It has long been known that the size and quality of the harvest obtained in autumn largely depend on the initial stages of plant cultivation and, first of all, on seeds.
Therefore, along with the correct choice of varieties and types of plants grown, maximum attention must be paid to preparing seeds for sowing... Consider the most important points that must be considered when planning and carrying out spring sowing on the site.
Seeds of crops cultivated in orchard and garden plots have different germination rates and retain their sowing qualities for a different period. In this regard, it is necessary to know the storage periods of seeds (see table). In order to shorten the period from sowing to the emergence of friendly shoots and to grow healthy plants, the seeds are subjected to special processing, which consists in sorting, disinfection, soaking, germination, etc.
|Culture||Weight of 1000 seeds, g||Shelf life, years||Minimum germination temperature, ° С||The term of emergence of seedlings when sowing with dry seeds, days|
|Cabbage (white cabbage, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower)||2,5–3,8||4–5||2–3||3–6|
|Onion (batun, leek)||2,4–2,6||3–4||2–3||8–18|
It is necessary to sow not all available seeds, but only the most viable - large, full-fledged ones. Weak and dead seeds can be removed just before sowing. Large seeds - peas, zucchini, cucumbers, pumpkin, etc. - during visual assessment, specimens are removed injured, small, frail, with traces of diseases, with a coloration atypical for the bulk. Small seeds can be sorted in 3-5% sodium chloride solution (50 g per 1 liter of water). They are placed for 5-7 minutes in a glass dish with a wide neck, mixed so that there are no air bubbles on the surface. The floating seeds are removed, and the remaining ones that have settled to the bottom are filtered, washed twice with tap water, dried and used for sowing.
This is the process of separating seeds by size and weight, which ensures their simultaneous germination when sowing. Small seeds are calibrated through a sieve with small mesh sizes, and in its absence, like large ones, manually.
To protect against fungal and bacterial diseases, seed dressing is carried out. It is carried out by dry and wet methods. Dry method: for seeds of such heat-loving crops as cucumber, pumpkin, beets, especially if they were stored in the cold, solar heating in the open air is used for 3 to 4 days, while the seeds are periodically stirred. The sun's rays not only disinfect the seeds, but also accelerate their germination.
Wet pickling can be done with a 0.2% solution of potassium permanganate for 20 minutes, as well as using vegetable raw materials. For example, it is recommended to soak the seeds for 6 hours in aloe juice diluted with water (1: 1). After that, they are washed with clean water and dried to restore flowability. In some cases, dry cabbage seeds are heated for 20 minutes in water at a temperature of 48-50 ° C, followed by immersing the seeds in cold water.
You can disinfect seeds with hot water. In a gauze or canvas bag, they should be immersed in water with a temperature of 50-52 ° C for 25-30 minutes. If the seeds are large, then the water temperature should be 2 ° C higher, i.e. 52-54 ° C. Then the seeds are cooled in cold water, dried and stored in paper bags until sowing. Seeds that float to the surface of the water should be thrown away, although losses can be 30-40%. Seeds of plants from the pumpkin family (cucumbers, pumpkins, squash) are heated at a temperature of 55-60 ° C for 3-4 hours. Soaking and germinating seeds allows for faster germination and serves as a kind of indicator of their viability. Usually, for soaking, the seeds are sprinkled in a thin layer between layers of gauze and make sure that it is always moist. Seeds of carrots, parsley, celery, onions are kept like this for about a day, and beans, radishes, peas, 12-18 hours. The higher the air temperature, the less exposure of seeds to a humid environment.
When 1-5% of the seeds "hatch", i.e. the outer covers of the seed will disperse, and a white seedling will appear in the hole, they are dried to "flowability" and immediately sown in a moderately moist soil suitable for germination. Please note that in dry soil, the sprouts will die from drying out, and in waterlogged soil, from lack of oxygen.
The most common and affordable way to bring germination closer to germination is to germinate soaked seeds. To do this, they are placed in a thin layer in a vessel and covered with a damp cloth. Maintain for 2-5 days at a temperature of 20-25 ° C, stirring occasionally, providing oxygen. When sprouts appear in most seeds, they are planted in moist and warm enough soil.
To increase the cold resistance of heat-loving plants, their seeds are hardened. So, the seeds of tomatoes, cucumbers are soaked until they swell completely, kept for 6-8 hours in warmth at 18-20 ° C and then 16-18 hours in the cold (in the refrigerator) at + 2-3 ° C. Such seeds are sown after mass germination. Plants from hardened seeds tolerate cold snaps well, ripen earlier.
This is a method of enveloping seeds with a mixture that creates a protective and nutritious shell that increases the size of small seeds to a round or oval shape. Small seeds (carrots, parsley, beets, onions, amaranth and other crops) sown in spring or before winter are pelleted. To do this, prepare a mixture of 1 part of mullein and 10 parts of water, filter through a sieve, moisten, and then dry the seeds.
