, strawberries suffer greatly from frost. Landing on small slopes is possible. In areas with insufficient natural moisture, it is necessary to establish plantations on irrigated areas.
Strawberries are very fond of well-rotted manure. The use of green manure with the introduction of full mineral fertilizers instead of manure gives the same effect, comes out cheaper and does not clog the soil with weeds. Vetch, peas or oats are used as siderates.
It is better to buy strawberry seedlings from trusted producers.
The best precursors for strawberries: radish, lettuce, dill, peas, beans, onions, garlic, carrots. It is worth refraining from planting berries in places where perennial herbs, buckwheat, potatoes, tomatoes, peppers, eggplants were previously grown. Areas where raspberries used to grow are completely and especially unsuitable.
The survival rate of plants and the thoroughness of caring for them in the first year after planting determine the productivity of strawberries for several years to come.
In most southern regions, it is better to plant strawberries in spring, in the first decade of the beginning of field work (up to May 5-10). A late summer landing also makes sense. At the same time, in the non-chernozem and north-western regions, strawberries are planted in autumn (August 25 - September 10), in the south - in the first half of October, in the northern regions - from July 20 to August 15 (but more often in spring).
Experienced gardeners adhere to the following rules for planting strawberries:
Strawberry bushes after planting need watering a few days after planting
At first, the soil in the aisles is cultivated with any cultivator or hoe. Between the bushes in rows up to the growth of bushes, the soil is loosened and weeded only by hand. The plantation must be kept loose and free from weeds throughout the summer. In July, fertilizing is carried out with ammonium nitrate, combining it with watering. In the second half of summer, strawberries are watered several times. The condition of the bushes in the first year determines the yield of plantings for all subsequent years.
Irrigation is necessary in areas of insufficient moisture (the North Caucasus, the Central chernozem regions, the Middle and Upper Volga regions, the Urals). Irrigation is especially effective during the harvest ripening phase. Soil moisture at this time should be at least 80% of the field moisture capacity. In autumn and before flowering, soil moisture can drop to 60–65%.
In hot weather, berries are harvested every other day, in cold weather - after 3-4. For direct consumption, strawberries are harvested in a state of full ripeness, for transportation - not quite ripe, with a pink and white tip and barrel. The berries are picked, keeping the calyx and stalk up to 1 cm long. Do not pick them after dew or rain.
Properly picked strawberries have a calyx and stem
Strawberries are collected in boxes 8-10 cm high, with a capacity of up to 4 kg. In the buckets we are used to, the berries will wrinkle a lot.
After the plants emerge from under the snow, it is necessary to clean the plantations from dry and diseased leaves, followed by their burning. This, of course, has to be done manually, but this is one of the mandatory procedures. At the same time, pathogens of some diseases, as well as spider mites, are partially destroyed. With a high number of ticks, at the beginning of the regrowth of young leaves, spraying with Chlorophos or other similar preparations is carried out.
After winter, weakened strawberry bushes need careful care.
Damaged plant parts are burned. You can also punch them. But such compost must be stored for at least 3 years. Mulch is removed from the beds and scattered over the site, then dug up with earth and fertilizers. Before the leaves begin to regrow, strawberries can be prophylactically sprayed with a 3% Bordeaux mixture against spotting. However, you should not do this once again: the accumulation of copper salts in the soil does not represent anything good.
Sometimes, when the snow melts, strawberry bushes remain under an unmelted thin ice crust. This often leads to podoprevaniya, therefore such a crust must be mechanically destroyed.
When the inflorescences are advanced and the buds are separated, spraying is carried out against the raspberry-strawberry weevil, spots, gray rot, powdery mildew with a mixture of Chlorophos and colloidal sulfur. Since you will still buy drugs in a specialized store, you should trust the instructions for use, which must be attached to them. But first, think: is it really necessary? After all, we want benefits from berries, not harm!
In the phase of separation of buds, strawberries can be fed with complex mineral fertilizer. During the flowering period, in case of strong development of gray rot and white spot, copper oxychloride can be used. To protect the berries from rotting, lay out a straw bedding.
If severe frosts are expected, you can cover the plantings with a nonwoven fabric such as spunbond.
