The Rose

Like many other plants described in other articles, the rose also has numerous species and varieties that originate in Europe and Asia and are particularly widespread in the northern hemisphere areas that have a temperate climate and in those of the Pacific Ocean. The rose, depending on the species and variety, can have a height ranging from twenty centimeters to many meters; it can have a bushy, climbing, creeping, shrub-like development with large flowers, etc. Generally, this shrub is erect but can also have a long and flexible stem, sloping towards the ground or climbing, with leaves that are made up of five to eleven smaller ones that have serrated margins, they are green in various shades and can be covered with light fuzz depending on the variety. In Italy it grows spontaneously, the species that have this characteristic are about thirty and, among the best known, there are: Rosa Canina, Rosa Gallica, Rosa Glauca typical of the alpine areas, Rosa Pendulina and Rosa Sempervirens. The flowers of the rose are solitary and come together in umbrellas, they can be hermaphrodites or have only one sex due to the death of the other; the number of petals is variable. The outermost of the floral envelopes, the chalice, is composed of five first floral envelopes, the sepals. The stem of the rose has thorns that vary according to the species. The fruit is formed by the swelling of the top of the small branching of the stem that ends in a flower, where the seed called achene is born, which can have a yellow or brown color. Also in this case, depending on the species, the fruit may have different characteristics.

The rose is not a difficult plant to grow but, depending on the species, it needs climatic conditions and other specific attention. So when buying a rose, remember to ask where it will be best placed.


Species

Today, all the varieties of roses that are in Italy are imported from France and Holland. The rose is grown mainly in greenhouses because it is particularly sensitive to night temperatures. The roses that we find on the market today are all the result of crosses between European varieties and those of the Far East, respectively the best known are Rosa Canina and Rosa Multiflora.

Below we list the main varieties that we can find on the market today, we will distinguish them based on the color of their flower.

Red flower roses:

Rosa Baccara: this variety is the oldest, it originated in 1956 but its cultivation was changed to Rosa Red Success, because it is too sensitive.

Rosa Red Success: has magnificent flowers that have lots of petals.

Rose Visa: The flower of this variety consists of about thirty petals.

Pink flowered roses

Rosa Sonia: its cultivation dates back to 1990 and is the best known, its flowers are composed of about twenty petals. The best temperature for its best maintenance is around 13-14 ° C.

Yellow-flowered roses

Rosa Cocktail 80w: This variety of rose is very large, it is very cultivated. Its characteristic is that it can be kept for a long time in water.

Two-tone roses

Rosa Candia: the colors of which it is composed are yellow and pink.

Rosa Bettina: has a very delicate color that comes from having mixed yellow and orange. It is grown especially in winter.


Soil and Cultivation Techniques

The preferred soil of the rose is fertile, of medium texture, calcareous but well drained, it would be advisable, while preparing the soil, to add a little manure. As previously mentioned, the rose is not difficult to grow, but you have to pay attention to the many parasites that can infest it, so always remember to carry out prevention with specific substances. In addition to the prevention of various pest attacks, a very important and relatively demanding operation is that of pruning, especially if you want to form roses, while if the rose bush were already outlined this operation would be much simpler, as it would only serve to regulate the development of the rose. In areas with a mild climate, planting should be done in October or January-February. If you place the plants in a garden, first you will need to prepare the soil by digging and fertilizing it and adding a soil composed of manure and peat, respectively four and one part. In most cases, shrub roses are planted at a distance of about seventy centimeters from each other, while for sapling roses the distance must be one meter. When buying a rose plant to transplant it you have to pay attention to the roots, they are spread out and well ventilated. Before the planting phase, if you notice weak or damaged roots, these are cut or you could put them in a powder that favors their growth, after these operations we will proceed with the planting of the roses at about three to five centimeters of height. depth and will water.

If you notice the growth of branches that come from root buds, they must be cut, these branches are easily distinguishable because they are thinner, with a lighter green color and rich in thorns.


Fertilization and watering

The rose must be fertilized every two years with manure at the time of vegetative restart, especially in the area of ​​the foot of the plant, together with this type of fertilizer a granular type should be added in quantities of 100 grams per square meter.

Flowers and leaves should never be wet during watering because this would favor the attack of fungal diseases. The rose needs a lot of watering. The best time is during the evening in the summer and in the morning in the spring season.


Pruning

Pruning is a very important phase as regards the cultivation of the rose, this operation must take place according to the type of cultivation, the flowering period and the climate. As we said in the previous paragraphs, the pruning of the rose is done to eliminate any dry branches but also to regularize the development and size of the plant; it must be done in the period of storage of the rose, with an oblique cut about six centimeters above the bud. We can use a short or long type of pruning. The first is used above all for weaker plants, to make it more robust, the plant is cut to a height of about 50-60 centimeters and a few buds are kept; the second is done on stronger plants, the plant is left at a height of about one meter and about five buds are left. As we said before, pruning must also be done based on the climate. In areas with a mild climate, the storage period of the rose goes from July to September, in this case it will be pruned in a deferred manner for the entire month of September, the flowering will last longer. In March, after the flowering period, the dry branches are eliminated and the soil is fertilized and, in May, there will be another flowering. In cold climates the rest period of the rose goes from November to February, then in February we will proceed with the pruning and in May we will have flowering; after this period, as mentioned before, the dry branches will be eliminated, the soil will be fertilized and in July there will be roses.