For this purpose, you can prepare a mixture of 600 g of aerated lowland sifted peat with neutral acidity (pH 6-6.5), 300 g of humus, 100 g of crushed dry mullein. For 1 kg of such a mixture, add no more than 15 g (teaspoon) of powdered (crushed) superphosphate. The seeds are moistened in the prepared mullein solution, then placed in a glass jar and the mixture for panning is added in small portions. The jar is shaken all the time. As a result, the mixture adheres to the seeds, and they take the form of dragees. The size of parsley and carrot seeds is adjusted to 3 mm in diameter, beets and onions - up to 5 mm.
If pelleting is done in winter, then the finished seeds are dried at a temperature of 30-35 ° C for 2-3 hours so that they do not germinate during storage, and before sowing, they are lightly sprinkled with water and kept under sacking. Pelleting allows you to reduce the consumption of seeds, since they have a higher percentage of germination, sparse sowing avoids thinning, and plants acquire additional nutrients at the initial stage of development.
We wish all gardeners-gardeners success in choosing and preparing seeds for a new rich harvest!
L. Timeiko, E. Kholoptseva,
candidates of biological sciences
You should know that experts advise planting pepper seedlings in open soil only after 60-80 days have passed since the seedlings appear. In this regard, sowing seeds should be done in the last days of February or at the beginning of March. In order to find out a more accurate date of sowing seeds, you need to take into account the variety of pepper that you are going to plant, as well as the peculiarities of the climate in your region.
When preparing seeds for sowing, the first thing to do is to sort them out. In the event that this procedure is skipped, then future seedlings will appear on the soil surface at different times. You will need a dry sheet of paper. It is necessary to pour the seeds onto it, and then manually select all small, as well as large ones. Only those seeds that are of average size should be sown.
To understand where the hollow seeds are and where they are not, you can carry out a special procedure. To do this, pour a saline solution into a small container (30 grams of salt is taken per liter of water). Then you will need to pour the seeds into this liquid. Wait 5-7 minutes, and then remove those seeds that remain on the surface, they are hollow. Those seeds that have drowned must be removed from the water, rinsed thoroughly and then dried.
First, the processing of tomato seeds is carried out with a solution of potassium permanganate. The processing time should be no more than half an hour, then the seeds are washed with running water for about five minutes.
The next stage of seed treatment is treatment with sodium humate solution, as well as fertilizer, which includes an organomineral complex. Processing is carried out using a cloth, which is moistened with prepared solutions. The moistened cloth is spread on a flat surface of any container, which can be placed first in a warm place, then in the refrigerator. Tomato seeds are laid out on the fabric with tweezers in such a way that they do not come into contact with each other.
After the seeds are distributed over the fabric, the container is closed with a film and placed in a warm place for a day, the optimum temperature is +30 degrees. After a day, the container is placed in the lower section of the refrigerator for 3 hours. The procedure should be repeated three times, after which the container with seeds is placed in a warm place until the roots germinate.
I do this operation like this: I put the seed in a 3-5% saline solution (50 g per 1 L of water), mix everything for three minutes, collect garbage from the surface and those seeds that have surfaced (they are the smallest and empty, not suitable for sowing), drain the water and extract the most viable seeds from the bottom, wash them well (even a small amount of salt can reduce germination) and dry land. After that, I divide them into 2 fractions by size. When sowing, I usually place a large (main) and a smaller (safety) seed in one hole. As a rule, the strongest seedlings produce seeds of more impressive sizes. But if they "blunder", there is a possibility of replacement.
Next, I process the seeds. This applies only to those that she prepared herself in her garden. Purchased seed usually has already passed the required processing. I keep them in a dark pink solution of potassium permanganate for exactly 30 minutes. For convenience, I wrap it in cotton pads. After that, I wash the grains well under water several times.
Onion seedlings can be grown in warm greenhouses. To make a simple greenhouse, it is advisable to dig a trench 1.5 m wide, 0.5 m deep and the required length on the southern slope. Biofuel is placed at the bottom of the trench in a layer of 30 cm. Horse manure is best suited. You can use another, but you need to add sawdust or foliage to it. Before laying, the manure is loosened, and after a few days it begins to warm up. They fill the trench to the brim and cover it with straw. When the manure settles, greenhouse soil is poured with a layer of up to 15 cm, consisting of equal shares of turf and humus. Above the trench along its perimeter, a frame is built of boards 15 cm high. The greenhouse is covered with glazed frames or transparent film. You can make a greenhouse with solar heating. It differs from the first in that it does not have a trench with biofuel, but there is only a strapping of boards covered with film or glass, and inside there is a greenhouse soil.