Many people use fallen needles of coniferous trees for mulching beds. Before flowering, they cover the entire soil between the bushes with a layer of 3–6 cm. Weeds do not germinate through the needles, after rains and watering the soil does not compact, the need for watering and loosening is significantly reduced.
Mulching strawberry beds with coniferous branches protects against weeds and pests
The slugs in the strawberry beds have to be picked by hand. In other years, this is the most unpleasant and painstaking procedure, but you cannot leave them: you will be left without a delicious harvest!
At the end of the harvest, the straw bedding is collected and removed from the plantation. After picking the berries, you can spray the plantation with Tsineb or Phtalan against spots and powdery mildew. With mass reproduction of spider and strawberry mites, Keltan is added to the composition.
With a strong infestation with spider mites and strawberry mites, mowing and removing leaves from the plantation is recommended - this also increases the effectiveness of subsequent chemical treatments. If you are not a fan of using chemistry, do this by all means, especially for older plants. In the case of the development of spots and powdery mildew, one month after the harvest, another spraying with colloidal sulfur is carried out.
Mowing strawberry bushes is carried out no later than July, since it takes about 6 weeks for the new green mass to fully grow. Leaves are cut with scissors, sickle or oblique at least 1–2 cm from the beginning of the growth of the horns. Then add ammonium nitrate and watered 1-2 times.
Removing leaves after harvest:
Important! The delay in mowing the leaves only brings harm and weakens the plants.
All whiskers, as they appear, should be removed immediately, leaving only on the uterine bushes. The cut leaves are carefully collected and placed in compost, and if they are infected with one or another infection, they are buried to a depth of at least 30–40 cm.
Strawberry pruning is carried out before July so that new foliage can grow.
After harvesting, you can spray strawberries if there is a high incidence of plant diseases. Usually at this time they use Fufanon, Topaz or copper sulfate.
At the end of summer, plantations are struggling with weeds, loosen the soil, and sprinkle humus on the beds.
It is impossible to be late with the listed works - post-harvest care is very important for getting a good harvest next year.
In early August, they continue the same work and prepare plots for new plantings. Strawberry seedlings are planted in the first half of August so that the bushes take root well before the frost begins.
With the weak development of plants during the season, it is not too late to feed them. This can be done with a weak solution of mullein or chicken droppings. Liquid fertilizers are applied in grooves made at a distance of 15–20 cm from the bushes. A bucket of nutrient fluid is consumed for 3-4 running meters (one part of organic matter for 10-12 parts of water).
Fertilizing strawberries with manure increases yields
Foliar dressing of strawberries is also effective. For example, treatment with a 0.3% urea solution during this period contributes to the formation of flower buds. On poor soils, you can spray the bushes with a weak solution of trace elements (0.2% each potassium permanganate, boric acid and ammonium molybdate).
On a note. If strawberries have been growing in your garden for more than 4-5 years, there is no point in maintaining them in this place: fruiting will fade away, and problems will accumulate. It is better to destroy the old plantation and plant a new one. Therefore, it is necessary to quickly prepare the beds for new plantings. The sooner you can plant strawberries, the better. It will take root more reliably and faster, develop new leaves faster, and therefore the first harvest of the new year can be expected to be quite tangible. It is advisable to have time to finish planting at least before the beginning of September.
With good watering, pruned strawberry bushes quickly become covered with healthy leaves.
Strawberries planted at the end of summer have time to take root well by the end of the season, new leaves begin to grow on it. True, this requires a lot of work:
In autumn, the plantation on chernozems is dug to a depth of 30–40 cm, and on podzolic soils it is smaller: by 20–30 cm. The soil under the bushes and in the aisles is mulched with peat, humus or semi-rotted manure with a layer of about 5 cm to facilitate wintering conditions for plants. At the same time, the bushes that have risen during growth are slightly huddled to cover the bare roots.
Digging the beds in the fall helps the strawberries overwinter
You should constantly remove the mustache you no longer need. The whiskers drain the plant. The sooner you remove them, the better.
Weeds that grow in the aisles in September-October should not be weeded: they will serve as protection and contribute to the accumulation of snow.
In late autumn, shortly before the onset of stable frosts, they dig up the ground in the aisles or simply loosen it deeply. Then the plantation is covered with humus, and just before the onset of winter, snow retention measures are carried out. Good mulching of the row spacings will help to avoid freezing of the roots.
