The appearance of the Manchu walnut in our garden was facilitated by a strong desire to have a wide variety of crops of various garden plants on the site.
Growing a nut at home seemed like something outlandish, and especially a nut with such an intriguingly sonorous name - doubly tempting. The case also presented itself.
At a time when the Internet was not yet so widespread, and it was not so easy to find the plant of interest, we accidentally saw an advertisement for the sale of Manchurian nut seedlings by an experimental garden of the St. Petersburg Agrarian University. Our aspiration and opportunities coincided. Two seedlings were purchased and planted.
Although it is believed that the Manchu nut loves well-moistened, drained fertile soils, prefers well-lit places, does not tolerate drought, I, based on my experience of growing it, can say that, in general, the Manchu nut is generally undemanding to growing conditions. Here it grows very close to an old-growth apple tree and a tall pear in the shade of a neighbor's house, which is located on the south side. Nearby there is a small groove for water drainage.
Our walnut has been growing for about ten years, and now it is a tall tree that has reached nine meters, with a wide-rounded, high-raised openwork crown, a straight, even trunk and very decorative large leaves that change color in autumn from bright green to golden yellow. Therefore, it looks very impressive against the background of ordinary garden trees.
First of all, the Manchu walnut surprised us with its fast growth and excellent ability to form new branches. For 4-5 years we had unstable winters followed by late spring return frosts. And the leaves of the Manchurian walnut are very sensitive to frost, so they turned black, and every spring it seemed to us that the nut froze and died. Indeed, many branches froze, but, surprisingly, literally on one or two branches new green leaves appeared, and the nut came to life again.
Our walnut tree bifurcated into two trunks of the same diameter. But after one or two frosty winters, significant flaws appeared on one of the trunks in the form of a small crack and two depressions (hollows). And since the tree was developing rapidly and was already shading the pear and apple tree, it was decided to cut the trunk with a flaw.
A final cut was made on the ring, which we processed with putty. Observations showed that all previous cuts, both smaller in diameter and the last saw cut (10 cm in diameter), were very quickly overgrown with kalyus. Kalus literally covered the entire cut, which meant that the tree has good vitality and the ability to resist.
Subsequent observations showed that the tree has adapted to our northern climate. In confirmation of this, two years ago, the remaining trunk gave a bountiful harvest of nuts resembling walnuts, only more elongated and ribbed. In the fall, we collected a small basket of nuts from the ground. Unlike walnuts, the shell of a Manchu nut turned out to be very hard, so it is difficult to crack these nuts, but it is possible - by hitting a hammer on the rib.
To do this, place the nut on a hard surface, such as a massive metal object. Unfortunately, the edible part of the nut makes up about 25% of the nut's weight and is found inside the nut in small compartments. Therefore, the already split nut had to be split into several more smaller pieces in order to extract the oily kernel. These nuts taste almost indistinguishable from walnuts. And the oil from the kernels of the Manchurian walnut, as experts say, is not inferior in its properties to the valuable walnut oil.
Not only the fruits of the Manchurian nut are useful, but also the leaves. Many useful substances have been found in them - ascorbic acid, tannins, essential oil, alkaloids, carotene and phytoncides.
The leaves have astringent, antimicrobial, wound healing and antiseptic properties. Both fresh and dried leaves are used. Leaves without petioles are harvested in June in dry weather. Dried quickly in the sun or in the shade, spreading out in a thin layer so as not to turn black. They are used as a bactericidal, restorative, anti-sclerotic (for sclerosis of the brain and cardiac vessels) agent, improve metabolism, reduce blood sugar. Infusion of pericarp and leaves increases the functional activity of the skin.
It is indicated for various skin diseases (purulent rashes, lichens, eczema, etc.), as well as as a wound healing agent in the form of lotions, baths, washing. Decoction of leaves gargle with sore throat. For internal consumption, an infusion is prepared from 1 teaspoon of dried leaves per 1 cup of boiling water. Insist it in a thermos for 30 minutes. Apply a tablespoon 3-4 times a day. For rinsing and lotions (externally) - 1 tablespoon per glass of boiling water.
We also made a tincture of vodka from Manchu nuts, which after 10 days turned dark and acquired a specific taste. The top surface of the tincture was covered with an oily film. Our experience has shown that this beautiful original tree can be successfully used on plots as a decorative one, since it has good energy, looks beautiful and grows quickly, and also gives a good harvest of fruits that have healing properties.