Seeds in greenhouses are sown in rows to a depth of 1 cm. The distance from the film or glazed frame to the soil should be about 15 cm so that the seedlings do not shade and at the same time do not touch the film (glass). Inside the greenhouses, a constant temperature (18–20 ° C) and air humidity are maintained. After the emergence of seedlings, the greenhouses are regularly ventilated and the temperature is lowered to 16-17 ° C. Plants are watered regularly. At the age of 50-60 days, onion seedlings are planted in open ground.
Hope your onion seedlings does not disappoint!
A large number of microorganisms, larvae, viruses, fungal bacteria live on the surface of the seeds, which subsequently cause plant diseases or death. To get rid of them, the inoculum is disinfected. This is done using a strong solution of potassium permanganate, hydrogen peroxide solution, natural (folk) remedies, chemicals. Consider the most popular ways to disinfect seeds before sowing.
1 g of potassium permanganate is diluted in 100 g of water (1% solution is obtained), seeds are poured in and left for 20 to 40 minutes. Then the seeds are washed with water, laid out on a napkin and allowed to dry.
This disinfection is suitable for all vegetable and flower crops. For example, beans, tomatoes, peas, lettuce, onion seeds are soaked for 40 minutes. Cabbage, peppers, carrots, dill, cucumbers, pumpkin - 20 min. Small petunia seeds are disinfected after sowing into the ground, 1-2 drops are dripped onto the seed with a pipette, and sprinkled with earth.
Disinfection of pumpkin seeds in a dark cherry solution of potassium permanganate
Pharmaceutical drug with antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal properties. Recently, it is often used to disinfect planting material.
To soak the seeds, take a 0.05% chlorhexidine solution, moisten a cotton pad with it, lay out the seeds and leave them to soak for 30 minutes.
After treatment with chlorhexidine, seed germination increases, and the seedlings grow strong and healthy.
Pour 3% hydrogen peroxide into a suitable container, heat it to 35-40 ° C. The seeds are poured and soaked in peroxide for 5-8 minutes.
Treatment with hydrogen peroxide before sowing eliminates the pathogenic microflora on the surface of the seeds, helps to reduce the amount of nitrates, accelerates the germination process.
The preparation contains hay bacillus spores that inhibit the growth and reproduction of fungi and bacteria. Prevents the emergence of a whole complex of seedling diseases: phytophthora, root rot, black leg, fusarium wilting, etc.
When using Fitosporin M in powder form:
When using Fitosporin M paste:
Natural biologically active growth stimulant. Possesses pronounced disinfecting properties, accelerates the germination of seed.
To soak the seeds, use the lower leaves of aloe (at least 3 years old), which must be cut off, wrapped in a dark cloth and kept in the refrigerator for 1-2 weeks for fermentation. Then the leaves are crushed into gruel and diluted with water in a 1: 1 ratio. The mixture is filtered through cheesecloth, the cake is removed and the seeds are soaked in the resulting liquid for 24 hours.
Aloe juice is used to soak the seeds of all crops, with the exception of pumpkin, zucchini, peppers, onions, and celery.
Garlic is known for its antibacterial, antiviral properties. This makes it one of the best natural seed treaters.
2-3 cloves of garlic are pushed through a press, the resulting gruel is poured in 100 ml of water. Leave to infuse for 1 hour, after which the seeds are dipped in the infusion for 1-2 hours.
A quarter teaspoon of dry mustard powder is dissolved in half a glass of water.The seeds are kept in the solution for 3-4 hours.
Also, for disinfection of seeds, there are many other preparations of fungicidal and bactericidal action. Among them: Commander, Fundazol, Baytan, Ridomil. Disinfected depending on the culture and according to the instructions from 30 minutes to 2 hours.
It is convenient to soak seeds in a disinfecting solution, after placing them in gauze bags
After using any disinfectant, the seeds must be rinsed with water and dried.
The most famous methods of disinfecting seed preparation for sowing are described in the video clip:
The first snow is expected on the weekend in Moscow and the region. And it's time to complete the preparation of the garden and vegetable garden for the winter - urgently collect the remnants of the harvest, cut off old branches and plant winter plants. We tell you what you must have time to do at the dacha in order to reap a good harvest next year.
In recent days, the temperature in Moscow and the Moscow region has been six to eight degrees above normal. But from October 16, the weather will start to deteriorate, the scientific director of the Hydrometeorological Center Roman Vilfand told 360. Thermometers will show only + 7 ... + 9 degrees. On Saturday night it will be from -3 to +2 degrees, during the day - about +5 degrees.
“A cold snap by 10 degrees at once will seem catastrophic. But in fact, the weather will return to the regime that is typical for the European territory of Russia at this time of the year, ”Vilfand explained.
At night and in the afternoon on Sunday, the first sleet is possible. It will melt quickly and does not form a permanent cover. But due to the low temperatures, especially during the night hours, the roads can become slippery. Therefore, Wilfand noted, drivers need to pay more attention when driving. No warming is expected in the coming week.