If it is dry autumn, then in October, winter watering is carried out.
If you can afford to buy everything you need for your summer cottage, then you can use modern nonwoven materials - spunbond, lutrasil, agrospan or agrotex. They will reliably protect strawberries from severe frosts. True, such materials must be pulled over arcs (metal, plastic or others).
Homemade spunbond protective structures will reliably protect strawberries from frost
Strawberries, of course, also need autumn feeding. And for this you can use, for example, bird droppings or mullein, as well as slurry. Any of these fertilizers must be filled with about a third of the bucket and filled with water to the top. The content should wander for two days in the sun, after which it can be brought into the beds.
Wood ash can be used both dry and in the process of irrigation, that is, after diluting it with water. Per 1 m2 up to 150 g of this most valuable fertilizer can be used: it perfectly replaces potash and phosphorus salts. Top dressing is best done after good watering or rain.
It should be remembered that strawberries are the least winter-hardy berries grown in summer cottages. Lowering the soil temperature to -10 ° C leads to significant root damage. At -15 ° C, the leaves are severely damaged, and often completely die. Strawberries are well protected from freezing by snow. The 5 cm layer protects plants at -15 ° C, and 20 cm - down to -20 ° C.
In snowless winters, strawberries are protected by adding mulch to the bushes (a layer of at least 10 cm), covered with spruce or pine spruce branches when the temperature drops to -5–7 ° C. You do not need to cover the berry in less severe frosts - this can cause the bushes to dry out.
It is important to prepare the plants in winter with good care, especially in the second half of summer, and in dry autumn conditions - by conducting subwinter watering (October). To protect plants from the wind, if there are no forest shelter belts or wings, you can arrange shields. They are placed before the snow falls. Snow cover even 10–15 cm protects plants from frosts down to -15–18 ° С. To protect plants from severe frosts (minus 30–35 ° С), the snow cover should be 30–40 cm.
Shields for snow retention are made of stakes 100-120 cm high and transverse bars 150 cm long. Then brushwood is braided between them so that the gaps are about 75% of the shield area. If there is no brushwood, then you can use non-woven materials.
Strawberry shelter for the winter saves plant roots from death
With proper pre-winter care and a reliable shelter for the winter in accordance with the local climate, strawberries will delight next year with a tasty and large harvest.
Ampel strawberry is a type of common garden strawberry that has some properties. If we talk about the outside, then these are, first of all, decorative flowers of an unusual pink color. The main difference is that the ampelous strawberry bears fruit simultaneously both on the main plant and on the numerous rosettes extending from them - the mustache.In addition, it is capable of producing crops practically throughout the year, if you create suitable conditions for it.
Just like ordinary strawberries, there are various varieties and hybrids of ampelous. On average, they are all capable of producing slightly larger and more beautiful berries than most common varieties, but only with very careful care. Sometimes it is called curly, but this is not entirely correct. The ampelous strawberry itself is not capable of behaving like a liana, but the fact is that it is most often grown in the form of a vertical culture, that is, a mustache with rosettes is tied to some kind of support.
Ampel varieties of strawberries do not require a lot of light, so they can be grown indoors - on a balcony, terrace, or even in an apartment. Very often, ampelous strawberries are bred at home (but how else to get a harvest in winter ?!), where there is very little space. Therefore, the bushes are planted in various pots or vases, just like house flowers. In this case, the side rosettes seem to fall down from the mother plant, creating a picture of leaves, flowers and berries.
Ampel strawberries are successfully grown at home
In order for the bush to develop well, the dimensions of the container must be at least 30 cm.A thin layer of drainage must be placed on its bottom. It can be pebbles, broken brick, other inert materials. Nutrient soil is laid only on top of the drainage. Planting is no different from planting ordinary strawberries, but it is immediately watered abundantly.
The benefits of growing strawberries vertically are clear. First of all, the conditions for the care of plants are improved. At least you don't have to crawl around the garden all the time! The damage to the berries by gray rot is reduced, which is a consequence of the constant airing of the plants and the lack of contact with the ground. Well, among other things, it just looks beautiful!
Vertical ampelous strawberry bushes are sometimes used as decoration
The following substrate is recommended for such strawberries: peat, turf soil in a ratio of 2: 1 and a little river sand.