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Manchurian walnut (Juglans mandshurica), its second name is Dumbey, in botany it is described as one of the species of monoecious trees belonging to the genus Walnut. Mature trees reach an average height of 25 to 30 meters. The trunk is even, straight with a wide spreading spherical crown, reaching a diameter of about 20 meters. The bark is colored dark gray, grayish-brown, blackish, and has a fractured texture. The homeland of the nut, as the name implies, is Manchuria, northern China. The Manchurian nut, in contrast to its closest relative, the walnut, is distinguished by its low whimsicality to the environment, has outstanding winter hardiness, and can withstand frosts down to -50 ° C.
The life period of the Manchu nut is about 200-250 years, active growth lasts up to 80-90 years, then the process begins to slow down. The tree has a massive root system, thanks to which it is resistant to strong gusts of wind. The tree resists drought due to the development of a long taproot.
Walnut blooms from late May to June. Male flowers are long earrings, female small tassels, pollinated by the wind. Fruiting usually from 7-8 years of age almost every year, and good yields begin in the third year after the start of fruit production.
The fruits are large, up to 6 cm in diameter at the widest part. The shape of the fruit is usually oblong, with a sharp tip; the shell is thick and firm. But unlike walnuts, the volume and size of the nut itself under the shell is smaller. Ripening time - end of September.
Photo of an adult Manchurian walnut tree
The Manchurian nut has not only healthy fruits, but also a spectacular appearance. Any gardener can grow a tree on a personal plot, the main thing is to know a few features.
For planting, you can use either a purchased or a self-grown seedling. At the same time, it is not easy to grow a seedling, but you can be sure that it will be of high quality and healthy.
So that after planting the tree is powerful and healthy, and later turns into a spectacular fruiting tree, you need to pay special attention to the choice of a high-quality seedling. First you need to evaluate its appearance. The seedling must be at the age of 1 year, while its height must be at least 100 cm. Please note that the root system must be with a lump of earth.
The most optimal area suitable for planting Amur nuts should be located in the vicinity of shade-tolerant crops. The dense crown of such a tree can create a fairly voluminous shadow that can harm light-loving plants.
The soil on the site should be neutral or slightly alkaline. When choosing a site, you also need to take into account the fact that young trees react extremely negatively to an excessively large amount of bright sunlight, as well as to swampy soil.
The planting pit should be prepared in advance, or rather, 4-8 weeks before the day of disembarkation. The size of the pit should be 60x80 centimeters. When planting several seedlings on a plot, a distance of 500-600 cm should be maintained between them.
When the pit is ready, a drainage layer is created at its bottom; fragments of bricks or rubble are suitable for this. The drainage layer is covered with humus, which is pre-mixed with mineral fertilizers, and it is poured with a mound, and a peg is installed in the middle, which will be used as a support for the tree. Next, 20 liters of water are poured into the pit.
Inspect the seedling for signs of disease or rotting. Cut out any injured parts of the rhizome, and then shake the clod of earth on the roots. The tree is placed next to the support, after which the pit is carefully covered with soil. The surface of the trunk circle should be compacted, then watering is carried out. Then its surface is covered with a layer of mulch, which is used as peat.
While the Manchu nut is young, it requires special attention and care. At the same time, an adult tree does not cause much trouble, it is not afraid of rodents, or frosts, or strong winds.
Newly planted seedlings in open ground need the following care:
In November, you need to start preparing the tree for wintering. First you need to collect all the flying leaves and destroy them with fire. This way you can eliminate the pests that live on the foliage. Then inspect the nut for blisters. Often, pests make their own nests under the bark of a seedling. They are cut with a very sharp knife.
The tree does not need additional shelter for the winter. But it should be borne in mind that with the onset of the spring period, its foliage can be burned by the scorching rays of the sun, and the plant itself can suffer from rodents. To prevent this, it is recommended to cover it with burlap while preparing the nut for winter. From above, the sacking should be wrapped with a net, while its ends should be buried next to the trunk.
The crop rarely suffers from pests and fungi, not least because of the large amount of phytoncides in the leaves that provide natural defenses. Of the diseases for the Manchu nut, only black spot is dangerous. An ailment develops on swampy ground, the leaves of the plant begin to become covered with brown specks, and then darken and dry.