Topping

Topping is the operation by which the upper part of a branch or stem is cut to give shape to the plant. Generally there is the possibility of carrying out two types of topping, the early and the late one. The first is done when the bud has just formed, about 25 centimeters of stem are removed with a cut under the first leaf. The second is done when the branch has become wood and the bud is as big as a chickpea.


Collection and Conservation

The best time of day to pick the roses is between 3pm and 5pm. Be careful never to collect too small buds, this would damage the plant because the branch would not be able to become wood and would not develop properly. After the roses have been picked, it will be necessary to immediately put them in water, possibly a little acidic and not that of the tap because it is rich in limestone.


Diseases and Parasites

The rose is attacked by many diseases but, above all, many parasites, to describe all these enemies we should dwell a little too much so, below, we will describe some of them:

Large aphid: adult parasite that attacks especially the buds of the plant.

Leafhopper: through their bites they slowly dry up the plant.

Cochineal: Females attack leaves and branches.

White cochineal: they completely attack the branches.

S. Josè cochineal: this type of cochineal attacks the whole plant but, in particular, the branches on which it creates spots in the shape of a small shield, after this infestation the plant perishes.

Agrilo verde: it is a beetle which, through its larvae, causes a rapid deterioration of the plant.

Bark beetle: this beetle digs tunnels in the branches that become weak and break.

Cetoniella hairy: attacks and eats the flowers.

Brotolomia: the larvae target the leaves.

Black tentrenis: the larvae feed on the underside of the leaves.

Anthracnose: it is a disease caused by the attack of a fungus, the infested leaves have dark round spots with a light outline and fall off.

Brown cancer: it is also caused by a fungus, it attacks the leaves and stem, creating dark spots.

Cercosporiosis: attacks the tissues of the plant which turn dark yellow and dry out.

Black Spotting: Attacks leaves that turn black and fall off quickly.

Bud rot: gray mold forms on the buds which then spreads to the petals, goblet, etc.

Marsonina: the leaves turn black and fall very quickly.

Downy mildew: it is an infection caused by a fungus, it causes dark spots on the upper part of the leaves and, in the lower part, creates a mold that can also contaminate buds and other parts with consequent drying out.

Rust: the attack of this fungus causes the appearance of yellow spots on the leaves, on the lower part of the yellow francolins, it also attacks branches and shoots.

Sore streak: it is a disease caused by a virus, it manifests itself with the appearance of yellow streaks on the leaves and causes irregular machines or discoloration of the tissues.




Sale of roses in a vase

Hybrids of Tea

The roses belonging to the Tea hybrids are truly numerous and can be counted among the classic roses and are basically rustic and resistant plants, suitable for numerous contexts. Choose the variety you prefer to add color to your garden.

Climbing Roses

Select the varieties of climbing roses that you like best in order to give a fascinating look to every corner of your garden and buy them directly on our site.

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'Oregold' is a tall upright shrub, 5 to 7 ft (150–200 cm) in height with a 4 ft (120 cm) spread. Petals are typically 4-5 inches (10–12 cm), high-centered and full form with 16-25 petals. The flowers are very large at first with large buds and very long petals. Flowers are a golden yellow color, fading to buff. The color is best in cooler climates and seasons. The rose has a mild fruity fragrance. 'Oregold' is a disease resistant plant and thrives in USDA zone, 6a through 10b. The plant blooms in flushes from spring through fall. The foliage is small and dark, glossy green. [2] [3]

Rose 'Gentle Persusasion', (1984) [4]


Roses sold in pots are usually kept in vegetative rest and therefore, immediately after planting them in the open ground, a rapid awakening and resumption of development will follow.

For planting roses in pots it starts with the simplest operations. Removing a rose from the pot is very easy but must be done carefully: you have to turn the plant upside down gently, letting the clod of soil that houses the shrub come out of the pot.

The important is to keep the bread of earth whole and the roots that formed a whole inside the vase. If the rose has been in a pot for more than a year, you have to break the roots on the bottom with your fingers, which, not finding a way out of the pot, have started to take on an unnatural shape growing around the edge of the pot.

A tip: before inserting the rose in the ground, it is better immerse the clod in a bucket of water that supports the plant, leaving it to soak for a quarter of an hour. In this way, the earthen bread will absorb the necessary water.

After, you can proceed with the planting in the open ground, taking care to water the roses correctly.

Once the rose has been planted and planted, it is advisable to proceed with tamping. In other words, we must protect the lower part of the plant from climatic changes (cold, heat, wind), by heaping some earth to create a hill.

After about a month from the planting of the rose, we can remove this pile of earth, form a basin around the plant and drastically prune the branches, about 5 cm from the graft point. Thus the sap will concentrate in the points necessary to support the development of the shoots, and the growth of the plant will be more vigorous.


Photos


How to plant roses: some advice

  • Roses sold in pots are ready to be planted. However, it is better to refresh the ends of the roots and branches by cutting a few centimeters (but you must leave about 10/20 of the length of the branches).
  • If the roses are planted late, in late spring, the branches must be short. The most drastic pruning of roses should be done to remove the broken or mutilated parts of the branches and roots, in order to obtain a healthy and clean rose
  • If we want to replace an old rose garden, the existing plant must be removed from the ground and the earth must be completely renewed, working it up to 50 cm deep. After planting the roses, the hole should be filled with good soil.
  • If the roses have been planted in a period of a lot of sun or strong wind, the base of the plant should be protected with damp bags or newspapers, to prevent the roots of the rose from drying out.

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