For the rest, the events differ little from caring for the usual varieties. Although, of course, there are some peculiarities in maintaining a home culture.
Freshly planted seedlings need frequent watering. This is done for the first time 2 times a day in small portions. After a reliable engraftment - about 1 time in 2-3 days. The first flower stalks that appear are pruned to grow stronger bushes.
Up to 5 mustaches are left on each copy. Top dressing is carried out mainly with mineral fertilizers.
Reproduction of ampelous strawberries is no different from ordinary varieties. Mustache planting is possible both in the spring and throughout the summer.
In general, we can say that ampelous strawberries are a relatively unpretentious variety, and any summer resident is quite successful in growing it. However, it is worth remembering that it reacts very poorly to heat and direct sunlight, therefore it often requires additional protection.
Important! If ampelous strawberries are grown in an apartment, they must be pollinated on their own.
The difference in climatic conditions in different regions of our country, of course, does not make it possible to say that care for strawberries can be carried out according to a single method. After all, there are areas where this berry has to be grown in a greenhouse! But the basic conditions for success are clear:
Siberia is a harsh region. Weather conditions require you to take seriously not only the care of strawberries during the growing season, but also, most importantly, to properly prepare them for the winter, to protect them from frost. In this climate, only strong plants will survive the frosty winter. Increased attention should be paid to:
It is advisable to plant local strawberry seedlings. Southern varieties are not able to live well in the open field, they will have to be grown only in greenhouses, which requires additional investment of funds and efforts. In this case, it is better not to be limited to one option, but to take several varieties with different ripening periods. Often planted remontant species, from which you can collect 2-3 crops per season.
Omskaya early strawberry variety bred specifically for Siberia
They choose the sunniest place for the beds: a flat area or a southern slope. A one-liner narrow-band way of placing strawberries is recommended here. All rosette whiskers, located 10 cm from the row, are preserved for rooting, forming stripes about 20 cm wide.
In Siberia, strawberries are most often planted in spring, so that the bushes have time to develop well by winter.
If there is a threat of frost, plantations are covered with plastic wrap, spunbond or spruce branches. In areas with little snow at the end of October, with the establishment of stable frosts, strawberries are covered with straw, reeds, potato tops with a layer of 8–10 cm. The insulation material should be dry and loose. On top of it, branches of trees obtained from pruning a garden are placed, which trap snow and prevent the insulation material from blowing away. In the spring, after thawing the soil, the shelter is immediately removed.
Many summer residents near Moscow do not plant strawberries because of a poor harvest and the need to invest a lot of effort in caring for it. After all, many factors affect the yield of this berry: both correctly selected varieties and, most importantly, the correct growing technology. Although, of course, caring for strawberries in the Moscow region is practically no different from that in most regions of our country, and the climate in the entire middle zone is quite even and quite favorable. All the main stages have already been discussed above, namely:
In the Moscow region, it is best to plant strawberries in the second half of summer. Before the onset of cold weather, the seedlings will take root well and lay flower buds. The deadline for planting is mid-September.
Elsanta strawberries are suitable for growing in the Moscow region
In central Russia, during the fruiting period, strawberries are watered 2-3 times, in the post-harvest period 1-2 times, and in dry weather they are moistened before flowering. It is imperative that in dry weather at the end of autumn, winter watering is carried out (October).
In the Moscow region, strawberries begin to ripen from mid-June, and in some years even later. The collection of late varieties ends in the first decade of August. All autumn work on preparing the plantation for winter is completed by mid-September.
The Moscow region is not always happy with the obligatory snow cover, therefore, the plantings must be sprinkled with mulching materials. In winter, you have to control the amount of snow and sometimes pour it from empty spots onto strawberries.
Currently, the Kuban region includes the Stavropol and Krasnodar Territories, the Rostov Region, Adygea and Karachay-Cherkessia. The climate in all these areas is relatively homogeneous, although slightly different from how close the sea is. But in general, there are no obstacles for planting strawberries and getting good yields.
Lord strawberry grows successfully in the Kuban
Strawberries are usually planted in the Kuban in March or from mid-August to late September. Plants resume growth after winter already at the beginning of March, since by this time quite warm weather has already established. With the onset of such weather, the leaves begin to grow rapidly, and flower stalks appear in 2–4 weeks. The first berries are already harvested in May.