To cope with black spot, you can use copper-containing preparations. Treatments are carried out twice a season with an interval of 14 days, the number of waterings is reduced.
Of the pests, the Manchu nut is damaged:
You can get rid of pests with the help of colloidal sulfur, the treatment is carried out during the budding period. In case of severe infection, it is permissible to use Karbofos or Chlorophos, the Manchurian nut is sprayed 3-4 times with an interval of 2 weeks.
If, following all the rules of growing, the plant refuses to bear fruit, then this is usually caused by one of the following reasons:
But more often than not, the tree does not bear fruit simply because it grows alone on the site. If female and male flowers bloom at different times, then self-pollination does not occur, respectively, no ovaries are formed. To solve the problem, it is enough to plant a few more Manchu nuts nearby.
The first Manchu nut plant was presented to me. Not knowing what the plant is, I decided to collect information and realized that I can and want to plant not only hazelnuts and walnuts, but also Manchurian nuts))))
The Manchurian nut is similar in appearance to the walnut, but there are also distinctive features. Nuts are located on the branches of 2-7 pieces, smaller than walnuts, with a very dense shell, oval-pointed to one end. The young bark is light gray, smooth, darkens with age and becomes black in places. When planting seedlings, it forms the first harvest in the 4th year, and with seeds - in 7-8. Manchurian walnut has a well-pronounced antimicrobial effect. All parts of the plant have medicinal properties.
There was no opportunity to buy such a seedling, and I asked my friends for the fruits of the Manchurian nut.
They also told me that the nutritious value of the Manchurian nut is not inferior to the walnut, only it is extracted with difficulty.
Have you tried the Manchurian walnut kernel? Not? Try it. It's delicious. Obviously tastier than walnut. It is impossible to bite through this nut with your teeth, crush it with forceps, or break it with a hammer. Intrigue? Without hesitation, I also bought walnut fruits on the market.
Suitable for planting are the fruits of fresh nuts, that is, from this year's harvest. There are several ways to sprout nuts. The simplest is the autumn sowing of freshly harvested (purchased in the fall) nuts of the new harvest into the ground. The germination rate of last year's nuts will be (if any) very low. Out of 12 Manchurian fruits and 20 walnuts, I planted 6 and, respectively, 10 in the fall. I left half for spring planting, I placed the nuts to a depth of 7-8 cm, putting the fruits on the edge. Sprinkling earth on top, added ash and on top mulched the bed well with mowed grass and foliage, shed the bed only once a day of sowing, then it rained, then snow, and now, finally, spring! Nuts germinated unevenly, some came out immediately upon the onset of heat, others germinated for another month (end of May - June). I did not remove the mulch layer at all, I left it 5 cm high and put another layer of mulch on top so that the seedlings would not fade from the bright sun. Germination rate was 80% this year, I was very surprised that the remaining 20% rose the next year.I was not aware of this feature of nuts, and for me it was a pleasant surprise.
For reference: Manchurian walnut is photophilous, but it tolerates shading. Moisture-loving and sensitive to drought. Can grow on gray forest soils, but prefers fertile and drained soils. It grows well on heavy black loam. It has a strong tap root system that can withstand strong winds. Relatively gas and smoke resistant.
The other half of the nuts were waiting for their fate in the refrigerator on the bottom shelf, i.e. they went through "dry" cold storage, which should not be less than 30 days. Then for 5-8 days (until the opening of the flaps) soaked in water at room temperature. In this case, it is necessary to observe that the water covers the nut by about half. If a nut floats on the surface, then it should be discarded immediately, so it is most likely dry or empty and will not be able to germinate. If it is completely submerged under water, then it is possible that it is simply gaining additional moisture, but it should not be kept that way for too long - it may suffocate.
It is necessary to soak the nuts about a month before they are supposed to be planted in the ground. It is convenient to do this in a wide, shallow container. At room temperature, the nuts are soaked for 2-7 days before the flaps open.
After the shells of the nuts have parted, they are ready for germination. Shallow wooden drawers or leaky pots are suitable as containers. First, pour a layer of wet sawdust or sand into the container, put the nuts on the edge and cover them with a substrate (sawdust or sand) on top. Then place the container with nuts in a room with a temperature of +25 .. + 28 ° С. Nuts germinate within 5-10 days, sometimes a little earlier. When the roots reach 0.5-1.0 cm in length, the nuts must be transferred to a cold storage with a temperature of +3 .. + 5 ° C and kept there until they are planted in the ground.