After harvesting, leaves and whiskers continue to grow for a long time, almost until frost. In winter, strawberries enter a state of relative dormancy.
The natural conditions of the Black Sea zone of the Krasnodar Territory are somewhat different from the rest of the Kuban. Due to the sufficient amount of heat and moisture, there are almost no problems with growing strawberries here. The Black Sea coast is called the zone of humid subtropics.
In a warm, humid climate, strawberries grow almost all year round. As a result, if, after the first wave of the harvest, good watering is ensured, the strawberries bloom again and give another harvest in August.
On the coast, you can get high yields of berries with little or no additional watering. Strawberries grow here on any soil, but it is better to choose light ones. Sufficient rainfall allows strawberries to be grown in the aisles of young trees. The cultivation technique is the most common.
The late Zenga-Zengana strawberry variety is suitable for cultivation in the Krasnodar Territory
In the conditions of the subtropics, the period of autumn planting of berries is very long - in favorable weather it can be carried out until the onset of winter... The best survival rate is given by strawberry bushes planted in mid-October. Spring planting also gives good results.
Based on climatic characteristics, varieties should be selected that are adapted to hot conditions. Growing strawberries with different ripening periods in one area contributes to an increase in the harvesting period. To prepare for winter, no additional work is required here - ordinary weeding and loosening.
Strawberries are a delicious berry loved by both children and adults. However, it requires constant care, and, unlike shrubs, it is not at all easy. There are not so many wisdom in this matter, but a lot of work has to be applied. But, if you overcome laziness, you can get a lot of pleasure eating fragrant berries from your own garden in June!
Graduated from the Chemistry Department of Moscow State University in 1981. Candidate of Chemical Sciences, Associate Professor
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Hello dear gardeners! It's time to harvest strawberries. In order for this berry to retain its qualities, to continue to give a bountiful harvest, it is necessary to properly care for the strawberries after harvesting. Today we will talk about this.
Work with strawberries in the spring on the site begins immediately after the snow melts.
Depending on climatic conditions, the timing of the start of spring events varies significantly.
And in order to properly care for strawberries (regular and remontant) in spring, it is necessary to take into account the climatic features of growing crops in different regions and, accordingly, start spring work on time:
Thoroughly loosen the soil between the rows to a depth of 10 cm. It is impossible to loosen deeply directly near the bushes, so as not to damage the root system. In strawberries, it is located superficially. While loosening, slightly huddle the bushes so that the adventitious roots growing on the strawberry horns at this time are under a layer of soil.
Considering that during this period strawberries are gaining strength for the next fruiting and are very demanding on the supply of nutrients, it is necessary to make top dressing. To do this, apply a complete mineral fertilizer with microelements to the soil. Calculation: 20-30 grams per 1 square meter. Special strawberry fertilizers are best suited for this, containing all the necessary elements in a balanced form. Ammophoska is not bad for this purpose: in addition to the basic nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium), it contains calcium, magnesium and sulfur. Chlorine-containing fertilizers should be avoided, because strawberries do not tolerate chlorine. A very good result is given by the introduction of humus, which not only fertilizes the soil, but also significantly improves its structure.
After applying fertilizers, embed them in the soil.
So that after watering a crust does not form on the soil surface, mulch the bed with peat.
What is the post-fruiting strawberry care?
Post-fruiting care aims to lay the foundations for the future harvest. At this time, they carry out pruning, feeding the plants. Strawberries are covered for the winter so that the frost does not beat them.
Required. Pruning heals the plant and redistributes its internal resources. Correct pruning can significantly increase the number of berries in the new season.
How to properly water the berry at this stage?
Watering should be infrequent, but abundant enough. It is best to combine them with top dressing. For example, you poured ammophoska and embedded it in the soil. Now is the time to water the berry abundantly.
But pay attention, if it rains, then watering is not necessary. Your task is to loosen the soil and weed the weeds.
Which fertilizers can and cannot be used?
It is better to fertilize with complex mineral compositions, such as Azofoska, Nitrofoski, etc. Ready-made complex preparations in liquid form also show themselves well. It is permissible to introduce organic matter (droppings, humus). But it is better to exclude chlorine-containing products from the diet, since strawberries do not like this element.
It is desirable. The soil under the strawberries should be moist, and the mulch will help retain moisture for longer.