The choice of a place for planting a Manchu nut must be approached carefully, taking into account its characteristics. And they are as follows:
It is necessary to collect the nuts only when the green pericarp bursts, you can also collect milk green nuts, when the shutters inside have not become hard, then we make jam from such nuts. These nuts are very bitter, so you need to prepare them first.
In continuation of the intrigue on the discovery of these nuts, I will write a method, read on the Internet: fry freshly picked nuts a little on coals. The nut not only dries up, but becomes even tastier, open it in two halves with the edge of a knife. It is only necessary to insert a knife from the opposite end, not from a sharp one.
I want to give some advice: I managed to preserve almost all the seedlings by covering them in the first years of life for the winter and good mulching, regardless of the season, I fertilized them only with ash. Manchurian walnut does not need artificial crown formation. He shapes himself. In this case, only sanitary pruning is carried out in early spring or during winter dormancy, cutting out the dried, curves growing inside the branches. The formation of the crown should be dealt with already from the second or third year of life, and then already at the 6th year you will receive nuts, and in the future - a mighty green friend for 100 or even 200 years.
This plant belongs to the same genus as the walnut, in contrast to which it is more resistant to cold weather and can withstand frosts down to minus 42 C. Thanks to its highly developed root system, it can withstand strong gusts of wind. Due to such a powerful root system, the tree requires a lot of space to grow. Therefore, owners of large garden plots can afford to grow it.
The first fruits appear in five to ten years, and the Manchurian nut bears fruit every two to three years.
The tree can reach 27 meters in height and one meter in diameter. The plant has a lifespan of over 200 years. Walnut leaves are wide, spreading, usually about 50 centimeters long, can grow up to a meter. This type of nut itself is protected from pests, thanks to phytoncides secreted by the leaves. The flowering period is late May - early June.
Useful properties of the Manchurian nut:
For the prevention and treatment of the thyroid gland:
Day 1: Five drops in 1/2 glass of water on an empty stomach.
Day 2: ten drops. etc. add five drops daily until the dose is reached - one teaspoon per dose, diluted in 1 glass of chilled boiled water.
Drink 2 times a day, in the morning and in the evening in small sips before meals, for 15 minutes.
The course of treatment is from 6 months to 1 year with weekly breaks after three weeks of admission.
To expel parasites:
2 teaspoons in the morning and 2 teaspoons in the evening (drink gradually!). If your weight is more than 70 kg, the dose is two and a half teaspoons, and if you are more than 90 kg, then three teaspoons. But watch your well-being!
If the body does not accept, you can stop at a lower dose. Three weeks to drink - one week off. Take, thus, from 6 months to 1 year. Add honey and cinnamon to flavor. Considering that with regard to helminths, the tincture acts only on sexually mature and intermediate stages, clove wormwood, taken in powder form, must be included in the course of treatment (in this form, they pass through the entire gastrointestinal tract and treat all areas, unlike decoctions). If it is difficult to accept ground wormwood, you can roll it up in bread, coat it with honey or jam. It is better for children to take citric wormwood. She is without bitterness. It can be added to soups, cereals, etc.
Usually, to get rid of flukes and many other parasites that are in the intestines, it is enough to take these three plants for 14 days.
In general, for for a tonic effect, take 2 teaspoons of infusion in the morning and the same amount in the evening.
In the treatment of cancer start on the first day with 0.5 tsp. tincture, then the next day increase by 0.5 tsp. etc. Continue to increase the dose until you are 2-3 tsp. an appointment based on your weight.
Drink 3-4 times a day before meals in small sips.
The course of treatment is from 6 months to 1 year with weekly breaks after 3 weeks of admission.
SIDE EFFECTS: When taking large doses of Manchurian walnut tincture, discomfort in the stomach and dizziness associated with temporary reflex vasospasm are possible. Don't worry, just lower your dosage and then gradually bring it up to the recommended dosage.
CONTRAINDICATIONS: Do not use Manchurian Nut Tincture during pregnancy and lactation. Do not use in case of gastric ulcer and erosive gastritis, liver cirrhosis, alcoholism, persons with an increased level of prothrombin (more than 100%).
The healing properties of the tincture are preserved for several years (when stored in a dark place in tightly closed jars).